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We report the status of wetland vascular plant species in Korea including the whole peninsula and its adjacent islands. This analysis was based on database from our previous categorized list. In all, 4,050 taxa have been reported, including 3,769 native and 281 naturalized. Of these, 479 taxa (12%) are considered as wetland vascular indicator species: 240 obligate wetland plants (OBW) and 239 facultative upland plants (FACW). Approximately 31% of those 479 taxa, i.e., 149 taxa, are labelled as aquatic macrophytes. Wetland plants, mostly herbaceous but some woody, inhabit aquatic bodies and wet meadows. Except for two OBW and six FACW taxa, the rest of the plants are summer-green only. The information provided here is valuable for making assessments of wetland ecosystem health, as well as for developing management plans to preserve and restore wetlands and their resident plant species while also creating artificial wetland environments.
Extremely strong winds and heavy rainfall caused canopy gaps in a mixed Abies holophylla broadleaf forest and a Quercus mongolica-dominated forest in Odaesan National Park, Korea in October 2006. The impact of the combination of strong winds and torrential rain on the development of forest gaps and canopy structures were investigated. The mean size of newly created gaps were 205 m2 in the mixed forest and 86 m2 in the Quercus forest, and were created by 2.8 and 1.4 gap-maker trees, respectively. Among the 73 trees lost in the mixed forest, 59% succumbed because of direct wind damage while 41% were struck by neighboring trees that fell into them. Most of these trees downed by wind were uprooted (74%), while the trees downed by neighboring tree falls snapped (78%). 21 trees in the Quercus forest died from direct wind dam¬age, and 57% of them were uprooted. Although the relative density of Abies nephrolepis and A. holophylla represented only 0.2% and 6.4%, respectively, of all species in the intact mixed forest, they accounted for 27% and 15%, respectively, of all trees affected by wind on that site. In fact, 85% of the total A. nephrolepis and 91% of the total A. holophylla in the mixed forest fell directly due to strong wind. By contrast, only one Abies species, A. nephrolepis, was found in the Quercus-dominated forest, and it accounted for 7.3% of the species composition. These findings suggest that A. nephrolepis and A. holophylla are particularly susceptible to high winds because of their great heights and shallow root systems.
본 연구에서는 1950년대 해군․해병대에서 상이군인을 위해 실시했던 기술교육연구를 설립배경, 교육체계, 교육과정 및 사회 진출 과정을 중심으로 살펴보았다. 1950년대에 이루어진 해군 상이군인을 위한 기술교육은 다음과 같은 의미가 있다. 첫째, 상이군인을 위한 기술교육은 현장에서 바로 활용할 수 있는 실습 중심의 교육이었다. 둘째, 상이군인을 위한 기술은 시대적으로 앞선 기술이었다. 셋째, 상이군인을 위한 기술교육은 교육적 성격보다는 복지적 성격이 강했다. 넷째, 상이군인을 위한 기술교육은 군의 사회적 가치실현과 기술교육의 단초를 제공했다. 기술교육 전개과정을 분석한 결과 다음과 같은 시사점을 도출하였다. 현재 필요성이 커지고 있는 전직지원교육을 지속적으로 하기 위해서는 교육적 목적을 강조하고, 그 실효성을 높이기 위해 사회의 기술 수준보다 뒤처지지 않는 교육내용을 가르치며, 배운 것을 사회에서 바로 활용할 수 있도록 해야 한다. The purpose of this study is a research the technical education, establishment background of vocational training center, system, curriculum and advancement of society for disabled veteran in the Navy․Marines Corps in the 1950’s. The technical education for naval veterans of the 1950’s has the following meanings. First, technical training for disabled veterans was a hands-on training center that could be readily available on-site. Second, the skills taught to disabled soldiers were prevenient ahead of time. Third, technical education for disabled soldiers was stronger welfare than educational characteristics. Fourth, The technical education provided for the military’s social value and technical education base. The analysis of the progress of the technical training course results in the following suggestions. In order for the continuing Job Transfer Support Education, in which the present necessity is high, the purpose of education needs to be emphasized, and it is not late than the social skill level in order to improve its effectiveness education must be taught, and Job Transfer Support Education should be provided so that society can utilize what it has learned.
To elucidate the effects of a hydroelectric dam construction on annual ring growth of Pinus densiflora, the annual ring widths of 68 trees collected from 7 sites were closely examined. The result was analyzed to ask three special questions first, whether there are real effects of dam construction on the radial growth second, would the magnitude of the effect be different due to two periods of under-construction and post-construction the last, would it be different among age classes. Annual ring growth has been significantly enhanced by the dam construction. Specially, its effect was marked after the construction was finished and the reservoir was filled up with water. There was, however, no remarkable evidence that pine growth would be reduced while the dam was under construction, even though there was a minor decreasing trend. The magnitude of the effect was different among age groups. That is, the changed condition after the construction enhanced relatively the growth of aged trees monre. According to other meterological research since the dam was constructed, the reasons of enhancing pine growth assumed to be the increase of daily temperature, the decreased of daily temperature difference and the increased of rainy days.
벼리】본고는 한국어로 된 노래를 활용하여 ‘동아리 활동’ 중심의 한국어교육에 대해 연구하였다. 한국 노래와 관련된 최근의 선행연구들이 ‘노래를 이용한 학습자 수준별 문법 및 문화수업’임에 반해 본 연구는 교실 안에서 이루어지는 교과과정 중심의 교수·학습에서 벗어난 ‘학습자 중심의 자유로운 모둠학습’이다. 학습자들은 각자의 개인학습과 모둠학 습을 통해 한국인들이 즐겨 부른 노래를 중심으로 학습 대상곡목을 선정하고 수료식 발표를 위해 가사를 연습·활용하면서 한국어 학습에 대한 자신감과 한국인들의 사고에 대한 간접적인 이해를 할 수 있었다. 어린 아이들이 어휘와 문법적 지식을 완전히 갖추지 않고도 노래를 따라 부르는 것처럼 외국인 학습자도 각자의 수준에 맞추어서 한국 노래를 이해하고 학습할 수 있다는 것을 전제로 학습자 수준을 나누지 않고 수업을 진행하였고 이것은 학습자의 학습 동기를 자극하는 좋은 기회가 되었다. 제시된 수업모형은 한 번의 수업만으로는 검증되기 어렵다는 한계점이 있으나 ‘학습자 주도적인 동아리 활동’에 대한 구성주의적 수 업방법과 전략을 사례연구를 통해 제시해 보았다는 데 의의가 있다. This study is focused on the benefits of extracurricular club activities on teaching Korean as a foreign language with Korean songs. In this study, student-centered learning in which learners make spontaneous study groups is emphasized more than curriculum-based teaching in which teachers predetermine the contents, while ‘current studies’ are about using Korean songs to teach grammar and culture in level-differentiated class. Learners are allowed to choose their favorite songs through individual and group activities on Korean popular songs and practice the lyrics of the songs of their choice for the graduation ceremony, which helps them build confidence and develop sociolinguistic competence in Korean language learning. As young children follow songs without adequate knowledge of vocabulary and grammar, foreign language learners can understand and study Korean songs at their own levels of proficiency. Based on these observations, this study is designed for undifferentiated mixed-ability class, which is good opportunities to keep them motivated and enhance their future learning. Though there might be some quantitative constraints to generalize the instructional models presented here, the significance of this study is to suggest the constructivist teaching methods and strategies on ‘student-directed extracurricular club activities’ through in-depth studies.