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This study has shown that novelty-familiarity is a potent dimension in the discriminative performance of retardates, as has previously been found for normal children and adults. Novelty-Familiarity has also been shown to facilitate attention of discrimination learning with color form stimuli, probably though a continguity mechanism. The facilitative effects of familization are related to intellugence. Subjects of lower MA benefit less because of conflicting tendencies to approach novel stimuli Some possible implications for retardation; Novelty has been shown to be highly silient dimension which fedes spontaneously. Much effect has gone into devising special training techniques for the retarded utilising learning "Crutches", redundant relevant cues added and then gradually faded over the course of learning. Novelty is a highly efficient curtch in that if fades by itself. No special engineering or material arrangements are necessary to use onvelty-familiarity as a learning crutch, making possible wide and easy application of the device. The effects of intelligence on the novelty-famailiarity crutch" can be eliminated easily by making novel cues the correct ones. This leads to an interesting prediction, that in a study such as the present one, if novel cues, rather-than familiar cues, were correct, the performance of Low MA subjects could be equal to, or higher than that of High MA subjects.
This study aims at the search for educational requirement of the Mentally Retarded, especially focusing on E M R and T M R. It also attempts to ask for educational requirement through researching the materials which have been studied, home and abroad, about the Mentally Retarded -- their educational possibility; their developmental characteristics; and other characteristics of the physical movement, social emotion and perceptive learning. The educational requirement, developmental possibility and other particular characteristics of the Mentally Retarded are briefly as follows: 1. Developmental Possibility of the Mentally Retarded. 1) In general, development is possible on the level of mental age 8-12 for the E M R, 4-8 for the TMR 2. Characteristics of the Mentally Retarded. 1) Perceptive Characteristic: For the Mentally Retarded, it is hard to generalize learning. There is much unbalance in the low grade factors of intellectuality -- especially, speech factor shows more inferior than motion factor. When mental ages are the same, the perceptions of the Mentally Retarded are more superior to the concrete object, but more inferior to the abstract object than those of the normal. It is also a characteristic to develope speech ability slowly. 2) Socio-Emotional Characteristic They are exceedingly retarded in the field of speech in their social lives, but less retarded comparatively in the concrete works. They are the same with the normal from character and emotion, but are not able to develop the field of ego and super-ego. It is a characteristic that the solidity of emotional function fields is high in the structural phase. 3) Physical, Motional Characteristic They are not much retarded in the physical growth, but are much more retarded for the sitting or standing alone, taking off one step or walking from compared with the physical sizes. In the motion ability, they are almost below-10 in the all fields -- that is; balance function, whole body exercise ability, fingers-correspondence, imitation of seperation, running, broad jumping, soft-ball drawing etc. 4) Characteristic of Learning. The Learning abilities of EMR are generally low. So, the degree of elementary school 6 grade EMR is that of kidergarten at the end of learning age, and they will be able to have the ability of about 3 grade normal student. For TMR, it is possible to train the ability of communication, but is almost impossible to teach general letter learning (art function). In conclusion sellection and organization of all educational subject matters must be done according to the educational requirement and characteristics of the Mentally Retarded. And the followings have to be emphasized 1. The contents, which enrich them with good citizen characters, must be chosen, considering of the development possibility of learning ability. 2. The contents have to be formed with those which can be used in present life directly, can be transformed well and can improve the quality of life. 3. The contents, which the life needs, and become the foundation of future vocational life, and increase the aptitude, must be established. 4. The contents of all the education have to be organized with small steps of guidance which is interesting and stressed on the repetition quality.
This is a study analysis of relations of selective attention and factors in general intelligence. General intelligence may set structural fature limitations on three aspects of selective attention : direction, adjustability, and breadth. Amiable hypotheses considered are that subjects of varying intelligence may (1) have some partially fixed tendencies to look at different dimensions of stimuli, (2) have varying rates of adjusting their direction of attention, and (3) have varying upper limits on breadth of attention for tasks demanding it. Data, theory, and methods bearing on these hypotheses were reviewed from the domain of visual discrimination learning. 1. Although direction of attention is clearly a control process, in part, because of the relative ease with which it can be changed by training, there is nevertheless appreciable evidence of some maturational control of saliency hierarchies. 2. The adjustability of attention, or rate of learning to change the direction of attention, has long been considered to be the prime candidate for structural feature status in attention theory. 3. For the final aspect of attention, breadth, there are several models which provide theoretical measures of attentional breadth, although none of the formal multiple-look models has a parameter representing an upper limit on breadth of attention. As an overall statement of the state-of-the art in this field : the study of the relation of intelligence and structural features of attention is characterized by theoretical ferment, empirical busyness, and growing methodologioal sophistication, but the stage of big conclusions has not yet been achieved.
