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Aflatoxin, a substituted lactone, is a metabolite of certain strain of Aspergillus flavus. It may induce marked hepatic damage in many species of mammals, and periportal necrosis and bile duct proliferation have been known to occor frequently in acute poisoning. The author performed blood chemistry studies to clarify the effect of aflatoxin B₁ on the liver of male albino rats weighing about 200gm. Aflatoxin B₁ dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide was injected singly into the peritoneum, 1㎎/㎏ to 70 rats. Each experimental group was made of 5 rats; the rats were sacrificed at 1 day intervals from the first to the sixth day after injection. Blood glucose, protein, cholesrerol, bilirubin and the serum activities of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase were determined in each rat. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The hepatic changes included acidophilic degeneration, vacuolar changes, nuclear pyknosis and focal and periportal necrosis on hematoxylin-eosin stain; these changes seemed to be dose-dependent. 2. Blood glucose levels were increased above normal levels, but statistically were not significant. 3. Serum protein revealed decrease of albumin and increase of globulin and those changes were more marked in high dose injection group. 4. Serum cholesterol and bilirubin showed no variation from normal levels. 5. The activities of the serum transaminases were increased and revealed peaks on the 3rd and 5th day after injection of 1㎎/㎏ and 6㎎/㎏ of aflatoxin B₁ respectively. 6. The activity of serum sorbitol dehydrogenase showed an increase from the first day after aflatoxin injection; high enzyme levels persisted thereafter. 7. The activities of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase were increased to a moderate degree. Because of these findings, the author believes that increased servm enzyme activities are maintained even beyond the time when histologic findings have almost nearly returned to normal such that the determination of the levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase may be clinically applicable in the estimation of the degree of hepatic damage.
The Cs3Sbphotocathodewasformedby non-vacuum process technology and successive in-situ photocathode vacuum device fabrication was carried out in a process chamber. Performance test of the device was followed. Light emission from the devices was induced by photoemitted electrons, accelerated by an anode electric field that was shielded from the photoemitter surface. The luminescent characteristics of the devices were investigated by measuring the optical parameters as functions of applied anode voltages. The results showed the possibility to produce a more directable and easily controllable stream of light. These make the devices suitable for a variety of planar lighting applications.
The Cs3Sb photocathode was formed by non-vacuum process technology. An in-situ vacuum device was fabricatedsuccessively with flat cesium antimonide photocathode emitters fabricated in a process chamber. The electricalproperties of the device were characterized. Electron emission from the devices was induced by photoemittedelectrons, which were accelerated by an anode electric field that was shielded from the photoemitter surface. Theelectrical characteristics of the devices were investigated by measuring the anode current as a function of deviceoperation times with respect to applied anode voltages. Planar blue LED light with a 450 nm wavelength was used asan excitation source. The results showed that the cesium antimonide photocathode emitter has the potential of longlifetime with stable electron emission characteristics in panel devices. These features demonstrate that the cesiumantimony photocathodes produced by non-vacuum processing technology is suitable for flat cathodes in panel deviceapplications.
Non-vacuum processing technology was used to produce Cs3Sb photocathodes on substrates and fabricate insitupanel devices. Electrical properties of these panel devices were characterized by measuring anode current andcharge dose as functions of devices operation time. An excitation light source with a 475 nm wavelength was usedfor photocathodes. Results showed that emission properties of these photocathode emitters depended heavily onthe vacuum level of these devices and that Cs3Sb flat emitters had the potential of operating for a long lifetime withstable electron emission characteristics via re-cesiation process in the panel device. These features make Cs3Sbphotocathodes suitable as flat emitters in panel device applications.
Dental magnetic materials have been applied to removable prosthetic appliances, maxillofacial prostheses, obturator and dental implant but they still have some problems such as low corrosion resistance in oral environments. To increase the corrosion resistance of dental magnetic materials, surfaces of Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B based magnetic materials were plated with TiN and then electrochemical corrosion test were performed in 4 kinds of electrolyte solutions(0.9% NaCl. 1% lactic acid, 0.05% HCl and modified Fusayama's artificial saliva). From this study, corrosion behavior, amount of elements released, mean average surface roughness values and the changing of mean surface microhardness values were measured comparing with control group of non-sputtered plating magnetic materials. The results were as follows: 1. TiN layer coated on magnet grows into preferred direction with lamellar structure and its thickness is 3.0㎛. 2. Sm-Co base magnetic materials coated with TiN have good corrosion resistance in 1% lactic acid and their pitting corrosion can not be seen. 3. Nd-Fe-B base magnetic materials coated with TiN showed good tendency of corrosion resistance in 0.05% HCl solution. 4. The amount of elements released from both Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B base magnetic materials coated with TiN were more significantly decreased than that of uncoated magnetic materials. 5. The mean surface roughness values of both Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B base magnetic materials coated with TiN were smooth than that of uncoated magnetic materials after corrosion test. 6. The decreasing rate of microhardness of both Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B base magnetic materials coated with TiN were lower than that of uncoated magnetic materials after corrosion test. 7. Dental magnetic materials coated with TiN produced various corrosion products such as TiO, TiO₂, Ti₂O₃on the surface and resulted in better corrosion resistance than uncoated magnetic materials. In conclusion, it is considered that the corrosion problem of dental magnetic materials could be solved to some extent by EB-PVD with TiN on the surface of dental magnetic materials.
