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이 연구는 청소년의 컴퓨터 사용에 관한 종단적 추이와 성별 및 사회경제적 지위 변인이 미치는 영향을 분석하는데 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 2004년부터 2008년까지 한국교육고용패널자료의 중3 코호트를 대상으로 컴퓨터 사용 시간 및 유형별 사용정도를 위계적 선형모형을 적용한 성장모형을 통해 분석하였다. 분석 결과, 평일 컴퓨터 사용시간은 선형으로 증가하는 것으로 나타났으며, 휴일 컴퓨터 사용시간은 대체로 평일보다 높으나 변화율은 통계적으로 유의하지 않았다. 게임, 학습, 취미 등 유형별 컴퓨터 사용정도의 변화 추이를 분석한 결과, 게임과 취미는 높은 반면 학습은 저조한 것으로 나타났으며, 매년 게임과 취미는 감소하는 반면 학습은 증가하였다. 성별 및 사회경제적 지위가 미치는 영향은 남학생이 여학생보다 컴퓨터를 더 많이 사용하고 있으며, 사회경제적 지위가 높을수록 컴퓨터 사용시간은 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 남학생은 게임, 여학생은 학습적 활용을 더 많이 하는 것으로 나타났으며, 사회경제적 지위가 높을수록 게임은 덜 하는 반면, 학교공부학습정보를 위한 컴퓨터 활용은 더 많이 하는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study was to identify the trajectory of computer use of adolescents who were from 3rd grade of middle school in 2004 for 4 years and to analyze the impact of gender and socio-economic status to influence it. To achieve the purpose, the data related to target groups was analyzed from the first to fifth KEEP (Korea Education and Employment Panel) by hierarchical linear growth model. The results are reported as follows. First, the time for computer use on weekdays shows a linear increase. The time for computer use over the weekend is more than the time for computer use on weekdays and the growth rate for the time for computer use over the weekend is not statistically significant. Second, the initial mean of amount of computer use for hobby and game is higher than for doing schoolwork and searching information for learning. Also while the time for game and hobby is decreasing, the time for learning is increasing year to year. Third, male spends more time in using computer more than female and the students with higher socio-economic status shows lower time for computer use both weekend and weekdays. Also while male use computer more for game, female use computer more for learning such as doing schoolwork and searching information for learning. And the students with higher socio-economic status spends more time in learning and less time in game.
이 연구는 TIMSS 2007의 수학·과학 성취도 자료를 활용하여 한국, 싱가포르, 호주의 정보화 변인의 효과를 비교함으로써 우리나라의 교육정보화 정책이 효과적인지 파악하는데 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 학생-학교의 2수준 위계적 선형모형을 활용하여 분석하였다. 연구 결과, 우리나라 학생의 가정에서의 정보화 접근성은 싱가포르와 호주에 비해 높으나 학교에서의 접근성은 떨어지는 것으로 나타났으며, 정보화 변인이 과학 성취도를 설명함에 있어서 학교 간 차이가 다른 국가보다 높은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 성별, 사회경제적 지위, 학습태도 등 주요 변인을 통제한 상태에서 우리나라와 싱가포르에서는 가정에서의 ICT 접근성이 성취도에 긍정적이나 인프라 등 학교에서의 접근성은 부정적인 영향을 미치는 경향을 보였다. 특히, 우리나라에서는 수업 중 과학 절차나 실험을 수행하기 위한 컴퓨터 사용이 과학성취도에, 싱가포르에서는 수학적 기능과 절차를 설명하기 위한 컴퓨터 사용이 수학성취도에 부정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타난 반면, 호주에서는 모의실험을 통하여 자연 현상을 학습하거나 아이디어와 정보를 찾기 위한 수업 중 컴퓨터 사용이 과학 성취도에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타나 국가에 따라 상이한 특성을 보였다. This study aims at comparing the effectiveness of ICT policy in education across Korea, Singapore, and Australia in TIMSS 2007 data using the two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). The study was approached by analyzing the effects of the ICT variables on math and science performance. It turned out that in Korea, ICT availability at home is higher but ICT availability in school is lower than those of Singapore and Australia. And at school level, ICT characteristics" effects on science performance in Korea had much larger than that of Singapore and Australia. While the ICT availability at home has still statistically positive effects, the ICT availability in school has statistically negative effects on performance with constraining the significant variables like a gender, SES, attitude toward learning and so on. In addition, it was not effective for teacher to use computer for scientific procedures or experiments in Korea, also for mathematic function and procedures in Singapore. However, in case of Australia, using a computer for studying natural phenomena through simulation and looking up ideas or information influenced science performance positively. It means that the ICT policy in education has a little different effect on math and science performance across Korea, Singapore, and Australia, so in-depth studying with national context should be needed.
