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These objectives of this study are to find 1)the relationship between local culture and community development 2) how local culture affects community development 3)the variables related to local culture that affects community development 4)the direction for improving local culture for community development The major findings are as follows ; At first, local culture should not be controlled by government. Second, government and local government must train local workers. Third, local culture is to be specialized. Fourth, local mass media should attend at improving local culture and community development
The democracy can not be developed by the policy or laws only, but it has been being developed the participation and critism of the people in community level. The NGOs of 21 Century that are based on community people are acting not only with the community but also with globalization, together with marketing area. Therefore, NGOs will be doing great works in the future for democracy and social product in Korea. To do these works First, NGOs should set up the cooperation with those of domestic and foreign NGOs. Second, administration needs to support the NGOs to do their works efficrently. Third, community people must participate in NGOs' works actively, because the works of NGOs are for the community people themselves.
Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify predictors of behavior that promotes health in middle school students. Method: The participants for this study were 361 students from one middle school, located in Gangwon province. The data were collected by a questionnaire given to the students. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The highest score for behavior promoting health was refraining illegal substances abuse. There was a significant positive correlation between behavior promoting health and optimism. There was a significant reverse correlation between behavior promoting health and pessimism, and also between optimism and pessimism. The predictors of behavior promoting health in middle school students were optimism, school life, pessimism, school record, grade, and smoking. These factors explained 25.7% of the total variance and the most powerful predictor was optimism (15.5%). Conclusion: The findings from this study, indicate a need to develop a nursing intervention programs to promote health behavior in middle school students including the promotion of optimism.
본 연구는 지역사회에서 그 지역발전에 크게 기여하고 있는 각종 민간 조직 즉 민간단체의 리더십 유형이 그 조직의 활성화의 기준이 될 수 입는 사회자본 증대와는 어떤 관계에 있는가를 파악하는 것이다. 본 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위해 도입된 연구방법은 문헌조사와 설문조사방법이다. 문헌조사 관련된 문헌을 중심으로 고찰되었으며 설문조사의 모집단은 대구와 경북지역에 있는 민간단체이며, 그 중 비영리민간단체로 등록한 426개의 민간단체가 표본으로 표출되어 조사도구에 의해 조사되었다. 회수된 것 중 연구목적에 부합한 150개(35.2%)를 통계분석의 대상으로 하였다. 본 연구를 통해 나타난 중요한 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 성별·연령 및 학력 : 민간단체의 사회자본을 높이기 위해서는 성별로 보면 민간단체 구성원의 여성비율을 높여야 한다. 그리고 연령으로는 50세 이상의 연령대가 리더로 활동하는 것이 바람직하다. 학력으로는 고졸 정도의 학력수준이 요구된다. 둘째, 소득·종교 및 교육경험 : 민간단체의 사회자본을 증대하기 위해서 리더의 소득 수준은 높을수록 긍정적이며, 종교는 아직까지 불교가 주류를 이루고 있어 리더도 회원들과의 일치성을 위해 불교를 배경으로 하는 것이 바람직하다. 셋째, 민간단체의 사회자본증대를 위해서는 거래적 리더십 유형보다 변혁적 리더십 유형을 지닌 리더가 요구된다. 넷째, 변혁적 리더십 유형 중에서 카리스마적 유형과 지적 자극 유형을 지닌 리더의 발굴과 육성이 요구된다. 특히 카리스마적 유형을 지닌 리더는 그 조직의 비전을 제시하고, 조직 구성원들이 그 조직 구성원으로서의 자부심을 느낄 수 있도록 해야 한다. 그리고 지적 자극 유형을 지닌 리더는 민간단체의 업무에 새로운 동기를 부여하거나 새로운 아이디어를 지속적으로 부여하는 특성을 지니고 있어야 한다. 또한 지적 자극 유형을 지닌 리더는 그 조직에서 발생하는 문제점을 해결하기 위해 다앙한 방법을 제시할 수 있는 능력을 지니고 있어야 한다. 다섯째, 거래적 리더십 유험의 리더는 민간단체의 구성원들에게 조건적 보상 유형을 지니고 있어야 한다. 즉 구성원들의 활동에 대해 적절한 노력의 대가를 지불하거나, 활동성과에 대해 포상하거나 포상할 마음을 지니고 있어야 한다. 그 외에도 리더는 어떤 사건에 직면했을 때 신속하게 결정할 수 있는 능력을 겸하고 있어야 한다. This study aims at analyzing the leadership-types that have been affecting the social capital of community organization. The methods for this study are literatures review and survey to community organizations in Daegucity and Kyungpook. The questionnaires are sent to 426 leaders who are community organization leaders, 35.%(150) of the total returned the questionnaire. The statistical methods used for the data were frequency, percentile, and regression. The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) Direction for improving the social capital of community organization aspect of respondent`s personal characteristic (1) female members` rate of community organization should be more high. (2) leader`s age is to be over fifty, and educational background of high school is resonable. (3) the leader`s religious is buddhism, the leaders of community organization should take the adult education program that related to leadership. 2) Resonable leadership-types to improve the social capital of community organization as follow; (1) reformative leadership is more important than trading leadership for affecting positively the social capital of community organization. (2) the authoritative leadership of reformative leadership-types is the most important than anyone else. (3) the condition-reward leadership of trading leadership types is affecting positively the social capital of community organization. And the authoritative leadership is needed for increasing the social capital community organizations in Daegucity and Kyungpook.
