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In order tn evaluate the precision and accuracy using LA-ICP/MS, thirty major and trace elements were analyzed with 3 USGS SRMs. And we investigated correlation between metal concentrations in five species tree-ring and ambient air heavy metal pollution history in ambient air. Total thirty major and trace elements in three USGS basalt glass reference materials, BIR-1G, BCR-2G and BHVO-2G were determined using LA-ICP/MS. Calibration was performed using NIST glass SRM 610, 612 and 614 in conjunction with internal standardization using Ca. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of determinations was below 10 % for most elements in all glasses under investigation. All the USGS SRMs showed negative correlations between RSD and concentrations for elements with logarithmic correlation coefficients ranging from -0.867 to -0.790. Furthermore, these values were similar results obtained in NIST glass SRM 610, 612, 614. In natural sample analysis, 7 heavy metals in 5 tree species (Platanus occidentalis, Salix koreensis, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Pinus densiflora, Ginkgo biloba) were determined using LA-ICP/MS, and calibration was performed using cellulose - matrix matched standards with 13C normalization. Four tree ring series showed that the Pb and Fe accumulation rates were higher between `92~`99 except for Ginkgo sp., but other elements (Cr, Mn, Cd, Zn, Sr) varied depending on species, which was caused by the physiological process of element uptake and radial mobility. Pb and Cd concentrations in tree ring of Pinus sp. have correlated with the ambient air heavy metal monitoring data which showed the correlation coefficients of 0.879 and 0.579, respectively. Pb and Cd concentrations in tree-ring of Salix sp. and Platanus sp. showed positive correlation with coefficients of 0.671 and 0.825, respectively. Therefore, our results suggested that Pb and Cd concentrations of Pinus sp. can be interpreted in terms of ambient air heavy metal pollution history.
Lumbar spinal fusions have been performed for spinal stability, pain relief and improved function in spinal stenosis, scoliosis, spinal fractures, infectious conditions and other lumbar spinal problems. The success of lumbar spinal fusion depends on multifactors, such as types of bone graft materials, levels and numbers of fusion, spinal instrumentation, electrical stimulation, smoking and some drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). From January 2000 to December 2001, 88 consecutive patients, who were diagnosed with spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. One surgeon performed all 88 posterolateral spinal fusions with instrumentation and autoiliac bone graft. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group (n=30) was infused with ketorolac and fentanyl intravenously via patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively and the second group (n=58) was infused only with fentanyl. The spinal fusion rates and clinical outcomes of the two groups were compared. The incidence of incomplete union or nonunion was much higher in the ketorolac group, and the relative risk was approximately 6 times higher than control group (odds ratio: 5.64). The clinical outcomes, which were checked at least 1 year after surgery, showed strong correlations with the spinal fusion status. The control group (93.1%) showed significantly better clinical results than the ketorolac group (77.6%). Smoking had no effect on the spinal fusion outcome in this study. Even though the use of ketorolac after spinal fusion can reduce the need for morphine, thereby decreasing morphine related complications, ketorolac used via PCA at the immediate postoperative state inhibits spinal fusion resulting in a poorer clinical outcome. Therefore, NSAIDs such as ketorolac, should be avoided after posterolateral spinal fusion
Vocal repertoires of the B1ack-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) were studied at established reproductive colonies. The Black-tailed gull has eleven different vocal signals which can be grouped into three different call classes according to behavioral functions: contact call, alarm call (attention call), and aggressive call. The contact call or mew call is the most frequently used and functions as means of recognition among individuals, particularly between parents and youngs. Our results show that each call plays .an important role in particular social relationships in a high- density breeding colony.
The worldwide population of the elderly is steadily increasing, and even more so in Korea, thus causing an increase in the osteoporotic fracture prevalence. Osteoporotic fracture is a serious injury that can decrease quality of life, and can also produce major social problems when it causes mortality. Preventing such fractures from happening in the first place is of utmost importance but once a fracture does occur, it is important to select appropriate treatment modalities to prevent secondary fractures. Recently, with the increase of life expectancy, it has become favorable to perform surgical fixation for significantly displaced osteoporotic fractures and use early rehabilitation programs to return the patient to normal body performance as soon as possible. To do so, it is important to accurately assess the location and the degree of the fractures in order to select appropriate treatment modalities. Furthermore, it is important to prevent secondary fractures from happening once the previous fractures heal.
Background and Objectives:It is important to rule out acoustic neuroma when treating patients who have tinnitus or monaural hearing loss. The most accurate diagnostic tool is MRI but due to high costs, auditory brainstem response (ABR) latency is often used. The aim of this study is to confirm the diagnostic value of ABR latency in acoustic neuroma. Patients and Methods:The medical records of 20 patients who were diagnosed acoustic neuroma in MRI and evaluated with pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and ABR were retrospectively reviewed from January, 2003 to January, 2010. Tumor size and hearing classification system of 2003 Consensus Meeting was used. Using I-V interpeak latency (IPL) and I-V interlatency difference (ILD), we identified the diagnostic value of ABR latency in diagnosing acoustic neuroma. Results:Among 20 patients, there were 2 cases of intrameatal tumor, 2 cases of grade 1, 6 cases of grade 2, 6 cases of grade 3, 2 cases of grade 4 and 2 cases of grade 5according to the acoustic neuroma classification system of 2003 Consensus Meeting. There were 9 cases with no wave in ABR. 4 cases showed over 4.4 msec in I-V IPL and 6 cases showed over 0.2 msec in I-V ILD. There were 3 cases that showed over 4.4 msec in I-V IPL and over 0.2 msec in I-V ILD. Therefore, there were 16 cases that showed abnormal reactions to ABR among acoustic neuroma patients, false negative rate was founded to 20%. Conclusion:The smaller tumor size, the better prognosis in treating tumor and preserving hearing and facial nerve function, so that early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma is important. Because false negative rate of ABR was 20% in this study, using ABR as screening test of acoustic neuroma needs attention.