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      • KCI등재

        개화기 겸재 정선 회화의 모방과 복제, 유통의 일 단면 : 영국도서관 소장품을 중심으로

        박정애(Park, Jeong-ae) 한국학중앙연구원 2019 한국학 Vol. No.

        겸재 정선(謙齋 鄭敾, 1676-1759)은 18세기 화단에 뚜렷한 자취를 남긴 문인화가로서 다양한 소재를 소화하였다. 그는 70대 이후 말년까지 화필(畵筆)을 놓지 않았으며, 때때로 아들과 제자에게 대필(代筆)을 시키기도 했다. 생존 당시부터 명성이 높았던 정선의 화풍은 그의 사후(死後), 20세기 초까지 조선 화단에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 그 과정에서 정선 그림의 모방작과 복제작이 만들어졌고, 서명과 인장을 위조한 작품들이 섞인 채 유통되었다. 그와 같은 현상은 조선이 근대화를 향한 대장정에 뛰어들었던 19세기 후반-20세기 초 미술시장에서 한층 노골화되었다. 현재 영국도서관에는 당시 조선에 체류했던 서양인들이 수집한 2점의《겸재화첩》이 소장되어 있다. 각각 조선 정부의 근대화 정책에 관여했던 영국인 알프레드 스트리플링과 미국인 호머 헐버트가 수집하였고, 20세기초 영국도서관이 구입한 유물이다. 두 점 모두 ‘겸재화첩’이라는 표제가 있고 일부 그림의 제재와 화풍이 정선과 연관되지만, 세부 표현의 특징과 회화적 완성도는 정선과 거리가 있는 위작(僞作)이다. 고동서화의 수요와 공급, 유통 시스템이 재편되어 가던 전환기에 제작, 유통되었던 것이다. 이와 같은 정선의 전칭화첩(傳稱畵帖)은 개화기 조선 서화의 모방과 복제, 유통의 일 단면을 엿보는 데 유용한 회화 사료이다. Scholar-artist Gyeomjae Jeong Seon (1676-1759) left a strong impression on 18th-century art, mastering diverse genres including landscape (山水), people and incidents from the past (故事人物), and birds, beasts and plants (翎毛花卉). Jeong kept painting in his 70s and beyond, and is said to have sometimes had his son or disciples paint for him. He was famous during his lifetime, and his painting style remained highly influential among younger artists after his death. This led to the production of imitations and copies of Jeong’s work; some, featuring counterfeit signatures and seals, have been sold as authentic works. Such phenomena became even more conspicuous on the art market of the late-19th to early-20th century, when Joseon began its rush towards modernization. The collection of the British Library currently includes two albums titled Gyeomjae hwacheop (謙齋畵帖; “Album of Paintings by Jeong Seon”). These were collected by Alfred Burt Stripling, an Englishman involved in shaping the modernization policies of the Joseon government, and by American Homer Bezaleel Hulbert, respectively, and acquired by the British Library in the early 20th century. Though both albums are titled Gyeomjae hwacheop, and some of their paintings contain themes and styles related to those of Jeong, they are fakes that show differences to Jeong’s work in terms of their characteristics and level of skill. They appear to have been produced and sold in a period when the demand, supply and distribution system for antique calligraphy and paintings, which had acquired new monetary value, was changing. These generic Jeong Seon painting albums can be seen as material evidence and art‒historical data offering a glimpse of the imitation, copying and distribution of calligraphy and paintings during Joseon’s modernization period.