The relationship between community development and Saemaul Undong is as follow; the community development is based on theory more than Saemaul Undong. The theory of community development have been supporting Saemaul Undong going more actively while the Saemaul Undong was doing. The relationship between community development and Saemaul Undong is in detail as follows; First, the academic background between the two looks like with each other, the academics of community development is categorized as a applied social science among comprehensive applied sciences, Saemaul Undong is an active movement based on a behavior science to improve the village, therefore Saemaul Undong has been doing as one of applied social science. Second, the idea of the two is very like with each other, the moto of Saemaul Undong is "let's all have a good life", and behavior characteristics of Saemaul Undong are diligence, self-help, and cooperation, which are like human equality, community, and democratic practice that Saemaul Undong is suggesting. Third, the basic characteristic of the two is closed with each other, the basic characteristics of community development are educational process, organizational process, active process and balanced social development. While Saemaul Undong have been doing, Saemaul Undong Center have been providing a lot of educational programs for Samaul leaders, and the leaders are tightly organized at the national level, they have been exchanging much new information that is necessary to do Saemaul Undong effectively. Forth, The goal of the two looks like, the goal of community development is human and physical development, and that of Saemaul Undong is to make the life quality level of people at village higher than before through developing the human and physical resources at village based on a strong will "we can live well". The relationship between community development and Saemaul Undong is very high from the above content, therefore it is called Samaul Undong is "Korean Model of Community Development"
Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to explain the relationship between ways of coping and health-related hardiness in university students at G city. Method: The participants were a convenience sample of 250 students. The data were collected by a questionnaire given to the students between June 1 to June 10, 2006. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The most frequently used method of coping was pursuit of social support. The mean score for level of health-related hardiness was 3.34±0.55. There were significant differences in ways of coping according to satisfaction with college life (F=4.036, p=.008). There were significant differences in health-related hardiness according to smoking or not (F=6.237, p=.002). There were positive correlation between problem focused coping and hardiness (r=.357, p=.000), between social support and hardiness (r=.345, p=.000), between hope seeking thought and hardiness (r=.247, p=.000). In regression analysis, ways of coping was significantly influenced by hardiness(16.6%). Conclusion: The results suggest that programs for strengthening hardiness can be considered as significant nursing interventions for helping university students cope with stress.
In 5G mobile communication, it is necessary to provide different mobility to user equipments(UE) that do not require mobility management or need limited mobility management. In this paper, we propose a two-layer mobility management system that classifies multiple MTC devices with similar mobility levels into c-MTC and m-MTC groups. In order to improve the energy efficiency and service life by reducing the number of control signals generated when TAU is performed, the group header typically performs a Tracking Area Update(TAU) request and adjusts the periodic TAU update period according to the mobility level. The TAU update period of the m-MTC is set to 54 minutes proposed by the 3GPP standard and the c-MTC is set to 12 minutes. Compared to when the UEs perform TAU individually, it is found that the number of control signals decreases by 33% when the MME is not changed and by 49% when the MME is not changed in the m-MTC or c-MTC group. 5G 이동통신에서는 이동성 관리를 필요로 하지 않거나 제한된 이동성 관리만을 필요로 하는 단말에 대하여 차별적으로 이동성을 제공할 수 있어야 한다. 본 논문에서는 이동 수준이 유사한 다수의 MTC 단말을 c-MTC와 m-MTC 그룹으로 분류하는 2계층 이동성 관리시스템을 제안한다. Tracking Area Update (TAU)를 수행할 때 발생하는 제어신호의 수를 줄여 에너지 효율 및 서비스 수명을 향상시키기 위해 그룹 헤더가 대표적으로 TAU Request를 수행하도록 하며 이동 수준에 따라 주기적인 TAU 갱신 주기를 조절하였다. m-MTC의 TAU 갱신주기는 3GPP 표준에서 제안하는 기본값인 54분으로 설정하였으며, c-MTC는 이 보다 짧은 주기를 갖는 것으로 하여 12분으로 설정하였다. 단말들이 개별적으로 TAU를 실행할 때와 비교해 보면, m-MTC 또는 c-MTC 그룹에서 MME가 변경되지 않는 경우 33% 그리고 MME가 변경되지 않는 경우는 49% 정도 제어신호의 수가 감소함을 알 수 있었다.
The purpose of this study was to identify the current attitudes and knowledge of Koryo Hand Therapy(KHT) in the experienced women. The Subjects for this study were 2354 persons living in Korea who experienced KHT. The data were collected from April 6 to November 25, 2004 using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed through the SPSS 10.0 for windows program using frequency, percentage, t-test and ANOVA. The results of the study are as follows. 1. Families and relatives were a main source of information about Koryo Hand Therapy. The subjects were very satisfied with therapeutic and preventive effects of the therapy. Sujichin was the most preferable choice in the KHT. Most of the subjects thought that KHT can apply to modern medicine. 2. Those who experienced Koryo Hand Therapy had high level knowledge and very positive attitudes toward KHT. 3. There were statistically significant differences in the attitude toward KHT according to age, educational level, religion, job, place of residence and marital status. 4. There were significant differences in the knowledge of KHT according to age, educational level, income, place of residence and marital status. 5. Those who learned KHT had more higher level knowledge and more positive attitude toward KHT than women who didn't learn KHT. According to the above findings, it can be concluded that KHT need to be actively informed and more easily approached by peoples. Nursing will to prepare nursing protocols relevant to KHT.