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      • 여주리씨(驪州李氏) 밀양(密陽) 퇴로가문(退老家門)의 계승과 사회활동(社會活動)

        李迎春 ( Lee Young-choon ) 한국계보연구회 2011 한국계보연구 Vol.2 No.-

        驪州李氏 密陽 退老家門은 시련이 많았던 우리 민족의 근대화 과정에서 전통적인 儒學을 기반으로 하면서도 새로운 학문을 수용 하는 ‘新舊竝進'의 학풍을 실천함으로써 가문적 성취와 사회적 공헌을 이루었다. 驪州李氏 密陽派는 15세기 후반에 서울에서 밀양으로 이주하여 현재의 삼랑진 용성리, 단장면 무릉리, 단장리,사연리 등지에 散居 하면서 이곳 유력 양반들과 혼인으로 연결되고 경제적 토대를 갖추 어 지방 사족으로 정착하였다. 이 가문은 16세기 중엽 月淵 李迨와 今是堂 李光轸이 문과에 급제하여 관직에 나간 외에는 대체로 재야에서 학문에 종사하였지만, 밀양의 유림 사회에서 상당한 명망을 유지해 왔다. 약 4W여년 후 桃源 李鍾極의 아들인 恒齋 李翊九(1838 ~1912), 靜存軒 李能九, 庸齋 李命九 삼 형제가 1890년(고종 27)에 世居地인 단장면 무릉리에서 부북면 퇴로리로 이주한 후에 경제적으로 크게 성장하였고, 이를 바탕으로 신교육과 각종 사회활동에 나서게 되었다. 이들은 성리학적인 전통이 철저하였던 밀양 士族 사회에서 드물게 星湖의 實學을 계승하여 신학문에 종사하였고, ‘新舊竝進'이라는 근대적인 정신을 실천하였다. 이는 恒齋가 성호학파 性齋 許傳의 문인이 되어 實學에 심취한 것이 하나의 계기가 되었다. 그는 성리학의 고정 관념을 벗어나 역사를 통한 성찰을 중시하였고,국가 존망의 시대에 사는 선비의 자세로 “服田力穡”과 “通商惠工”도 마다하지 않았다. 이러한 恒齋의 학문과 정신은 그의 아들인 省軒 李炳熹와 조카 退修齋 李炳鲲 등에게 큰 영향을 주었다. 1907년에 恒齋는 향리에 華山義塾을 설립하고 日人 교사들을 초빙하여 자손들에게 신학문과 측량기술 등을 가르치다가 1910년 亡國으로 폐지하였다. 李炳喜는 뒤를 이어 1921년에 사립 보통학교인 正進義塾(후에 正進學校로 개칭)을 설립하였고,그의 조카인 李周衡 은 1946년 밀양중학교를 설립하여 신교육 보급에 기여하였다. 그들은 자제들에게 家塾에서 漢文을 익히도록 하였지만, 자신들이 설립한 신식 學校에 보내기도 하고 서울로 유학을 시키기도 하였다. 그 결과 制憲國會議員 李周衡 등 많은 학자ㆍ교육자, 관료ㆍ정치가들을 배출하였고 지역 사회의 근대화에도 기여하게 되었다. 이 가문에서는 1909년에 신식 활자를 사용하는 인쇄소(同文社)를 설치하여 『星湖集』50권 27책 등 많은 서적을 간행하였다. 또한 역사에도 관심이 많아 恒齋는 『讀史箚記』8권 4책을 저술하였고, 省軒 李炳憙는 『朝鮮史綱目』14책을 저술하였으며, 退修齋 李炳鲲은 朝鮮 時代의 각종 사료를 수집하여 『李家墨莊史料叢編』40책을 편집하였다. 퇴로의 이씨들은 문중 社倉을 설립하여 빈민들을 구제하였고, 藥鋪와 정미소도 운영하였다. 그리고 자손들 중에는 商業(退老商店)과 蠶業(蠶種製造所)에 종사한 사람도 있었다. 이러한 가풍은 성리학을 신봉하던 밀양의 전통적인 양반 사회에서 보기 드문 홍미 있는 사례라고 하겠다. 19세기 후반의 급격한 사회 변동 속에서 驪州李氏 退老家門은 전통적인 유학의 가치를 고수하면서도 實學的인 기반 위에서 새로운 세계에 적응할 신학문을 수용하여 교육하였고, 각종 사회 공헌 활동을 하기도 하였다. 이러한 일들은 모두 상당한 경제력 때문에 가능하였지만, 그들은 일정한 규모 이외에 농장을 더 이상 확대하지 않고 그富를 사회에 환원하였다. 이는 유학을 중심으로 한 전통적 가치와 근대적 의식이 결합되어 이룩한 ‘新舊竝進'의 드문 사례라 할 것이다. The ancestors of Yeoju Lee Family in Milyang originally lived in Yeoju of Gyeonggi province. Some sub-lineages of them moved to Gaeseong, the capital of Goryeo dynasty, and then to Seoul, the capital of Joseon dynasty, to obtain posts in the government, in which they were very successful to be bureaucrats. A sub-lineage of them moved to Milyang in Gyeongsang province in late 15th century, which we call Yeoju Yi Family in Milyang. The family founder LEE Sapil(李師弼) married a daughter of Ryu Jagong(柳子恭) who was a leader of a powerful local family. He could fall heir to the landowner and his descendants became a famous family in Milyang area with their wealth and scholarly attainments. A few of them obtained high posts in the government, but the others carried on their lives of local landed gentry. In late 19th century LEE Ik-gu(李翔九) with his brother LEE Neung-gu(李能九) and Lee Myeong-Gu(李命九) moved to a new town called Toero(退老) to extend their lands, which was very successful. We sometimes call them Toero Lee Family(退老李氏) on behalf of Yeoju Lee Family in Milyang. The family was so rich, learned and respected as to lead the local gentry society. As the western impact and the invasion of Japanese imperialism threatened Korea, it was hard times for Korean people to live in late 19th century. The Japanese invasion was just beginning in 1880s. Though LEE Ik-gu was a traditional Confucian scholar, he was trained under the influence of Silhak(實學) school and studied history profoundly, so he could see the reality of the epochal crisis and shaped his thoughts. He declared the principle of a scholar's learning should be what to practice both the old and the new(親斤舊拉進), which means