      • KCI등재

        之又齋 鄭遂榮의 山水畵 연구

        朴晶愛(Park Jeong-ae) 한국미술사학회 2002 美術史學硏究 Vol.- No.235

        Ji-u-jae (之又齋) Jeong Su-yeong (鄭遂榮) was a literati painter, active, during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1909) from the late 18th to early 19th century. His ancestral home was Hadong (河東), and he used Su-dae (遂大) as his childhood name, Gun-bang (君芳) as his Ja (字), and Ji-u-jae (之又齋) as his pen name (號). Jeong Su-yeong began to gain attention his "Album Leaves of Sea and Mountain (海山帖)"was introduced by Choe Sun-wu (崔淳雨) in 1976. Furthermore, his life and family lineage were discovered by Lee Tae-ho (李泰浩) in 1984. Since then, He has been discussed as one of the important painters in the late Joseon dynasty in studies of "true-view landscape painting (眞景山水)" and literati painting, etc. However, attention has mainly been given to limited number of his most representative works and "true-view landscape painting". Thus, his friendship apart from his family lineage, or general painting style has rarely been researched. This paper, firstly, will study his rarely known life taking former research into consideration. Then, it will examine his painting subjects, the origin of its style, and distinctive features in general, focusing on landscape paintings still extant. Jeong Su-yeong was from 'The School of Practical Learning (實學)' of the Southerners (南人). Hence, he spent much of his lifetime making maps and working within family tradition compiling the genealogy for example. On the other hand, he studied poetry, calligraphy, and painting, and travelled widely. He, like his ancestors. mainly made friends with the Southerners, such as, Yeoju Yi clan (驪州李氏), Jinju Gang Clan (晋州姜氏), Dongbok O clan (同福吳氏), and Pungcheon Yim clan (豊川任氏). His experience in making maps is dearly connected with the fine brush works in his landscape paintings, the careful maimer and the broad point of view in his true-view landscape paintings, and the fact that he always indicated the place names on his paintings. Jeong entered the painting circle practising and copying Chinese painting manuals, such as "Splendid Scenery nationwide (海內寄觀)", "Paintings of Three Entities (三才圖會)", and "Paintings of Famous Mountains (名山圖)" as well as "Tang Poetry Painting Manual (唐詩畵譜)", "Mr. Ku Painting Manual (顧氏畵譜)", and "Mustard Seed Garden Painting Manual (芥子園畵傳)". Among them, the Ming woodblock print, "Paintings of Famous Mountains", was introduced in Joseon during the early 18th century, and was studied at first by Jeong Seon (鄭敾), Gim Hong-do (金弘道) and Jeong Su-yeong in the late 18th century, and later Han Yong-gan (韓用幹) and other Joseon scholars and painters through the 19th century. Moreover, Jeong was deeply interested in the Chinese Southern School painters (南宗畵家), such as, four Yuan masters (元四大家) and Ming's Wu School (明代吳派). Jeong's paintings can largely be divided into the fixed forms of paintings (定型山水), like Southern School style, and true-view landscape paintings (眞景山水). Both styles, however, had been developed in his paintings interweavedly since his 50's. His fixed forms of painting style, taking scholarly leisure culture as its background, is based on the Southern school style widely spread among contemporary painters. However, he was consistent to use a cursive brush with a stubby brush or a light ink, rather than systematic brush works. Furthermore, he evoked a unique atmosphere with his usage of light colors. The characteristic outline, which is thinly continued ill the expression of mountains and rocks, became a main element of Jeong's landscape painting. Jeong's true-view landscape painting, divided into paintings of Han liver (漢江) and Yim-jin river (臨津江), and Geumgang mountain (金剛山), shows relatively an adventurous features ill the following ways : the positiveness in directly sketching or completing the scenes on the spot, the way he drastically controlled its size according to object, the frankness which he reflected his own feeling, the attitude of using Korean place name in the vernacular on plane and geometric scenes or a title

