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      • 自閉症兒童의 技能言語 訓練硏究

        鄭正鎭 단국대학교 사범대학 특수교육과 1983 특수교육 Vol.3 No.-

        A number of authors in various fields have been much concerned with autism since Leo Kanner first described and named the syndrom in 1943. Recently it seemed to show that psychologists tended to be more interested in the syndrom than clinicians and a few investigators in neurophysiology and biochemistry have been concerned with a description of the condition, and a discussion of phathology. From ten years ago a number of works of treating autistic children by means of behavior modification procedures have been accumulated more and more. This study attemped to train for establishing functional speech through operant behavior modification techniques in a autistic echolalic child, and to be able to learn for himself social adjustment behaviors as increasing his communication skills. Subjects in this study was 13½ years old boy with a diagnosis of autism, and SQ of 42.13. He was immediately echolalic, occasionally exactly mimicking in form and imitation bits of conversation of the staff. The training was conducted from Apr. 14, 1980 to Jul. 24, and twice per day for about 30 min, four tines per week. The total time span of the study, exclusive of follow up, was approximately fifty days, The procedures were applied basic paradigms such as ; imitation training, shaping, fading in and fading out of prompts, extinction and time out, physical and fading out of prompts, extjnction and time out, physical and social reinforcement, and four distinct steps were required to establish functional speech as follow ; Step Ⅰ : naming training, Step Ⅱ : phrases training, Step Ⅲ : Sentences training, Step Ⅳ : Communication training. After the child had rearched criterion on the Step Ⅳ, the training terminated and 21days after conducted post-check on learned speech repertoire. Results of this study showed that during the baseline period echolalic responses of 97% decreased about 0, Correct responses as it is functional speech increased about 100% with acquiring almost 100 vocabularies over 50days' short term training. But after 21 days from the last training the post-check showed echolalic responses of 45%, correct responses of 44%. On the basis of these findings following conclusion can be made ; First, establishing functional speech in echolalic children can be trained through behavior modification techniques affectively. Second, autistic children are less transferable and retentive for learned behavior. Addition to these conclusion following suggestions can be made ; a, The training for establishing functional speech in echolalic children should be taken place earlier year. b, Speech training should be continued for a long period. c, To generate their acquiring speech with considerable ease home environment system needs to formalize as possible as training environment. d, Autjstic child should be included in speech therapy. e, Various speech training for autistic children should be investigated further more.

      • 특수유치원 설치 모형 개발에 관한 연구

        정정진,이효자,정해동 국립특수교육원 1995 연구보고서 Vol.- No.5

        Ⅰ. Introduction Preparing the necessary facilties and equipment is one of the most important conditions for the accomplishment of educational purpose of the handicapped preschoolers. Since the private facilities for the preschoolers who need special education have been increased every year, the private facilities for the handicapped preschoolers are now about the number of 300, and most of which are in poor educational environment, lack of professional human resources, deficient materials and so forth. However, we are facing many problems in managing facilities for the handicapped preschoolers at the level of public education, because of no preparing standard criteria for establishing the facilities for the handicapped. Therefore, this study tries to develop models for establishment of preschools for the handicapped which are provided appropriate preschool services, and establish a guidlines for managing those model facilities. Ⅱ. Method This study was initially reviewed the development process of preschools for the handicapped in Korea as well as foreign contries in order to get suggestions for developing models of preschools for the handicapped. Next, we analyzed the present situations and problems of the personnel who are related preschools for the handicapped such as principals of special school, professors of special education, the provisonal special education inspectors, directors of the preschool for the nonhandicapped, directors of facilities affilliated social welfare groups and directors of private facillities were carried out in order to gather the appropriate informations for setting up the criteria of establishiing preschool and for the better guidlines of this study. In addition to these analysis, visitation and observation to facilities for the handicapped carried out for the aims of this study. Ⅲ. Results Based upon the above-analysis, the guidelines to develope the models of preschools for the handicapped were set out as follows : 1. The preschools for the handicapped must be provided appropriate special education within the regular school system. 2. In order to facilitate the early integration of handicapped and nonhandicapped preschoolers, special classes for the handicapped must be placed in many preschools for the nonhandicapped, to create a more normalized educational environment, administrative and financial supports must be provided. 3. If the preschools attached special schools maintain, which must be enriched facilities and equipment in order for the curriculum to manage efficiently and provided more strong administrative and financial supports. 4. The private facilities and those sttached to the social welfare groups under the Ministry of Health and Welfare must be included administrative and financial supports at the level of free and public education. Based on the four basic guidelines according to the shapes of structures, sizes of classes, and organization personnel, 7 models of preschools for the handicapped were developed and those managing guidelines were provided as follows : Models of preschools for the handicapped ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- types of model shape of structure size of class organization of personnel ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- independent independent above 3 full-time chief + full-time type : A-1 structure classes vice chief + teachers A-2 A part of 2 classes full-time chief + teachers a building --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- types of an A part of annex to the preschool preschool : B B-1 2 classes chief + full-time vice chief + teachers B-2 1 classes chief + vice chief + teacher ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ types of an A part of annex to the special school special school : C C-1 above 3 principal + full-time vice classes chief + teachers ------------------------------------------- C-2 2 classes principal + vice principal + teachers ------------------------------------------------------ C-3 1 classes principal + vice principal + teacher ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * full time personnel and teacher must be majored in early childhood special Education. Early childhood special education should be provided through strong administrative and financial supports of government and communities at the level of free and public education. The proposals based on this study are as follows : 1. In order to provide early childhood special education at the level of free and appropriate public education, the criteria for the establishment of preschool for the handicapped must be set without a moment delay. 2. For facilitating the early integration of handicapped and nonhandicapped preschoolers, special classes for the handicapped must be placed in the most of preschools for the nonhandicapped through strong administritive and financial supports. 3. Facilities attached to the social welfare centers under the Ministry of Health and Welfare must be authorized to provide early childhood special education, and coorperative delivery systems between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry fo Health and Welfare need to be established on the side of consistent public education. 4. Many private focilities must be authoried as precshools for the handicapped for enlarging the opportunity of free and public education. 5. In order to realize equlity of education, public preschools for the handicapped should be established on the Eup, Moun districs with lower density of population.