Planar UV light sources with uniform intensity are ideal for UV treatments. A newly conceived planar UV lighting device utilizing Cs3Sb mono-alkali antimonide photocathodes as flat electron emitters is here presented and analyzed. The design concept involves a panel device that utilizes photocathodes operated in a reflection mode with an external excitation light source. The excitation light source is in the blue visible light range. Commercially available UV phosphors are used as a light source of desirable UV wavelengths. The light emission characteristics of the device are investigated by measuring the optical parameters as functions of applied anode voltages. The UV light emission shows that cold UV light with the spectral characteristics of near-monochromatic distribution are most effective. It also demonstrates that the UV intensity is sufficient for the UV treatment. More importantly, the planar UV lighting device is mercury free. These make them suitable for all UV applications.
Photoemission is a process in which photons are converted into free electrons. Photocathodes are the typical materials for the process. They emit electrons when a light is irradiated upon. The traditional method of manufacturing photocathodes is complicated, requires specialized equipment, and is limited very small sized samples. $Cs_3Sb$ photocathode was formed on a substrate in $N_2$ atmospheric conditions. The photocathode formation was a gas phase reaction with the substrate. Vacuum devices were made to test electron emission characteristics of the formed photocathode. Visible light of wavelength 475 nm was used for the primary light source. The results showed high current density and long term stability of the photoelectron emission.
Non-vacuum process technology was used to produce Cs3Sb photocathodes on substrates, and insitu panel devices were fabricated. The performance of the devices was characterized by measuring the anode current as functions of the devices’ operation times. An excitation light source with a 475-nm wavelength was used for the photocathodes. The device has a simple diode structure, providing unique characteristics such as a large gap, vertical electron beam directionality, and resistance to surface contamination from ion bombardment and poisoning by outgassing species. Accordingly, Cs3Sb photocathodes function as flat emitters, and the emission properties of the photocathode emitters depend on the vacuum level of the devices. An improved current stability has been observed after conducting an electrical conditioning process to remove possible adsorbates on the Cs3Sb flat emitters.
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본 연구에서는 보상측면과 직무측면의 특성이 이직의도에 영향을 미치는 영향에 대하여 살펴보았다. 보상 측면에서는 분배공정성과 승진기회의 인식의 이직의도에 대한 부정적인 영향과, 직무 측면에서는 역할갈등과 업무과부하의 의직의도에 대한 긍정적인 영향을 살펴보았다. 또한, 보상 측면의 변수들과 이직의도와의 부정적인 관계에서 조직지원인식과, 성과 보상연계의 조절효과, 직무 측면의 변수들과 이직의도와의 긍정적인 관계에서 직무몰입, 동료의 이직의도의 조절효과를 검증하였다. 가설을 검증한 결과, 분배공정성과 승진기회인식은 이직의도에 부정적인 영향을, 역할갈등과 업무과부하는 이직의도에 긍정적인 영향을 미쳤고, 조직지원인식과 성과보상연계는 승진기회인식과 이직의도와 관계를 조절하였고, 직무몰입은 업무과부하와 이직의도의 관계에서, 동료이직의도는 역할갈등과 이직의도의 관계를 조절하는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구는 보상과 직무 특성이 이직의도에 대하여 발휘하는 효과를 검증하였다는 점에서 의의가 있으며, 특히 그동안 많이 다루어지지 않은 동료이직의도와 직무몰입이 이직의도에 미치는 효과를 밝혀냈다는 점에서 학문적․실무적 시사점을 갖는다.
Planar ultraviolet (UV) light sources with uniform intensity are ideal for UV treatments. A newly conceived planar UV lighting device utilizing Cs3Sb mono-alkali antimonide photocathodes as flat electron emitters is presented and analyzed here. The design concept involves a panel device that utilizes photocathodes operated in a reflection mode with an external excitation light source. The excitation light source is in the blue visible light range. Commercially available UV phosphors are used as a light source of desirable UV wavelengths. The light emission characteristics of the device are investigated by measuring the optical parameters as function of applied anode voltage. The UV light emission shows that cold UV light with the spectral characteristics of near-monochromatic distribution are most effective. It also demonstrates that the UV intensity is sufficient for the UV treatment. More importantly, the planar UV lighting device is mercury free. These make them suitable for all UV applications.