      • KCI등재

        문화중심 미술교육으로서의 비평학습

        박정애,Park, Jeong-Ae 한국미술이론학회 2003 미술이론과 현장 Vol.1 No.-

        This study examined the condition of an educational discourse, relating the concept of creativity, culture, culture-centered, and critical thinking, to explore Culture-based Art Education(CBAE). In particular, art education practice was examined using interpretations of creativity and critical theory positions from the field of education. Discourse analysis was used as the research method to contextually situate and analyze the ways in which art education theory and practice of creativity and of critical studies encoded meanings. The study helped build an understanding that creativity was formed as a modernist discourse in the humanistic stance. In education, creativity became the fundamental concern for progressive educators who pursued innate ability of individuals. The way to enhance creative potential of students was to induce their motive, as was the same case in art education, while in artist training, free expression was its main method. In this way, as creativity was intimately connected with the concept of expression, in art education art making is the only course for enhancing creativity. However, because creative process cannot intelligently be regarded as logically distinct from the creative product, and creativity can only be said by product, it seems valid to think that creativity is the quality not to be achieved by teaching. Furthermore, its emphasis on art making resulted in unbalance of art making and art appreciation in art education. It was the late sixties when several alternatives for creative education were made their appearance. Critical studies in art adopted critical theory as its theoretical background has developed as an alternative of creative art education, when research and theory for creativity could not be adequate to deal with the problem of practice. Critical theory is a broad and diverse field of theory and practice drawing on aspects of the modernist perspective of the later Frankfurt School, feminism, Freirean pedagogy, postcolonial discourse as well as postmodernism to construct a practical approach to education. It is very this eclectic nature to provide the mosaic that need to experience cultures from different perspectives in a pluralistic society. Because one's personality is formed by multiple aspects of culture which is very complex and is made up of what we do and value, creativity cannot make part of educational discourse with the philosophy of culture centered. On the other hand, critical studies, as a school art program of critical theory, can perform the role of CBAE, because it would have to deal with the investigation of social and cultural issues form multiple personal, local, national, and global perspectives.

      • KCI등재

        상호작용 증진을 위한 위키 기반 독서토론학습 시스템 개발 및 적용

        박정애,박선주,Park, Jeong-Ae,Park, Sun-Ju 한국정보교육학회 2009 정보교육학회논문지 Vol.13 No.2

        웹 기반 독서토론 학습은 웹이라는 가상의 공간에서 독서토론에 참여한 학습자간의 의견 교환을 통해 도서의 내용이해와 사고의 확장을 도모할 수 있는 교수 방법으로 토론의 장소를 웹이라는 새로운 공간에 적용한 수업형태이다. 웹 기반 토론 학습은 다른 사람의 의견을 존중하는 태도와 합리적인 사고와 의사표현 능력이 성패를 좌우할 수 있으므로 학습자들의 활발한 상호작용이 가능하도록 학습 환경을 제공해 주는 것이 필요하다. 이에 본 연구에서는 위키 프로그램을 적용하여 보다 나은 학습자간의 상호작용을 위한 웹 기반 독서토론시스템을 개발하고 유용성을 검증해 보았다. 이를 통해 기존의 댓글 방식의 수직적인 토론이 아닌 다차원적인 토론이 가능하게 될 것이다. Reading discussion system based on a Web is a new teaching method which employs a Web as a space for discussion. It enables learners to exchange their opinions to enhance understanding and expand thinking. It is highly required to promote attitude of respecting other's opinions, reasonable thinking, and ability to express thinking in discussion learning based on a Web for interaction. In this study, I developed a reading discussion system, applying the Wiki program, for learners' interaction and tested its usefulness. Through this, it will be possible not to have existing vertical discussion which makes replies on a Web board but to have multidimensional discussion.

      • KCI등재

        흰쥐 성상세포에서 산소농도의존성 유전자의 분리

        박정애,송현석,이혜신,김규원,Park Jeong-Ae,Song Hyun-Seok,Lee Hye-Shin,Kim Kyu-Won 대한약학회 2006 약학회지 Vol.50 No.2

        Astrocyte has emerged as an active regulator of brain function, which connects between blood vessels and neurons as well as is a structural component of the blood-brain barrier, From its structural characteristics, astrocyte seems to sensitively respond to oxygen tension, and, in turn, generate diverse cellular cascades. Therefore, to reveal astrocytlc events by oxygen change, we screened genes whose expressions are upregulated under reoxygenation after hypoxic stress using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) technique. Meteorin that regulates glial differentiation was isolated from primary cultured rat astrocytes as a hypoxia/reoxygenation regulatory factor. We cloned rat version of Meteorin (rMe-teorin) and determined full-size sequences of rMeteorin. In addition, RT-PCR analysis revealed that Meteorin was increased under reoxygenation in astrocytes and highly expressed in the developing brain. Collectively, these results suggest that Meteorin may regulate astrocyte-mediated effects in response to the change of oxygen tension in the pathophysiological states.

