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This study aims to examine the educational background of the first half of the Koryo Dynasty which corresponds to the prosperous period of about 200 years after the foundation of the kingdom. It is true that the chief motive power of the prosperity in the early Koryo Dynastry was Confusianism. But it was school education that had the function of encouraging Confusian knowledge and thought. Thus, in order to understand the thought that underlay the establishment of Koryo it is indispensable to study the educational thought and background that substantiated that Confusianism. The main results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. King Taejo, the founder of the founder of the Dynasty, established in his 2nd year the government organization with the help of some Confusian scholars such as Myongyu, Parkyu, Choie, etc. and soon established a school in Kaekyong, the capital of that time. In his 13th year taejo established another shool in Seokyong, the capital of the preceding dynasty. 2. In his 26th year(943) Taejo made Hunyo Shipjo, ten principles of administration for the future kings. The contents of the principles are divided into those related with Buddhism and those related with Confusianism. But it should be noted that Taejo's interest in Buddhism was not aroused from pure religious faith but from his belief that it would help defend the country. 3. Kwangjong, the 4th King, adopted a new examination system for governmental posts. Seongiong, the 6th King, founded Kukchagam, the state educational institute, which had three major departments, Kukchahak, Taehak,and Samunhak. All this was motivated practically for the spread of Confusianism. 4. Munjong, the 11th King, expanded the state institute by adding two more departments, Yulhak and Sanhak. He also encouraed the collection and distribution of books. Another educational turning point was made during the reign of Munjong with the establishment of 12 private schools one of which was Choe chung's Munhunkongdo. This on-going expansion of educational system for encouraging Confusianism came to its peak when Injong, the 17th King, elaborated the state institute by adding one more department, Seohak, and founded Hyanghak, a state-run local institute. 5. In conclusion, the Confusianism of Koryo was anchored as underlying thought by the constant encouragement of her successive kings from Taejo to Injong and by the appropriate educational support.
This study was carried out to compare the change physico-chemical properties in the 10 grades of Burley leaf tobacco expanded by $CO_2$. The filling capacity of AB3T was increased from 5.44cc/g to 9.52cc/g with the expansion rate 75.0% and that of CD3W was increased from 5.57cc/g to 10.16cc/g with the expansion rate 82.4%. But the rate of cut tobacco longer than 3.36 mm decreased from 77.2% to 49.9% and from 67.3% to 41.2% in grade B1T and C1W, respectively. The contents of nicotine and total volatile base in the of expanded cut tobacco decreased 11.9% and 10.4% respectively. The contents of onganic acids, except oxalic and palmitic acid, essential oil, amino acids, nicotine, tar and ammonia contents in the cigarette smoke decreased by expansion procecs. These results suggest that expanded tobacco was very useful to make less irritative cigarettes.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of storage period on the physico-chemical properties of tobacco leaves expanded by $CO_2$. The flue-cured and burley tobacco leaves produced from 1996 to 1999 were processed, and stored for that year or 3 years in processing plant. As compared with 1996 crop, the expanded rate of flue-cured tobacco leaves in 1999 crop was higher approximately 18%, while that of burley was higher about 10%. The filling capacity of cigarettes was decreased as storage time became shorter, but the combustibility was improved. The rate of large particles (over 3.36mm) of expanded tobacco showed decreasing tendency as the storage period became longer. The change rate of chemical contents in tobacco leaves between before and after expansion had no significant difference among corp years. The tar and CO contents of cigarettes smoke were reduced in the case of flue-cured tobacco leaves as storage time became shorter, while they were slightly increased in the case of burley tobacco leaves. The ammonia content of burley leaves was decreased remarkably in 1996 and 1999 crop.
The expansive properties of leaf tobacco by nitrogen gas was investigated with cut tobacco AB3O-1, CD3L-1(NC82). Major factors for the best expansion of the tobacco by the gas were an impregnated pressure and expansion temperature. The expansion rate for AB3O-1 and CD3L-1 at 250℃, 750kg/cm2 was 96.6%, 99.4% respectively. The shred size and fineness index at 96.6% of expansion rate for AB3O-1 was almost the same as at 58.3% for CD3L-1. The time reaching at equilibrium moisture under of RH 57% was 36hr in non-treated leaf tobacco, but it was 20hr in expanded tobacco. We confirmed that total sugar contents of leaf tobacco by the expansion was decreased with 9.3∼10.9%. Total alkaloid was decreased with 17.5∼21.1% and ether extracts was declined with 4.9∼9.3%. These results suggest that the expansion method of leaf tobacco by nitrogen gas is a useful method without any serious environmental troubles. Key words : expansion, nitrogen gas, heat treatment, tobacco.
The freeze drying rate was investigated under various conditions such as pressure and moisture contents in order to establish the optimum condition for expansion of the culled flue cured tobacco lamina. The optimal pressure in the chamber to maintain the heat and mass transfer was about 0.8torr, When the moisture contents of sample was 50-60%, expanding rate was the optimum condition and the rate was 67-76%. As the thickness of the sample layers was increased, drying-rate was decreased conversely and this result seemed to be due to decline of heat and mass transfer coefficients. Differences with the position of its stalk were also observed in drying rate, and low stalk position leaves of 5 and 3 was the fastest. Key words : freeze drying, Popping, expansion tobacco.