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본 원고는 기후변화 대응을 위한 핵심 정책대안 중의 하나인 탄소성적표지제도에 대한 그간의 운영실적을 소개하고 인증제품의 주를 이루는 포장용기를 활용한 비내구재 제품에 대한 탄소발자국에 대한 다양한 분석결과를 토대로 포장용기가 제품에서 차지하는 탄소발자국의 기여도에 대한 분석결과를 제시하였다. 또한, 자사 제품에 대한 탄소배출량을 계산하는데 필요한 탄소배출량 계산법을 탄소성적표지 인증기준을 중심으로 사례를 들어 쉽게 설명하고자 하였다. 마지막으로 에코디자인을 적용한 저탄소제품 개발에 대한 우수사례를 소개함으로써 포장용기를 활용한 제품을 생산하는 기업들에게 기업의 저탄소경영을 위한 최소한의 방안을 제시하고자 하였다. 이상에서 보았듯이 이젠 우리가 생산하는 제품에 대한 탄소배출량을 줄이는 것은 선택이 아닌 살아남기 위한 필생의 전략이 되고 있다. 우리 기업만의 독자적인 저탄소경영 전략을 수립하고 탄소성적표지제도를 기업의 저탄소경영전략의 일환으로 삼아 소비자와 지속적으로 커뮤니케이션 해 나가는 것이 기업의 이미지제고와 경쟁력을 높이는데 초석이 될 거라는 것을 필자는 믿어 의심치 않는다.
다량의 온실가스를 배출하는 시멘트 3종에 대하여 EU PEF 방법에 따라 환경성평가를 수행하였다. 환경성결과는 환경지수로 산출하였다. 그 결과 포틀랜드시멘트의 환경지수가 가장 높은 1.17E-01으로 나타났다. 이는 포틀랜드 시멘트의 지구온난화 영향이 다른 시멘트에 비해 월등히 높은데 기인한다. 하지만 미세먼지 영향은 온실가스 배출량이 가장 적은 에코시멘트가 가장 높았다. 에코시멘트의 미세먼지 영향을 줄이기 위해 황산칼슘의 대체가 필요하다. Environmental assessment was performed according to the EU PEF method for three types of cement that emit large GHG emissions. The results were calculated as an eco-point. As a result, Portland Cement has the highest eco-point of 1.17E-01. This is due to the fact that the global warming effect of Portland cement is significantly higher than those of other cements. However, eco-cement had the highest particulate matter effect. The replacement of calcium sulfate is necessary for reducing the particulate matter effect of eco-cement.
As Mao once said that political power is obtain through the barrel of a gun, the CCP established Red Army to accomplish the communist revolution in China. So the army was from the outset the agent and instrument of the party. The CCP had also done its best to keep the PLA under its firm control. They introduced the political commissar system from Soviet Union to control the military. The political commissar was party's representative within the army and had right to countersign all orders. The primary mission of the PLA's political commissar system is to assume that "the party control the gun". The institute of the political commissar in China was a two-man system of command. Not like Soviet Union, the principles of single command was never introduced in China. It was during the subsequent Yenan Period of the anti-Japanese war that the present form of political commissar system finally crystallized. In 1938, a "second united front" was established between the Kuomintang and the Chinese communist. Since then Mao has concentrated on the refinement of its military political system and doctrine. As a result, a unique political organization within the PLA Armed Forces has evolved, a mutant somewhat different from its Soviet predecessor. In fact, the Peoples Liberation Army under Mao Tse-tung was the first to succeed gaining the support of the populace. Their political commissar system served them well in this respect and it proved to be a major factor in the winning of the mainland. When Peng Teh-huai became the Minister of defense in 1954, he tried to professionalize the PLA and de-emphasize the political factor. He thought the cult of revolutionary war was to be obstacles to progress in bringing the PLA up to date. So he wanted to equate the PLA with the armies on the Soviet model. But his schems was rejected by Mao, and he was purge. Because Peng's plan was directly opposed to Mao's ambitious strategy to rebuild China as a powerful nation independent of the Soviet Union politically and militarily. During the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the PLA led by Lin Biao was in the van of the campaign and even placed the Communist Party under its control. At the Ninth National Congress of Chinese Communist Party, the military made a striking advance into party organizations, including even the politburo and the central committee to hold many important posts. Though the large-scale military intervention was realized, the militaly did not openly assert dictatorship against the will of Mao or in place of the party. But this irregular party army relation did not last long and inevitably burst into an episode, known as the Lin Biao incident, as the party began its effort to rebuild itself. After Mao's death, Teng Shiao-ping was able to reestablish himself as the top power holder. He made every effort regularize the army. He tried to accomplish army-building policy of revolutionization, intellectualization, and professionalization. The size of the army had been reduced and impressive advances were also made in certain strategic weapon system. But to realize military modernization in China, Teng had to seperate the military force from the politics . Because a successful military modernization programs could not be achieved without reforming the PLA's political role. But Teng refused any attempt to reform the political commissar system and to chang the established party·army relations. So the realization of military modernization in China would be difficult for the time being.