      • 런던대 소아즈도서관 소장 정선의 전칭 화첩에 관한 고찰

        박정애(Park Jeong-ae) 명지대학교 문화유산연구소 2016 미술사와 문화유산 Vol.5 No.-

        영국 런던대학교 소아즈 도서관에 소장되어 있는 《겸재화첩(謙齋畵帖)》은 총 10폭의 그림으로 구성되어 있다. 소아즈의 운영위원으로 오랜 기간 재직했던 프레드릭 앤더슨(Frederick Anderson, 1855~1940)의 기증품이며, 그가 19세기말~20세기초 10여 년간 중국 상해에 머물면서 수집한 것으로 추측된다. 이 화첩은 표제를 비롯해 관념적 제재와 실경적 제재를 취한 내용, 인장과 서명 등 여러 가지 면에서 조선 후기의 문인화가 겸재(謙齋) 정선(鄭敾, 1676~1759)과 연계된다. 또한 화면의 구도와 세부표현에서도 정선화풍(鄭敾畵風)을 연상시키는 요소들이 발견된다. 그러나 전형적인 정선화풍과 비교해 본 결과, 정선의 진작(眞作)이 아니라 모사본(模寫本)의 일종으로 판단된다. 즉 의도적으로 정선화풍을 차용해 그린 것은 분명하지만, 정선 특유의 화경(畵境)을 구현해 내지는 못하였다. 당시 세간에 전하는 정선의 작품을 참조해 임모(臨摹)하거나 모티프를 재조합하는 방식으로 화면을 구성하고 인장과 서명을 위조한 것이다. 그와 같은 양식적 특징과 회화적 완성도, 그리고 앤더슨의 행적을 종합할 때 《겸재화첩》은 개화기, 즉 19세기 후반~20세기 초반의 미술시장에서 만들어진 것으로 생각된다. 당시 서양세력의 동아시아 진출이 본격화되는 가운데 내방한 외국인들이 미술시장의 새로운 수요층으로 부상하였다. 그 기회에 폭넓은 수요층에게 인기를 끄는 유명화가의 복제본 제작이 크게 늘어났고, 조선 서화에 대한 전문지식이 부족했던 외국인들은 비교적 저렴한 가격의 모사본을 구입해 가는 경우가 있었던 셈이다. 요컨대 소아즈 도서관의 《겸재화첩》은 비록 정선의 진작은 아니지만, 시대를 뛰어넘는 정선의 영향력과 개화기 미술시장에 드리워진 명암(明暗)을 엿보게 해주는 자료로서 의미를 지닌다고 하겠다. Gyeomjae Hwacheop 謙齋畵帖 is an album with ten leaves of paintings, which is kept in the Special Collections section in the library at SOAS(School of Oriental and African Studies), University of London. It was donated by Frederick Anderson(1855~1940) who was on the governing body of SOAS for a long time. Most likely he acquired the album during his ten-year stay in Shanghai between the late 19th and early 20th century. The album is linked to the famous Joseon dynasty painter Jeong Seon鄭敾 (1676~1759, pen-name Gyeomjae謙齋) in that not only does it carry Gyeomjae’s name on the seal stamped on the album pages, the subject matters of several of the paintings are those typically associated with Gyeomjae. In addition, also the composition and painterly style of the album leaves are partly similar to that associated with Gyeomjae. However, when comparing the album with representative works by Gyeomjae, it becomes clear that this album was not painted by Gyeomjae himself. Rather, it was by a later painter, who failed to achieve the mastery of Gyeomjae’s painting skills, and instead re-arranged and re-composed Gyomjae’s original works. Taking into account it’s ownership by Anderson, not to mention the stylistic characteristics and artistic level of the album, it is believed that the album was made in the late 19th or early 20th century. This was a time when Westerners who came to East Asia emerged as new buyers on the arts market. During this period an increasing number of copies of paintings by well-known artists were being made, and often the cheaper copies were purchased by foreigners, who were unfamiliar with the original works. From this perspective, even though the album in the SOAS library is not an original work by Gyeomjae, it has value as an artefact that signifies the influence of Jeong Seon on later Korean painters. Moreover, it offers important insight into the arts market around the enlightenment period.