본 연구는 원격교원연수(이하 원격연수)의 참여에 영향을 미치는 학습자 특성을 분석하기 위하여 총 2,204명의 초 · 중등학교 교사를 대상으로 설문을 실시하였다. 원격연수 참여도 문항은 선행연구와 예비검사 및 본검사에 대한 요인분석 결과를 바탕으로 인지적 참여와 정서적 참여로 구성하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 중다회귀 분석 결과, 원격연수의 인지 및 정서적 참여에 공통적으로 영향을 미치는 학습자 특성은 과제 가치, 자기효능감, 원격연수 만족도, 성별인 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 과제가치 및 자기효능감이 높은 교사일수록, 원격연수에 대한 만족도가 높을수록, 남교사일수록 인지 및 정서적 참여가 높았다. 학교 급의 영향은 정서적 참여에서만 그 차이가 통계적으로 유의하였으며, 중 · 고등학교 교사일수록 정서적 참여가 높았다. 둘째, 원격연수 참여 목적을 기준으로 전문성 참여 집단과 의무적 참여 집단으로 구분하였을 때, 전문성 참여 집단이 의무적 참여 집단보다 인지 및 정서적 참여 수준이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 교수학습과 진로 및 생활지도 영역 연수에서는 참여빈도가 높은 집단이 미참여 집단 보다 원격연수에 대한 인지적 참여 수준이 높았고, 교양 영역에서는 유의한 차이가 없었다. The purpose of the study was to investigate learner characteristics affecting engagement in distance teacher training. The survey was conducted for 2,204 teachers in K-12. The measurement items for engagement of distance training were consisted of cognitive engagement and emotional engagement according to literature review and factor analysis for preliminary test and main test. The results were as follows. First, according to the multiple regression analysis, learner characteristics affecting both cognitive and emotional engagement commonly were self-efficacy, task value awareness, satisfaction toward distance training courses and gender. In other words, teachers with a higher satisfaction, higher self-efficacy and higher task value awareness for distance training respectively showed higher levels in cognitive and emotional engagement. Male teachers were higher than female teacher in engagement of distance training. Also, middle and high school teachers were higher emotional engagement than elementary school teachers. Second, when separated by a distance training purposes involved expertise-oriented engagement group and mandatory engagement group, expertise-oriented engagement group was higher than mandatory engagement group in terms of both cognitive and emotional engagement. With regard to cognitive engagement, those who participated were higher than those who didn"t in distance training for subject related with teaching & learning and career & guidance.
Purpose: Poor nutrition in hospitalized patients is closely linked to an increased risk of infection, which can result in complications affecting mortality, as well as increased length of hospital stay and hospital costs. Therefore, adequate nutritional support is essential to manage the nutritional risk status of patients. Nutritional support needs to be preceded by nutrition screening, in which accuracy is crucial, particularly for the initial screening. To perform initial nutrition screening of hospitalized patients, we used the Catholic Kwandong University (CKU) Nutritional Risk Screening (CKUNRS) tool, originally developed at CKU Hospital. To validate CKUNRS against the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) tool, which is considered the gold standard for nutritional risk screening, results from both tools were compared. Methods: Nutritional status was evaluated in 686 adult patients admitted to CKU Hospital from May 1 to July 31, 2018 using both CKUNRS and PG-SGA. Collected data were analyzed, and the results compared, to validate CKUNRS as a nutrition screening tool. Results: The comparison of CKUNRS and PG-SGA revealed that the prevalence of nutritional risk on admission was 15.6% (n=107) with CKUNRS and 44.6% (n=306) with PG-SGA. The sensitivity and specificity of CKUNRS to evaluate nutritional risk status were 98.7% (96.8~99.5) and 33.3% (28.1~39.0), respectively. Thus, the sensitivity was higher, but the specificity lower compared with PG-SGA. Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.34, indicating valid agreement between the two tools. Conclusion: This study found concordance between CKUNRS and PG-SGA. However, the prevalence of nutritional risk in hospitalized patients was higher when determined by CKUNRS, compared with that by PG-SGA. Accordingly, CKUNRS needs further modification and improvement in terms of screening criteria to promote more effective nutritional support for patients who have been admitted for inpatient care.