A study was made on the changes of -D-mannosidase, -D-mannosidase, -D-glucosidase and -D-glucosidase activities in regenerating rat liver. The cytosolic, lysosomal, Golgi and mecrosomal -D-mannosidase, lysosomal -D-mannosidase, lysosomal -D-glucosidase, cytosolic broad specificity -D-glucosidase and lysosomal acid -D-glucosidase activities were determined in the regenerating liver after 70% (median and left lateral lobers) partial hepatectomy in rats over a period of ten days. The activities of cytolic, lysosomal and Golgi -D-mannosidase, lysosomal -D-mannosidase sidase and lysosomal -D-glucosidase in the serum were measured together with the above determination of hepatic glycosidases. The activities of cytotoslic -D-mannosidase of the serum and regenerating liver decreased slightly between the second and the third days after partial hepatectomy. The activity of Golig -D-mannosidase in the regenerating liver decreased significantly on the third day after partial hepatectomy. However, no significant change in the serum Golgi -D-mannosidase activity was noted throughout the experiments. The microsomal -D-mannosidase activity in the regenerating liver had a slight diminution between the second and the sixth days after partial hepatectomy. The lysosomal -D-mannosidase activity in the regenerating liver significantly decreased on the second day after partial hepatectomy. That of serum lysosomal -D-mannosidase showed a slight decrease from the second day after operation. The lysosoml -D-glucosidase activity in the regenerating liver showed a slight decrease between the first and the third days after partial hepatectomy, while the serum lysosomal -D-glucosidase activity did not change. The cytosolic broad-specificity -D-glucosidase activity in the regenerating liver slightly decerased between the second and the third days after partial hepatectomy. The lysosomal acid -D-glucosidase activity in the regenerating liver considerably decreased between the first and the third days after operation. Summarizing the results, -D-mannosidase, -D-mannosidase, -D-glucosidase and -D-glucosidase in the regenerating liver thought to be the enzymes decreasing their activities in the regenerating stage.
본 연구에서는 국내에서 제조되어 범용적으로 사용되는 플라스틱의 환경영향을 전과정평가 기법을 이용하여 분석하였다. 제품을 구성하는 소재들의 환경성을 총체적으로 분석하여 환경측면의 주요이슈를 도출하기 위하여, 환경문제 유발요인은 원료사용, 에너지 사용, 배출물에 의한 영향 등으로, 생산공정은 원료물질 생산 및 기초물질생산, 중간제품생산, 제품생산 등의 단계로 구분하였다. 또한, 효율적인 대안 제시를 위하여, 도출된 환경측면의 주요이슈를 직접 공정과 간접 공정으로 나누어 접근하였다. 그 결과, 에틸렌과 프로필렌의 원료인 납사의 경우에는 원단위가, PP는 생산 공정내의 에너지사용, PS의 경우에는 중간제품 생산과정에서의 에너지 사용, PVC의 경우는 염소제조 과정에서 발생하는 중금속이 주요 이슈로 판명되었다. 이렇게 판명된 주요 이슈에 대하여 직접 공정와 간접 공정을 구별하여 서로 다른 대안을 제시하였다. This study analyzes environmental impact of major domestic plastics materials using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. To identify the key environmental issues by holistically analyzing environmental performance of constituent materials of products, this study divides environmental factors into material use, energy use and impact of emission, and also divides manufacturing process into productions of raw material in upstream stage, basic material, intermediates and final products. This study also allocates various key environmental issues into direct processes and indirect processes to properly propose efficient alternatives. As a result, several key issues were identified such as basic unit of naphtha for producing ethylene and propylene, energy use in the PP production and in the PS intermediates production, and finally heavy metal discharged from chlorine production in PVC. Different alternatives are proposed in this study by differentiating direct and indirect processes on the key environmental issues.