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The purpose of the study was to determine the dyeing method and optimum dyeing condition with Gromwell natural dyes of cotton, viscose rayon, silk and wool fabric. First of all, characteristics of coloring ingredient extracted by the temperature form Gromwell were anlysed. Then, the depth of color change in terms of dyeing time(5∼60min) and temperature(40∼80℃) and pH(pH 4∼10) were evaluated. The results are as follows : 1. Gromwell solution was extracted with two different temperature conditions, 50℃ and 70℃. In Gromwell solution extracted at 50℃ and 70℃, the maximum absorbance wave length was shown in 526nm and 591nm, respectively. 2. According to the analysis of FT-IR spectrum with the temperature, it indicated that there was broad absorption peak at 3400cm^-1, C-H stretch vibration peak at 2900cm^-1, C=O of COOH stretch vibration peak at 1718cm^-1, CO_2 stretch vibration peak at 1400cm^-1 and C-O-C stretch vibration peak at 1400cm^-1. 3. Dye uptake of viscose rayon and cotton fabrics increased slowly with the dyeing time up to 30 min. and after that, reached to the saturation point, while dye uptake of silk and wool fabrics increased slowly with the time and after that, increased rapidly up to 50 min. 4. Dye uptake of all fabrics with pH 5 was the highest. In case of silk and wool fabrics, above pH 5, their dye uptake decreased rapidly.
The purpose of this research is to provide some basic data for practical application to the development of new technology and to the enhancement of the adaptation as material for clothes to improve the quality of Korean Hemp cellulose according to the trend of "21 century is the age of Hemp cellulose". Therefore, the results abstained by this research are as follows. 1. Fine Structure In the analysis of the correlation between crystallinity and orientation before and after washing K.H. showec that there is a correlation because orientation increased according to the increment of crystallinity before washing as well as after washing, but C.H. showed a negative relation that orientation decreases according to the increment of crystallinity. 2. Mechanical properties When it comes to the changes according to washing in the mechanical properties, both of K.H. and C.H. had an equal tendency of changes in increment and decrement.
The alkali process was first handled with changing both the process time(20, 30, 40, 60min) and the handling temperature(50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100℃), washed with distilled water, rising with 80℃ and 40℃ warm water in a serial order. Then the sample of the alkali processed one is put in nature dryness for more than 12 hours. Finally, it was fully dried for more than three hours in the 60℃ hot wind dryer. The appliances used in the ultrasonic weight-loss tester were JIU-600, BLT, 100volt(5A), 600W and 28KHz. I came to the following conclusion by measuring the ability of dying in the ultrasonic processed PET fabric, and its catabolistic distinctive features such as weight-loss rate, intensity, frictional pressure, air permeability, surface observation and mechanical property. 1. When I take advantage of the ultrasonic wave to get the same weight-loss rate, the processing time can be shortened by 5-6min and its temperature can be lowered by 4-5℃ 2. The air permeability rised as the weight-loss rate increases while the bending rigidity and hysteresis decrease. But those combined with the ultrasomec wave were revealed a little higher in the same weight-loss rate. Also, the tensile strength decreased in proportion to the weight-loss rate. The correlation is TS=-0.629WL+40.147. 3. The frictional pressure increased as the weight-loss rate increased and was found as the highest(15%). In the process, what is used in combination with the ultrasonic wave is about 9,000V, while what was opposite was about 8,500V. Such a change did not occur significantly in the case of more than 15%. 4. K/S is found as about 5.5 in the 20% weight-loss rate. But when it exceeded the point, it remained unchanged. Because the inner and outer alien materials of are thoroughly removed, the outlook of on the fabric surface was distinctly seen when it was used in combination with the ultrasonic wave. 5. THV(Total Hand Value) of fabric combined with the ultrasonic wave was found as about 4.0% higher than the one used in alkali processing itself Especially Shari Hand Value have greatly advanced.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of warmth ratio of heat and moisture transfer characteristics of foundation wear. For the study, five foundation knitted fabrics with different fiber types and blend ratio were selected. Heat and moisture transfer characteristics and mechanical characteristics of foundation knitted fabrics were measured by hot plate method, evaporation cup method, respectively. In addition, five all-in-one were made with five foundation knitted fabrics and the thermal resistance of them was measured by the thermal manikin. The results of the study were as follows: 1. The keeping warmth ratio of f1 and f5 were about 29% and significantly higher than the others(p <0.05). The reason for this was that f1 and f5 were made with the cotton and spun yarn which was bulker and had more dead air within their yam structure than the others made with synthetic filament yarns. However, the water moisture transmission rate of f2, f3 and f4 were a littler higher than that of f1 and f2 because of hydrophobic characteristics and high air permeability of synthetic yarn structures(f2, f3 and f4). 2. The thermal resistance of all-in-one made by f1 and f5 were higher than the others. This was the same result with the keeping warmth ratio of foundation knitted fabrics.