본 연구의 목적은 대학 배경 및 대학교육 경험과 관련된 대학교육 특성이 대졸자의 직장 만족에 유의한 영향을 미치는지를 밝히는데 있다. 특히, 자신의 대학교육 경험이 직무 역량에 기여하는가 즉, 대학교육 기여 인식이 직장 만족도에 영향을 미치는지를 확인하고자 하였다. 분석 자료는 2007년 청년 패널 자료를 활용했으며 분석대상은 2013년부터 2014년까지 4년제 대학을 졸업한 955명 중 첫 직장에 입사하여 근무하고 있는 360명이다. 주요 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 기본업무능력, 전문지식능력, 외국어·수학능력, 심리사회적능력 등의 직무역량에 대해 대학교육이 어느 정도 기여하였는가에 대한 졸업생들의 인식을 활용하여 군집분석을 실시한 결과, 대학교육의 기여 인식이 높은 집단(19.4%), 평균 집단(40.5%), 낮은 집단(18.8%), 외국어·수학 빈약 집단(21.1%) 등 네 집단으로 구분되었다. 둘째, 직장 만족도에 영향을 미치는 대학교육 특성을 살펴보기 위해 위계적 회귀분석을 실시한 결과, 개인 및 직장 관련 변수를 통제한 상태에서 신입생 충원율이 높은 대학에 재학할수록, 전공 일치도와 학교생활 만족도가 높은 집단일수록, 교육수준보다 직장에서의 업무내용 수준이 더 높은 집단이 직장 만족도가 높았다. 또한 직무 역량에 대해서 대학교육 기여 인식이 낮은 집단에 비하여 평균 및 높은 집단의 직장 만족도가 높은 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to disclose whether the job satisfaction after graduation is affected by employees' university education experience and university background. In particular, we wanted to ascertain whether recognition of contribution of university education to job competency affects job satisfaction. Used data is Youth Panel 2007 in Korea and the analysis targets were composed of 360 employees who is working at the first workplace and has graduated from a four-year university from 2013 to 2014. In regard with how much they recognize the university education contributes to their job competency, the cluster analysis results showed they are divided into four groups: higher group, average group, lower group, and insufficient group in math and foreign languages abilities. As a result of a hierarchical regression analysis of job satisfaction, with significant individual and job variables controlled, the higher the number of freshmen the university has, the higher the degree of major and education agreement with job, and the higher the degree of the satisfaction of school life, the higher the degree of job satisfaction. Additionally, the average and higher groups have a high degree of job satisfaction compared to those who have lower group in regard with recognition of contribution of university education.
A microbial strain having high keratinase activity was isolated from the soil of poultry factories of Gyeonggi or Chungcheong-do. The isolated strain was identified as Bacillus sp. based on its morphological and biochemical characteristics. In this study, the optimal conditions for the production of keratinase by this strain were investigated. The optimal medium composition for the keratinase production was determined to be 3.5% chicken feather as carbon source, 1.0% tryptone as organic nitrogen source, 1.0% KNO₃ as inorganic nitrogen source and 0.05% KCl, 0.05% KH₂PO₄, 0.03% K2HPO4 as mineral source and 0.01% yeast extract as growth factor. The optimal temperature and pH was 40℃ and 8.5 with shaking culture (200 rpm), respectively. The maximum keratinase production reached to 123 units/ml after 42 hr of cultivation under the optimal condition. When the hair was used as the sole carbon source, the maximum enzyme activity was 88 units/ml after 120 hr and in this case, the hair added in the medium was not degraded completely but got thinner than the control by 20%.