      • KCI등재후보

        하이브리드 미술제작에서의 정체성의 형성 : 미술 교육과정에의 함축성

        박정애(Jeong-Ae Park) 한국국제미술교육학회 2012 미술과 교육 Vol.13 No.2

        디지털화 현상으로 다양한 방법으로 변형이 가능해진 이미지는 프랑스의 철학자 베르그송이 정의한 “유동성”의 특성을 가진다. 기존의 재현으로서의 이미지와 대조되는 유동성으로서의 이미지는 미술이 인간 상호작용의 결과라는 니콜라스 부리오가 이론화한 “관계미학”과 같은 맥락에 있다. 결과적으로 미술 제작은 타자와 관련하여 우리 자신을 이해하는 도구적인 것이기 때문에 그것은 또한 우리의 정체성의 형성과 깊은 관련성을 지닌다. 탈식민주의자들에게 있어 제 3공간은 혼종적인 새로운 형태의 정체성을 구축하는 정신적, 개념적 장소이다. 나와 나의 학생들이 연구 참여자로 폴리보어인으로 활동한 이 사례연구의 탐구는 폴리보어 사이트 안에서 만들어지는 하이브리드 미술작품이 어떻게 우리의 정체성의 형성에 관여하고 있는지를 알아보고 관련된 교수법에 대해 연구하기 위한 목적을 지닌다. 다양한 문화가 충돌하는 제 3의 공간으로서 폴리보어 사이트는 학생들이 타자와의 차이를 인식하면서 타자로부터 배우는 문화 교환의 장소로 확인된다. 이 공간에서 만들어지는 혼종적인 하이브리드 작품들은 학생들에게 복수적인 자아의 층을 형성하게 만든다. 따라서 이러한 자아 형성은 학생들로 하여금 그들이 사는 세계와 삶에 대한 이해를 돕는다. 이와 같은 연구결과는 세계화 시대에 다양성과 차이를 인식하게 하며 상호작용을 도모하는 개념적인 제 3공간의 교육과정의 필요성을 방증한다. In the digitalized visual culture, images can be easily and quickly manipulated in various ways. French philosopher Henri Bergson defined this quality of images as “movement” which is in contrast with the traditional view of representation. This phenomenon is in the same vein with as “relational aesthetics,” the idea of art as human interactions in the social sphere, theorized by Nicholas Borriaud. Consequently, art making is instrumental in understanding ourselves in relation to others, and it is strongly related to our identity formation. Related to this identity construction for postcolonialists the psychic conceptual third space engenders new forms of hybrid identity. Using this rationale, this study aims to understand how students construct their identities in the third space in relation to their serendipipous relational artistic practice on Polyvore site through their interactions and transactions with diverse cultures. For this I and my students became Polyvorians. Therefore th methods I used include qualitative and in-depth case study. Students' art making process is not simple but heterogeneous to construct multiple identities as they were confronted with differences. In this third space new forms of hybrid visual cultural artifacts and meanings produce when students understand their art making is related to others, learning from others. Its pedagogical implications are that we learn from others. From this perspective, my findings support the need of the conceptual third site curriculum where diverse cultures interact with others to lead students' understanding of the world which is composed of differences.

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        18-19세기 咸鏡道 王室史蹟의 시각화 양상과 의의