Confucianism and the western studies. And he emphasized the works of a scholar in hard times should not be limited to Confucian studies and literary works but granted to do farming, manufacturing and even commerce and technology(服田力穡通商惠工). His open-minded thoughts influenced much to his son LEE Byeong-hee(李炳熹) and nephew LEE Byeong-gon(李炳鲲). LEE Byeong-hee was a Confucian scholar and historian who wrote the History of Joseon Dy航펴y(朝鮮史綱目). He as the leader of the family did many business, establishing a modem elementary school and running a printing house. LEE Byeong-gon also was a Confucian historian, though not finished the History of late Joseon Dynasty, left many good historical materials. He kept diaiy through out his life named Toesujae Ilgi(Diary of Toesujae, his pen name), which was published by the National Institute of Korean History in 2007. It tells the history of the family and many interesting informations of the gentry society at that time in Milyang area, though lots of it's volume were lost. They ran a traditional Confucian academy for their children in the town, which was called family academy(家塾). But they took the initiative in modem education in Milyang area. LEE Ik-gu opened a small academy in which modem sciences and technology were educated by the Japanese teachers in 1907. But it was abolished when Korea was forced to merge to Japan illegally in 1910. But his son LEE Byeong-hee and nephew LEE Byeong-gon established a modem private elementary school in the town Toero in 1921, which was named Jeongjin school(正進學校). They educated their children and others in this school or the Confucian family academy. Though they preferred to educate them in their Confucian academy, they also granted their descendants to be educated in higher schools in Seoul. In 1946 the Milyang Highschool was established by one of their grandson LEE Ju-hyeong who became the principal himself and then a member of the first National Congress of Republic of Korea in 1948. The family ran a foundation named Sachang(社倉) for a long time to help the poor people in the town area. That kind of foundation Sachang was originally created by Zhu-hsi, the brilliant Neo-Confucian scholar of Sung(宋) dynasty in 12th century. So we can say the family's Sachang was a traditional method of the Neo-Confucian social ideology. The family founded a modem printing factory in 1909 and printed lots of books and documents, most of them were their books. They also constructed a modem mill in 1927 to grind their rice and those of other's. One of the family member open a shop of general goods in the downtown of Milyang in 1920s, which became the gathering post of the family members and all kind of informations. And two of the members began the sericultural industry in 1940s, which was not so successful. These businesses were not so expectative for a gentry class at that time in Milyang society. But they didn't mind at all, which was proved to be right and successful. The studies and social activities of Yeoju Lee Family in Milyang who lived through the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century shows a good example of the Korean Confucian scholars and landlord gentry class confronting the epochal crisis of modernization. Many families and scholars were failed to survive but Yeoju Lee was successful because of their open mind to practice both the old and the new(親斤舊拉進), and the active attitude for farming, manufacturing and even commerce and technology business.

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