The purpose of this study is to find out the specific character of the educable mentally retraded children's personality, and to make a comparative analysis on the characterological factors revealed in the portrait drawings between the educable mentally retreated and normal children. The practical method of analysis is as follows. A. Specific character of EMR's personality factors. B. Comparison of personality by sex. C. Specific character of personality revealed in the male and female portraits. The study has been conducted with the number of 120 educable mentally retarded and 120 normal children in the areas of Daegu city and 5 other neighboring cities and countries, and a diagnostic test has been implemented with Otomo's portrait application method. The conclusion of the study is as follows: A. Specific character of EMR's personality factors 1. The deviation number of E.M.R. group is that the "B" shows the highest ratio and the remaining ratio is in X, N, C, M, F, Sch, S, Y, Ps, order. 2. In comparative test of the characterological factors by group, each S, C, F, Sch, N, B, X factor is of .1% meaningful level which shows significant difference, while M factor is 5% and Ps, Y factor shows no significant difference. B. Comparison of personality by sex division. 1. C factor shows 1% meaningful differences of which male is higher than female, and F factor is 5% level. Other factors show no significant in difference. C. Specific character of personality revealed in the male and female portraits. 1. In the deviation ratio by sex in both groups (E.M.R. & Normal Children), the comparison of male and female portraits brought .1% meaningful difference which shows significant level, and within same group the comparison shows no marked difference in characterological factors. 2. In characterological factors, there exists little interrelationship between male portraits and female ones. Thus, it could presumed that each characterological factor engages a tendency of individualization. 3. The common characteristics of significant interrelationships within mentally retarded male and female were revealed as following ratio: C factor and Ps factor showed -.50, -.52 level, and it showed .85 level between Sch factor and F factor. 4. In the interrelationship between the two factors of normal male and female, M and Sch showed .43, .41, and X, Sch significantly showed .40, .43 levels.
This study was aimed at improving direction of vocational education for the mentally retarded in order to provide an educational assistance for them in their social economical self-sufficiency. For achieving this purpose, the following study problems were prusued: 1) identifying developmental characteristics and vocational needs of the Mentally retarded and vocational ability. 2) identifying existing situations and problems met in vocational education. 3) analyzing employable jobs and works for the Mentally retarded. The methods used for this study were a review of literature and analysis of various data. The main findings from this study and some recommendations can be summarized as follows; 1) The most important area im the vocational education of the Mentally retarded should be placed on the training of their social and emotional aspects. 2) The vocational education for the Mentally retarded is needed to be broadened its concept up to career education. 3) The vacational education for Mentally retarded should be carried out under the close. cooperation among school family and community, nation in order to achieve its maximum effectiveness. 4) The existing vocational education programs in Korea are varied dependent upon schools because of limited kinds of jobs to be trained limited facilities, lack of professional personnal, and lack of appropriate programs, lack of the educational-industrial cooperation. In developing of vacational education for the Mentally retarded a key is provided professional personnal, and appropriate programs, environment, national participation, educational-industrial cooperation.
