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Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are the most commonly used treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Since the launch of sildenafil, several drugs−including mirodenafil, sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), tadalafil, vardenafil HCL (vardenafil), udenafil, and avanafil−have become available. Mirodenafil is a newly developed pyrrolopyrimidinone compound, which is a potent, reversible, and selective oral PDE5 inhibitor. Mirodenafil was launched in Korea in 2007, and an orally disintegrating film of mirodenafil was developed in 2011 for benefitting patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets. This study aimed to review the pharmacokinetic characteristic profile of mirodenafil and report evidence on its efficacy in the case of ED. In addition, we reviewed randomized controlled studies of mirodenafil's daily administration and efficacy for lower urinary tract symptoms.
Recently, the Constitutional Court ruled that the provision of communication confirmation data for criminal investigation is unconstitutional under the Protection of Communications Secrets Act. The Protection of Communications Secrets Act provides that if the necessary requirements are met, the law enforcement agency can collect information such as the date of telecommunications by subscribers, the time that the telecommunications commence and end, and the communications number of outgoing and incoming call, etc. Prior to the ruling of the Constitutional Court, academia raised concerns about privacy and infringement of personal information self-determination, and urged the improvement of the provisions of the Protection of Communications Secrets Act. However, discussions on the improvement of the cell site investigation process seems to be inadequate, while the discussion of the academia has been focused on strengthening the requirements of requests for communication confirmation data. This study attempts to analyze the process of the existing cell site investigation method performed by the law enforcement agency, presents an example of the cell site information collected according to the current method, and explores the elements that could infringe the human rights and privacy. As a solution, this study proposes a transformation of the investigation paradigm. Specifically, first, after the investigation agency obtains the unidentified information from the communication service providers, then analyzes it and re-identifies only the information necessary for criminal investigation. In addition, this study suggests specific de-identification measures and legal improvement measures accordingly. To protect the human rights of the public, it is necessary to revise the Protection of Communications Secrets Act by taking into consideration both the strengthening of the requirements of the law and the paradigm shift of the cell site analysis and investigation. 2018년 6월 헌법재판소는“범죄수사의 필요성”이라는 요건만으로 수사기관으로 하여금 전기통신사업자로부터 가입자의 착・발신 전화번호, 착・발신 시간, 통화시간, 수・발신 번호 등의정보를 취득할 수 있도록 하는 통신비밀보호법상 통신사실확인자료 제공요청 관련 조항에 대하여 위헌이라고 판시하였다. 위와 같은 헌법재판소의 판결 이전에도, 학계에서는 현행 통신사실확인자료를 이용한 통신수사에 관하여 통신비밀의 자유 및 사생활의 자유, 개인정보자기결정권 침해 등의 우려를 지속적으로 제기하였고, 법원의 통제 강화를 위한 법률 개정을 촉구하여 왔다. 그러나 그간 기술적 방법내지 방식의 개선을 정착시킬 수 있는 법률 개정에 관한 논의는 거의 이루어지지 않았다. 본 논문에서는 수사 실무에서 널리 활용되고 있는 통신사실확인자료를 이용한 통신수사의실태를 파악하여, 통신수사 시 수사 합목적성 달성 범위 내에서 기본권 침해를 최소화 하는기술적 조치 방안을 제안하고자 한다. 즉, 수사기관에서 전기통신사업자에게 1차로 비식별화된통신사실확인자료를 제공받고 그 중에 범죄 수사에 필요한 통신정보만을 선별한 다음, 2차로해당 정보의 재식별화를 요청하는 형태로 수사 절차를 개선하는 것이 필요할 것이다. 또한 본논문에서는 이러한 구체적인 기술적 조치 및 수사기법이 정착될 수 있도록 근거 법률의 개선방안도 함께 제시하고자 한다.
The spatter and porosity could be occurred during CO₂CW laser welding of Primer-coated Steel for shipbuilding. This study has suggested an alternative idea by examining of weld-defect formation mechanism. The primer-coated plate has caused the spatter, humping bead and porosity and thee are main part of the welding defect, attributed to the powerful vaporizing pressure of primer attached on the base metal. The zinc of primer has a boiling point that is the lower temperature than melting point of steel. Zinc vapor will build up at the interface between the two sheets and this tends to deteriorate the quality of the weld by ejecting weld material from lap position or leaving porosity. Therefore introducing a small gap clearance in the lap position, the zinc vapor could escape through it and sound weld beads can be acquired. In conclusion, we suggested the occurred and prevented mechanism of weld defects with searching the factor.
Objective : Compared with other neural structures, optic apparatus are particularly sensitive to radiation. If tumors are adjacent to or in contact with optic apparatus, a number of limitations need to be addressed for planning radiosurgery. To avoid radiation induced optic neuropathy, we treated these lesions with fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (FSRS). This study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of FSRS for sella and parasella tumors adjacent to or in contact with optic apparatus. Methods : We treated 19 sellar region tumors located adjacent to or in contact with optic apparatus with fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using the Novalis system. Seventeen patients who could be followed were included in this study. They consisted of 8 pituitary adenomas, 4 optic gliomas, 3 meningiomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas. The mean tumor volume was 16.1cc(range 1-61.1). When planning FSRS, the prescribed fractionation dose to optic apparatus below 200cGy. Follow up examinations consisted of neurological, neuroradiological, and neuroopthalmological evaluations. Results : Follow-up ranged from 2 to 34 months(mean 15 months). Serial magnetic resonance imaging revealed no increase in volume of tumor in all 17 patients. No patients had radiation induced optic neuropathy. Conclusion : Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery is proper innovative treatment modality for sella or parasella tumors adjacent to or in contact with optic apparatus to avoid radiation induced optic neuropathy. We need further follow-up and clinical experiences.
Purpose: Although several studies have attempted to identify a relationship between Peyronie's disease (PD) and associated comorbidites including diabetes mellitus (DM), little is known about the effect of DM on the natural history of PD. We investigated the clinical characteristics of PD patients with DM for understanding of this association. Material & Methods: Patients with PD and DM (Group 1) and those with no DM (Group 2) were compared by age, duration of PD, size and location of the plaque, severity of the penile curvature, presence of pain on erection, and the severity of erectile dysfunction by IIEF-5 scores. Results: There was no significant difference in mean age of patients, duration of PD and location of the plaque between Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The rate of severe penile curvature (>60°) was more frequent in Group 1 (22.7% vs. 8.6%). Plaque size was significantly bigger in Group 1 than that of Group 2 (2.2±1.6 vs. 1.7±1.3 cm, p<0.05) and mean degree of penile curvature was significantly greater in Group 1 than Group 2 (31.4±8.7° vs. 24.9±6.6°, p<0.05). The rate of severe ED (IIEF-5 ≤11 score) was significantly greater in Group 1 (18.2% vs. 4.2%, p<0.05) but pain on erection was significantly greater in Group 2 (31.8% vs. 49.2%, p<0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that the presence of DM in patients with PD exaggerates the severity of PD by affecting the size of the plaque, penile curvature and consequent erectile dysfunction.