      • KCI등재후보

        특수교사 양성체제의 발전방향

        정정진 한국교원교육학회 2002 한국교원교육연구 Vol.19 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이 연구는 중등교사양성체제의 발전방향을 모색하기 위한 논의의 틀을 제시하기 위한 것이다. 이를 위하여 먼저 우리나라의 교사양성정책의 과거를 돌아보고, 다음으로 교사교육의 최근동향을 살펴본 후에, 교사양성체제의 주요 쟁점을 검토한다. 마지막으로, 교사양성체제 개편의 방향과 전문적 질 관리를 위한 추진과제를 밝히고, 교사양성체제의 새로운 방향에 관한 제언을 한다. 교사교육의 주요 동향은 교사교육과정의 책무성 강화, 교사양성프로그램의 표준개발과 평가, 현장학교와의 협력체제 구축 및 현장실습의 강화, 학습자중심의 전문성 개발, 탐구와 사고중심의 교사교육, 전문성 수준의 평가방법으로서 포트폴리오 활용, 교사교육프로그램의 효과적 모형개발을 위한 연구 활성화, 교사교육의 대안적 프로그램 모형, 교사양성과정의 다양한 모형, 그리고 성공적 교사교육프로그램의 특성 개발 등 10가지로 제시된다. 다음으로 교사양성체제 개편에 관한 주요 쟁점을 논의하고 있다. 이 논의는 독립변수로서의 교사양성기관의 유형이나 통폐합에 초점이 있는 것이 아니라 과정변인으로서의 교사양성과정의 질 관리 수준에 초점을 두고 있다. 즉 교육자원과 시설 활용의 효율화, 교육연구인력의 활용을 권장하는 컨소시움 체제로의 전환, 지역사회 중심의 교육센터로서의 기능과 역할 제고, 질 높은 교사양성체제 구축을 위한 지속적 지원, 교사양성기관 담당자들의 개혁을 위한 노력 등이 그것이다. 전문적 질 관리를 위한 추진과제로서 교사교육과정의 표준 설정, 교사양성교육프로그램의 재구성 및 전문연구팀, 교사양성기관의 평가인증 수준에 따른 정책지원의 차별화, 교사양성기관의 특성화 및 협력체제 구축, 전문적 개발을 위한 협력학교 육성 지원, 교사교육의 전문성 신장을 위한 지원기관의 확충 및 적극 지원, 우수교사양성에 초점을 둔 교원종합정책의 틀 마련, 교사임용통로의 이원화 등이 제시되고 있다.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재후보

        장애학생 통합교육 방향에 대한 일반교육자와 특수교육자의 인식 비교

        정정진 한국교원교육학회 2002 한국교원교육연구 Vol.19 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이 연구에서는 우리나라 장애학생 통합교육의 주요소들에 관하여 일반교육자들과 특수교육자들이 현재의 통합교육 실현상황과 향후 2010년 및 2020년대의 통합교육 변화양상에 대해 어떻게 인식하고 있는지를 알아보고자 델파이기법을 사용하여 조사하였다. 그 결과 대체적으로 일반교육자들과 특수교육자들은 장애학생 통합교육에 대해 2001년 현재의 실현상황 인식에 있어서는 약간의 차이가 나타났으나, 2010년대 및 2020년대의 변화양상과 실현가는성 예측에 있어서는 의의있게 큰 차이가 나타났는데, 전반적으로 특수교육자들이 일반교육자들에 비해 통합교육에 대하여 보다 적극적인 것으로 나타났다. 장애학생 통합교육을 효율적으로 실현하기 위해 이 연구의 결과에서 나타난 양 집단간의 인식의 차이를 어떻게 좁혀갈 것인가에 관한 연구가 다양하게 이루어지고 그에 따른 대책이 강구되어야 할 필요가 있다

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