We selected four kinds of cotton velvet and chafed before and after cleaning, then in accordance with abrasion times we measured of pile exclusion rate and examined the relationship of the pile exclusion rate, its thickness and the air permeability. An experimental study was carried out the pile weave construction, the density, the yarn to yarn, the shrinkage, and the pile substantiality. The results were as follows: 1. In accordance with increments of shrinkage phenomenon of pile fabric for cleaning process, pile exclusion rate was decreased. 2. The ground weave of pile fabric and the yarn to yarn of warp and weft direction were affected by the pile exclusion. 3. It is linear of pile substantiality of pile fabric and pile fastness. 4. In estimation of pile exclusion rate, it is proper to make use of air permeability and measuring value of thickness.
The purpose of the research is to investigate the payment for clothing and clothing management behavior of the elementary school student children, and to study if there is any specific preference toward clothing according to whether or not they wear school uniform. 403 mothers of two elementary school students in Taegu were selected for this study. 1. There is no difference in the times of purchasing clothing between uniform group and nonuniform group. 2. Compared with their money earning, uniform wearing group more money in their clothing purchasing nonuniform group paid less money regardless of their earning 3. There is a significant of laundry practices in nonuniform group compared with uniform group. 4. According to the inquiry of the clothing concept between uniform group and nonuniform group, uniform group showed higher satisfaction with their uniform than nonuniform group with their nonuniform. 5. Uniform group showed high positive view on the uniform, and both groups showed partial positive view on the nonuniform. There was a positive correlation among clothing payment, clothing managemen: behavior, and clothing dynamics of both groups.
Ten kinds of polyurethane coated artificial leathers, which are emerging rapidly as new fabrics after development of the waterproof and water vapor permeable technique, were used as specimens at this study. Five kinds of specimens with the waterproof and water vapor permeable function and the other five kinds of specimens with only the waterproof were tested at various conditions(environmental temperature : 12℃, 15℃, 18℃, 21℃, 24℃, relative humidity : 45%, 55%). Through hot plate heat transfer test and skin simulating system test the properties of heat and moisture transfer before and after washing were observed. The results of this study are as followings ; 1. When the ground structure was knit rather than fabric, the weight increased with increasing thickness because the degree of yarn freedom was high and the shrinkage was large. 2. In hot plate heat transfer test the change of heat transfer properties by the change of environmental temperatures before and after washing did not have a special tendency at both 45% R.H. and 55% R.H. but the heat transfer decreased as the environmental temperature was high. This trend was more apparent after washing than before washing. The reason is that the convection becomes more active due to the remarkable difference of temperature between hot plate and environmental air. 3. CLO values of specimens of B group with only the waterproof function showed wider fluctuations, comparing to those of A group with the water vapor permeable function had stable CLO values. When the significant difference of CLO values among all of the specimens, A group and B group at each environmental temperature was examined before and after washing in hot plate heat transfer test and skin simulating test for moisture transfer, the significant difference was found out at P<0.05. 4. Through hot plate heat transfer test and skin simulating system test the moisture transfer at 55% R.H. before and after washing was superior to that at 45% RH. And the moisture transfer was active as the environmental temperature was high. Besides, the moisture transfer at A group was easier than that at B group because A group had enough water vapor permeable voids. 5. The change of contact angle as a parameter determining the waterproof and water vapor permeable function decreased considerably after washing. Especially, the decreasing rate of A group with the water vapor permeable function was larger than that of B group.
