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Pine needle juice (PNJ) was used to make sulgidduk with physiological activity for metabolic syndrome patients. The optimum formulation for sulgidduk was achieved using a response surface methodology. The models used to determine the optimum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities had satisfactory R2 coefficients and were verified experimentally. However, the model for determining angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was not significant. Two formulas, A (1.4% salt,30% sugar, and 1% PNJ) and B (1.5% salt, 21.4% sugar,and 1.4% PNJ) on the weight (100 g) of rice flour, were developed and their physiological activities were evaluated. The ORAC value was significantly higher in formula B (1.8 μM TE) than A (0.7 μM TE), while the ACE inhibitory activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were not significantly different in both formulas. Therefore, this study indicates the suitability of formula B for optimizing the physiological activity of sulgidduk.
Recent leadership studies point to the importance of taking followership into account when assessing leadership effectiveness. Accordingly, we develop and test a theoretical framework in which to examine the moderating role of participative versus directive leadership in the relationship between followership behaviors and job satisfaction. Focusing on data drawn from the 2012 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS), the study finds strong evidence that the effects of followership behaviors on job satisfaction were contingent on leadership styles. More importantly, the results showed that followers who actively engage in their work and demonstrate a high level of independent critical thinking derived greater job satisfaction where participative leadership was higher. By contrast, the role of participative leadership may be perceived as less effective when knowledge sharing and cooperation among employees already exists. This study offers insights into how leaders should interact with followers, and identifies the situations in which a particular leadership style can have positive consequences for employee job satisfaction.
This paper examined the reason and the grammatical meaning of s-assibilation in Korean. At first, this paper tried to frame the discussion as follows: in order to figure out the whole picture of s-assibliation, we have to consider the fact that Korean speakers can select either the standard pronunciation or s-assibilation when the coda of the final syllable of a noun is one of /t, th, ch, chh/ occurs with the particle that starts with a vowel. Then, this paper looked for certain examples which showed the same distribution of s-assibilation such as the coda of the last syllable of a noun is /kh, ph/ and analyzed these examples with the examples of s-assibilation. This paper found that s-assibilation was not the result of a sound change. Instead, depending on Korean speakers, the neuralized form of the coda /t, th, ch, chh/, the implosive [tㄱ], was memorized as a underlying representation as the same as the underlying phonemes. As a result, the sound [s] was not directly derived from phonemes /t, th, ch, chh/ but it was derived from the alternative underlying representation the implosive [tㄱ]. 본고는 명사 말음의 종성 /ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅈ, ㅊ/이 모음으로 시작하는 조사와 연결되는 구성에서 화자들이 이들 종성을 조사의 초성으로 연음하여 발음하는 표준 발음과 함께 선택적으로 종성을 [ㅅ]으로 교체하여 발음하는 ㅅ음화 현상이 나타나는 원인을 밝히는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 본고에서는 ㅅ음화 이외에도 국어에서는 표준 발음과 음운 변동된 발음이 화자들에 의해 선택되어지는 예들이 존재함을 확인하고 이들을 비교 분석하여 ㅅ음화의 특징을 밝혔다. 그 결과 명사 말음의 종성 /ㅋ, ㅍ/이 모음 조사와 연결된 구성에서 화자들이 표준 발음과 함께 선택적으로 종성을 [ㄱ, ㅂ]으로 교체하여 발음하는 현상도 ㅅ음화 현상과 동일한 음운 변동 현상임을 확인하였다. 이 같은 현상에 대해 본고에서는 (i)표준 발음으로 실현되는 종성의 기저 음소와 (ii)종성이 중화(neutralization)된 불파음 [pㄱ, tㄱ, kㄱ]이 화자에 따라 기저형으로 선택되어짐으로써 나타나는 음운 변동 현상으로 설명하였다. 결과적으로 ㅅ음화는 화자들이 명사 말음 종성의 기저형으로 기저 음소인 /ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅈ, ㅊ/ 대신에 불파음 [tㄱ]을 선택하고 이 기저형이 [ㅅ]으로 음운 변동되어 나타나는 현상임을 확인하였다.