This article analyzes the political significance of the portrait and portrait hall of King Taejo during the reign of King Gojong(r.1863~1907). It examines what changes these works' characteristics underwent in this period of politically rapid change, and what differences they had from those in previous periods. At the times of Gojong, the tradition of portrait painting and portrait hall of King Taejo had already been established. King Gojong, considering the new political situation, had to decide whether he should succeed the previous tradition, or abolish it. King Gojong, who had been enthroned in 1863, was not able to lead the political situation at the beginning. Behind King Gojong, Queen Dowager Sinjeong and Grand Prince Yi Ha'eung pursued policies for strengthening the King's power and promoting the status of the royal family through various royal rituals. After his enthronement, King Gojong frequently visited tombs of previous kings including King Taejo. However, at that time, he did not pay much attention to Taejo, who had founded Joseon. Afterwards, there increasingly arose interest in Taejo, and then portraits of him came to be made in 1872. This had been executed in order to repair them with those portraits of Taejo placed in Yeonghi Hall and Gyeonggi Hall due to their weariness. The year of 1872 was the one falling under the eighth 60th birthday anniversary from the foundation of Joseon. The new portraits were made to commemorate this. It also was one of the reasons for the painting of the portraits that King Gojong tried to preserve the royal family by depending on the ancestors' virtues as a prince died on the 4th day from his birth. Then, King Gojong escaped from the influence of his father Yi Ha'eung to lead the political situation for himself. After all, the production of Taejo's portraits were fulfilled for political purposes. When Eulmi Incident broke out in 1895 in which Queen Myeongseong was killed by Japanese assassins, Gojong concealed himself into the Russian legation. When he returned to Gyeongun Palace in 1897, Gojong changed the name of the country from Joseon to the Great Daehan, and entitled himself Emperor. This was due to his intention to pursue modernization and strengthen his status as an absolute sovereign. Gojong enforced many policies to redeem the authority of the royal family. In 1899, he repaired the tomb of Yi Han, the founder of the royal Yi family, located in Mount Geonji, Jeonju, and then constructed Jogyeongdan altar. However, this tomb was only known to be Yi Han's, but there had not been any concrete evidence. After all, Gojong tried to find out the orthodoxy of his enthronement as an emperor from his far ancestor. In 1900, Gojong again made another portrait of King Taejo. This time, he displayed the portrait in Seonwon Hall within the palace where the portraits of successive kings had been enshrined. He also restored Mokcheong Hall, a portrait hall for Taejo located in Gaeseong. Gojong had his portraits painted most actively among other kings of Joseon. He had done it in new ways using photographs and oil painting, and spread them through press. Though the production of Taejo's portrait in 1872 promoted the status of Gojong as a king, it basically maintained the traditional functions of kings' portraits following the convention of the past. However, the Great Daehan was proceeding in the direction of a modern state. Gojong paid enormous costs to repair the palace and previous kings' tombs, and maintain luxurious ceremonies. This was a way to create a new tradition by using an old tradition, rather than to maintain previous traditions in an old way. The enterprise of the production of Taejo's portrait and restoration of his portrait hall in 1900 was an example. Through this, Gojong tried not to seek the orthodoxy of the sovereign from transcendent and invisible traditions, but to create a dignified order of government through worldly and visible memories and monuments. Paradoxically, Gojong could not help making efforts to preserve the royal family, which supported his status of emperor, while founding a modern state. Due to this, modern reforms comprised with past traditions, and he tried to seek his authority and orthodoxy from monuments that showed cultural and historical successiveness. However, as such efforts did not fit to chaotic political situations at that time, the new traditions were not maintained and shortly disappeared.
This study has shown that novelty-familiarity is a potent dimension in the discriminative performance of retardates, as has previously been found for normal children and adults. Novelty-Familiarity has also been shown to facilitate attention of discrimination learning with color form stimuli, probably though a continguity mechanism. The facilitative effects of familization are related to intelligence. Subjects of lower MA benefit less because of conflicting tendencies to approach novel stimuli. Some possible implications for retardation; Novelty has been shown to be a highly salient dimension which fedes spontaneously. Much effect has gone into devising special training techniques for the retarded utilising learning "Crutches", redundant relevant cues added and then gradually faded over the course of learning. Novelty is a highly efficient crutch in that if fades by itself. No special engineering or material arrangements are necessary to use novelty-familiarity as a learning crutch, making possible wide and easy application of the device. The effects of intelligence on the novelty-familiarity crutch" can be eliminated easily by making novel cues the correct ones. This leads to an interesting prediction, that in a study such as the present one, if novel cues, rather-than familiar cues, were correct, the performance of Low MA subjects could be equal to, or higher than that of High MA subjects.