This study was performed to determine the optimum condition for dyeing to improve dye-ability of polyester/nylon split microfibers. The samples were dyed with disperse and acid dyes, varying time, temperature, washing method, and heat-set condition and then dye-ability and color fastness of the samples were evaluated. The results were as follows: (1) There was no tendency of types of disperse dyes on the stain to nylon side, but azo-type dyes had the samples stain more than anthraquinone-type dyes had. (2) It was found that the acid-reduction washing was effective method for washing in terms of dye ability and color fastness. (3) The optimum conditions of temperature and time were 120℃ and 30min. for polyester-side and 70℃ and 30min. for nylon-side. (4) It could be obtained that the lowest variation of apparent color strength of the samples when the heat-set condition was 170℃-180℃ for 25sec. of which condition was lower than traditional polyester.
Using the acetate velvet and viscose velvet whose pile lengths were sheared as 1.45, 1.55, 1.65, 1.75, 1.85, 1.90mm under the condition equating the weaving process of ground fabric, the conclusions were as follows through the results of the sensory assessments estimated by women students in our university and the physical properties, H.V. and T.H.V. obtained by KES-F system. 1. In the sensory assessments estimated by the method of paired comparison and ranking of samples, the longer pile length was, the more the hand values of smoothness, softness, thickness, heaviness increased on the whole. 2. The H.V. and T.H.V. measured by KES-F system were as follows; Koshi increased to pile length 1.85mm and then decreased a little at 1.90mm. Numeri increased as pile length was longer. Fukurami increased to pile length 1.75mm and then decreased gradually as pile length was longer. Total hand value increased gradually from 1.45mm to 1.85mm, had the top value at 1.85mm, and then decreased a little at 1.90mm. 3. In the results of summarizing 「the physical properties correlated closely with the H.V. obtained by sensory assessments」 and 「the physical properties correlated closely with the H.V. and T.H.V. obtained by KES-F system」, it showed that all the sensory properties correlated closely with compressive energy, flexural rigidity, thickness, weight and pile ratio in the former and that the physical properties correlated closely with each H.V. and T.H.V. were different in the latter. 4. It showed that factor 1 was related to compressive energy, thickness, weight, pile ratio, factor 2 was related to recovery energy, compressive resilience, compressive index, and factor 3 was related to compressive recovery ratio in the result of factor analysis. 5. In the multiple regression analysis, the expressions of all sensory properties had compressive ratio, frictional coefficient in the regression expressions of 「H.V. obtained by sensory assessments」, while the expressions of each H.V. had different physical properties in the regression expressions of 「H.V. obtained by KES-F system」.
In general polyester is extremely used to increase the ratoi of the warmth heat resistance among quilting products as a padding, make polyester the object of this study and examine the thickness in terms of quilting type, air volume, air permeability, quilting interval, the ratio of the warmth heat resistance followed by the variation of no-flow, and flow case or after-washing and before-washing. In brief, the result is as follows; 1. In all quilting type, Clo value is found on increasing tendency with increase of thickness. And in non quilting samples, the more porosity grows up the more Clo value decreased. 2. In each quilting type comes in evidence a similar air permeability and it doesn't have an interrelationship with Clo value. 3. In each quilting type with much air volume. Clo value increases;in the same quilting type the more quilting interval increases the Clo value increases. 4. In each quilting type, Clo value is discovered an increasing tendency by 7.5cm;it is not discovered an increasing tendency above the ratio. But in flow case, Clo value doesn't change at all by 200cm/sec as in no-flow case and it is discovered a decreasing tendency above the ratio. 5. In flow case and no-flow case, the variation of the Clo value followed by the quilting type is identical. And Clo value increases in checker<spiral<righted-spiral<vertica quilting type by turns. 6. Clo value after-washing with quilting samples if sound a little more increased tendency than Clo value before-washing samples.