This paper aims at clarifying the artistic significance of Chosŏn court rite performance which was planned as part of 'Performance Culture Archetype Exploration Series' from 1999 on in The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts (NCKTPA). The court rite that was gorgeous in the Chosŏn dynasty took the style of general performance which showed a high level of various essence of Chosŏn court culture such as utensils and musical instruments, painting and architecture, including music and dance, dress and its ornaments and food. Therefore, it is the object we, today, will have to continue to explore in that it represents the archetype of the most elegant Korean culture. In particular, in consideration of its artistic values, it is important to develop it in the form of performance on the stage and develop it into a composite art secondary to a film or opera today. However, its vast scale, a difficult interpretation of it, and problems in interdisciplinary integration allowed only part-specific historical research and reproduction, not composite performance on the stage. The series tried to overcome such difficulty serially. Composed of the First Performance of Royal Ancestral Shrine Rite (April 1999), the Second Performance of Court Banquet Ceremony at Pongsudang (April 2001), the Third Performance of Sacrificial Rite at Confucian Shrine (Nov. 2002), and the Fourth Performance of Court Banquet Ceremony during the Reign of King Sukchong (May 2003), it had important significance in that it took the form of performance by staging the Chosŏn court rite which was only simply reproduced in the meantime and approached to the audience. In particular, such series of stage performances not only opened the possibility of staging traditional culture but highlighted the character of court rite based on the culture as a composite art and further became a chance of showing the possibility of creating dramatic performance in the large-scale situation of Korea. Also, converted into various digital contents, it opened the door to the important knowledge basis of the Information Society in the 21st century such as a photo, an image, and an animation. It was reperformed in Jeonju [Chŏngju] World Sori Festival, an event in commemoration of opening Goyang [Koyang] Cultural Foundation, and others. In particular, it showed the possibility that various traditional cultures could be spread in such a way as being invited to the APEC forum in Nov. 2005. This thesis concentrated on analysing the Performance of Court Banquet Ceremony for Lady Hong at Pongsudang which occurred in April 2001 and Sacrificial Rite at Confucian Shrine which occurred in Nov. 2002 among a total of four items related to court rite among the series. The former most clearly shows an auspicious ceremony at court in the literary source, Kukcho Oryeŭi 『國朝五禮儀 』(Five Rites of the Nation), prescribing the five rites at the beginning of the Chosŏn dynasty and the latter a happy ceremony. They are typical items of cultural heritage which we will have to restore and succeed today. Chapter 2 first developed the outlines of the four performances and introduced the whole of performances such as their dates and frequencies, a team of actors and historical research and production, and music and dance. Chapter 3 tried to make a detailed analysis of the two performances, which resulted in the detailed items such as an intention to planning and composing a team of actors, and construction of stage and music and dance for a rite. Besides, it was developed centering on the suggestions for the future development of this field. Chapter 4 analysed performances and guessed problems. The national rites of the four items presented in the series are but one among numerous national rites. Depending on whether they are developed or not, a high level of really various rites will be able to be seen to us in a new shape as a result of being newly transformed. It will become...
The goal of this paper is to investigate the binding properties of casin ‘self’which has been regarded as X0 reflexives in Korean. According to Cole etal (1990), X0 reflexives in East Asian languages such as ziji ‘self’ in Chineseand casin ‘self’ in Korean allow to be bound to the long distance antecedentas well as the local antecedent. However, after reviewing the behaviors ofX0 reflexives in Korean, it was found that they did not always maintain theproperties of reflexives and the characteristics of “long distance binding”. Thus, this paper claimed that casin ‘self’ should be re-categorized as bothpronouns and reflexives.
Difficulties with intraoperative fixation of hair or eyebrow sometimes occur because of displacement or dislodgment of hair during surgery. So we have found that the simple application of a small transparent adhesive disposable dressing, such as Tegaderm or OpSite Flexigrid, can prevent this. One of the advantages of this technique, compared with stapler fixation of the hair, is that it does not cause local trauma. An OpSite Flexigridor Tegaderm is placed such that it covers both the scar and operation site hair. The hair or eyebrow were easily, quickly, and firmly positioned even on the nonshaved scalp. The technique seems to have no drawbacks, and when the Tegaderm or Opsite Flexigrid is removed, patient experiences little discomfort. We have never seen an allergic or direct traumatic cutaneous response following the use of these materials.
