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p-Toluic acid was synthesized by the Grignard synthesis with p-Chlorotoluene and activated magnesium metal. The activated magnesium metal was prepared by reduction of anhydrous magnesium chloride with some alkali metals in various ethers. The addition of potassium iodide and some other metal halides to reaction mixture has produced a highly reactive magnesium metal and p-Toluic acid in high yields.
The usefulness of quarternary ammonium salt as phase transfer catalyst in organic synthesis, has developed in recent years. The phase transfer catalysis in Cannizzaro reaction has been studied. The actalyst used in this study was a Zephiramine.
Ethyl acetoacetate was prepared by the condensaiton of Ethyl acetate using phase transfer catalyst. In this study the writer investigated catalyst activity of such quaternary ammonium salts as Benzyl-triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC), Benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMAC Tetra-n-butylammonium bisulfate (TBAB) and Trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC). Among these salts, BTEAC and TBAB catalyze the condensation of Ethyl acetate, and the percent yield of Ethyl acetoacetate is roughly proportional to the moles of catalyst added.
We developed a Off-Line Graphic Simulator which can simulate a robot model in 3D graphics space in Windows 95 version. 4 axes SCARA robot was adopted as an objective model. Forward kinematics, inverse kinematics and robot dynamics modeling were included in the developed program. The interface between users and the off-line program system in the Windows 95's graphic user interface environment was also studied. The developing language is Microsoft Visual C++. Graphic libraries, OpenGL, by Silicon Graphics, Inc. were utilized for 3D graphics.
Phase Transfer Catalysis of some Quarternary ammonium salts such as Tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TnBA), Triethylbenzylammonium chloride(TEBA), Trimethylbenzylammonium chloride(TMBA) and BenzyldimethyltetradecylammoBium chloride, in the Cannizzaro reaction and the Williamson Ether synthesis was attempted. These salts catalyze the Cannizzaro reaction and the Williamson Ether synthesis in aqueous solution. The Cannizzaro reaction was strongly catalyzed by adding trace amounts of TEBA.
Indirect Chlorination of Aniline can be achieved by the reaction of the Aniline hydrochloride with Dimethyl sulfoxide. The p-Chloroaniline is obtained from the reaction of Aniline hydrochloride with a large excess of Dimethyl sulfoxide at an elevated temperature. This indirect Chlorination of Aniline afforded pure p-Chloroaniline in 46% of yield.