Human reason has this peculiar fate that in one species of its knowledge it is burdened by questions which, as prescribed by the very nature of reason itself, it is not able to ignore, but which, as transcending all its powers, it is also not able to answer(A vii). With this phrase, Kant starts the Preface to First Edition. Those questions are what has been considered the preoccupation of the traditional metaphysics in the western philosophy. They are the questions about God, the immortality of the soul, and freedom. In the Transcendental Dialectic in the first Critique, Kant contends that the traditional metaphysics, especially within the rationalist tradition, makes an illegitimate claim to knowledge of what goes beyond the limit of human understanding and reason. Metaphysics, once entitled the Queen of all the sciences, now must be reinstituted as a tribunal of reason (i.e., as a critique of pure reason) which will dismiss all groundless pretensions and extravagances of reason to guard it against self-deceptions that give birth to despotic dogmatism. Thus conceived, metaphysics serves as a discipline for preventing errors and limiting the power of pure reason rather than for extending knowledge. Metaphysics for Kant has only a negative function to check the exaggeration of reason and its pure speculative use, and thus merely serves as a propaedeutic to metaphysics in its proper sense. In this essay, I examine Kant 's formulation of the function of reason concerning our knowledge Kant claims that reason in contrast to understanding only has a regulative function with regard to empirical knowledge, and that its constitutive use gives rise to a transcendental illusion on which traditional metaphysics is based. The concepts of reason, unlike the concepts of understanding, do not constitute the concepts of an object, but rather constitute the regulative ideas in accordance with which our empirical knowledge is organized, ordered, and given a direction. The essential function of these ideas is to maximize the systematicity within the body of our knowledge, which is made possible through the principles of reason. The ideas and the principles of reason then have a logical and methodological validity lacking an objective validity. They are valid subjectively-in view of reason itself. They serve the subjective interest of reason which lies in the pursuit of a certain possible perfection or complete systematization of our knowledge of objects. However, a problem arises when Kant claims that the logical principles of reason must presuppose a transcendental principle whereby a systematic unity achieved through the logical principles is a priori assumed to be necessarily inherent in the objects. What Kant claims is that the systematic unity of reason must be based on the unity in nature. Reason would otherwise run counter to its own vocation, proposing as its aim an idea quite inconsistent with the constitution of nature. Maintaining this, however, Kant takes the function of reason not merely to be regulative, but to be constitutive also. This makes Kant 's position in the first Critique incoherent. I argue that Kant 's attempt to ground the systematic unity of reason on the unity in nature in the first Critique is not compelling, though not a total failure. In order to make sense out of Kant 's claim about the necessity of the laws of reason, we must turn to the notion of the purposiveness of nature that is needed as a principle in our reflection on nature. In the third Critique (the Critique of Judgment), Kant holds that when we reflect upon natural things and phenomena, we must regard them as if some conscious being (whether it be God or not) made nature conform to our understanding of it. The purposiveness (Zweckmassigkeit) of nature is taken by Kant as an a priori concept originated from the reflective judgment. Given the conception of the purposive unity of nature as the principle of reflective judgment, then, Kant ' claim that the unity of reason must presuppose the unity of nature amounts to the laim that the unity of reason must be based on the principle of reflective judgment. But here the problem raised few paragraphs ago takes us one step backward to the question of the status of the principle of reflective judgment. (What secures the necessity of the principles of reason is the unity in nature which in turn is accounted for as the principle of reflective judgment.) I contend that this peculiar feature of Kant 's position concerning the necessity of the lawful function of reason is no more than the commonplace of Kant 's transcendental idealism.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of using animated movies on English listening according to university students' language proficiency. Sixty-four Korean university students participated in this study and were asked to watch animated movies and practiced English listening as assignments every week. The effects of animated movies were examined in terms of the participants' pre- and post- listening tests and perceptions. The data from the survey was included to supplement the findings of quantitative data. First, the findings of listening performance obtained from the pre- and the post-tests showed that there was a significant difference after the treatment only to the lower-level group. Second, with regard to the students' proficiency levels, there was significant difference between the two levels in Part 1 of the mock TOEIC test while there were no statistically significant differences in Part 2 and Part 3. Third, both groups reported more positive than negative feedbacks to English listening practice through animated films. Pedagogical implications and limitations for further studies are presented.