Autologous cartilage grafts have become an integral part of aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. However, little objective information is available about the actual quantitative resorption of cartilage in human. This study sought to objectively quantify and compare the resorption of costal cartilage in human.To compare the resorption characteristics of rib cartilage autografts, we harvested rib cartilage grafts from 37 microtia patients. All autografts were implanted subcutaneously on chest and then removed after 6 to 17 months. Graft mass and volume were compared before and after implantion. Rib cartilage grafts with perichondrium averaged 10.8±7.4% resorption by volume, On the other hand rib cartilage grafts without perichondrium 25.5±6.8%. There was no evidence of necrosis or inflammatory changes. The rib cartilage is the preferred source of autogenous cartilage for auricular reconstruction. Short-term resorption of rib cartilage without perichondrium appears to be higher than with perichondrium. The low resorption of cartilage with perichondrium may be due to in part to cartilage forming capacity of the perichondrium. It remains to be seen whether these differences in resorption persist in the long term.
Breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy often experience stress, depression from body changes and loss of femininity. Choice of surgical method is important, because Korean women tend to be sensitive to the shape of the reconstructed breast, donor site scars and the changes in body contour. The latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap was one of the first methods of breast reconstruction. However, due to lack of volume, the latissimus dorsi flap has become a secondary choice for breast reconstruction. The authors evaluated the clinical cases who underwent breast reconstruction with the extended latissimus dorsi flaps at the authors' institution from March 2002 to February 2005. During the period, 87 cases of breast reconstruction with the extended latissimus dorsi flap were performed in 86 patients. All flaps survived completely. There occurred no partial necrosis and fat necrosis. The extended latissimus dorsi flap alone without implant could provide good to excellent autologous breast reconstruction for small to moderate sized breasts. Free TRAM flap is currently considered the "Gold standard" in autogenous breast reconstruction. But, the extended latissimus dorsi flap without implant could provide sufficient volume for breast reconstruction in selected cases and it is a reliable method for autologous breast reconstruction.
A nipple can be reconstructed either by nipple sharing or local flap. But donor site scar is inevitable when nipple is reconstructed with local flap method. The scar which remains inside the nipple areolar complex can be hidden by medical tattooing, but elongated scar, which cross over the areolar border leads to poor esthetic result. So as to solve this problem, we used purse string suture method. We reconstructed nipple with C-V flap for 9 patients who previously reconstructed breast with extended latissimus dorsi flap. Purse string suture with 3-0 nylon was used for donor site closure. We minimize 10.7% of the scar length with this method. Enhancement of nipple projection due to the flattening of V limb was attained in addition. We expect the reduction of V-limb of C-V flap and amount of absorption of the reconstructed nipple with purse string suture method.
Methanol extracts of 4 different colored (red,orange, yellow, and green) bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were examined to (1) determine the total phenolic content (TPC), (2) compare the antioxidant activities, (3)assess the protective effects of extracts on H2O2-induced and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-induced DNA damage using the Comet assay, and (4) examine the antiproliferative action of their extracts on HT-29 cells. Red and orange bell peppers had significantly higher levels of TPC than yellow or green bell peppers. Orange bell pepper exhibited the highest level of radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity, while green bell pepper exhibited the highest superoxide dismutase-like activity. These results suggest that the difference in antioxidant activities may depend on the kinds of antioxidant compounds related to the color of the pepper. It was found a significant negative correlation between TPC and radical scavenging activity inhibiting capacity (IC)50, and a significant positive corretation between TPC and total antioxidant activity. All extracts of bell pepper inhibited H2O2-induced and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes and showed potential toxicity on HT-29 cells. These findings suggest that the 4 different colored bell peppers may be useful as antioxidants and cancer prevention in food.