        박정애(Park, Jeong-ae) 한국학중앙연구원 2012 한국학 Vol.35 No.1

        한반도 최북단에 자리한 함경도는 조선을 건국한 太祖 李成桂(1335-1408, 재위 1392-1398)가 나고 자란 ‘豊沛之鄕’이었다. 따라서 개국 초부터 왕실의 권위를 높이기 위해 함경도의 왕실사적을 정비하기 시작했고, 특히 왕권 강화에 힘을 쏟았던 영조·정조 연간에 적극적으로 추진되었다. 또한 지역민들도 영세한 지역사를 극복하기 위해 왕실과의 인연을 부각시킴으로써 사적의 수가 점차 늘어났다. 왕실사적은 종류가 매우 다양해서 생가, 놀이터, 제단 등이 포함되었다. 무엇보다 이성계 관련 사적이 많고, 함흥과 영흥에 집중해서 몰려 있는 점도 특징이다. 한편 주요 사적이 17세기 후반 함경감사를 역임했던 南九萬이 ‘20景’을 선정해 제작한 관북명승도에 포함된 이후 19세기 말까지 꾸준히 재현되었다. 현존작은 公的인 목적의 王陵圖와 私的 주문으로 그려진 名勝圖 계열로 나누어지는데, 모두 정형화된 구성과 내용이 큰 변화 없이 계승되었다. 다만 작품의 성격과 제작시기, 주문자와 화가의 신분에 따라 양식과 완성도에서 차이를 확인할 수 있다. Hamgyeong province(咸鏡道) located at northernmost part of Korean Peninsula was the area where King Taejo, Yi Seonggye(李成桂, 1335-1408, r. 1392-1398), who founded Joseon Kingdom, was born and grew up. For this reason, from the beginning of the Joseon Dynasty the historical sites of the royal family(王室史蹟) scattered here and there in Hamgyeong province had been designated in order to heighten authority of the royal family. In particular such effort was positively undertaken during the reign of King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo when strengthening of royal power was emphasized. The number of the historical sites was increased as local residents stressed close relations between their local area and the royal family in order to overcome a lack of regional history. The historical sites of the royal family were very diverse in its types, including the house of birth, outing place and altars. It is most notable that many historical sites were related to Yi Seonggye and most of them were concentrated in Hamheung(咸興) and Yeongheung(永興). Meanwhile, since Twenty Scenic Spots was chosen and included in the paintings of scenic spots of Gwanbuk(關北名勝圖) by Nam Gooman(南九萬, 1629-1711), who served as a provincial governor of Hamgyeong Province during latter half of 17th century, it had been represented continuously until end of the Joseon Dynasty. Currently existing works are divided into the paintings of royal tombs(王陵圖) which were painted for official purpose and the paintings of scenic sports(名勝圖) painted on private orders. They were passed on to posterity without any remarkable changes in its typified composition and contents. It could be, simply, ascertained that there were some differences in style and level of perfection depending on the character of the works, the age of the works, and the status of orderers and painters.

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        17~18세기 중국 山水版畵의 형성과 그 영향

        박정애(Park Jeong-ae) 한국학중앙연구원 2008 한국학 Vol.31 No.4

        明代 萬曆年間(1573~1620) 강남지역을 중심으로 인쇄출판업의 호황과 기행문화가 확산되면서 활발히 간행되기 시작한 山水版畵는 淸代까지 꾸준히 발전하였다. 전통적 地理輿圖와 實景山水畵의 특징을 수렴하며 성립하였고 마침내 한 폭의 회화로 보아도 손색없는 수준에 도달하였다. 17~18세기 중국 산수판화의 전개과정은 인문지리적 성격으로부터 점차 순수회화적 면모가 강화되는 방향으로 이행되었다. 『三才圖會』(1607)와 『海內奇觀』(1609)이 전자에 해당하며 『名山圖』(1633)와 『太平山水圖』(1648), 黃山版畵가 후자에 속한다. 이들 산수판화는 대개 전해오던 方志나 선행 판본류를 참작하여 제작하였다. 시기가 가장 앞서는 『삼재도회』 「地理卷」은 『해내기관』의 원천 자료로 활용되었다. 이어서 『명산도』는 『해내기관』의 양식을 일부 차용하면서 실경 산수화의 성과까지 수용하여 회화성을 끌어올렸다. 이러한 추세는 청초 『태평산수도』와 각종 황산판화집으로 계승되어 일반회화와 더욱 밀착되는 양상을 보였다. 또한 康熙帝(재위 1662~1711) 때 편찬된 『古今圖書集成』 「山川典」에서는 순수회화적 완성도를 자랑하는 『명산도』 양식을 주조로 여타 판화집의 장점을 채택하였다. 17~18세기 중국 산수판화집은 큰 시차 없이 朝鮮에 전래되었고 왕실 이하 사대부, 화가에 이르기까지 널리 열람되었다. 특히 실경산수화의 붐이 조성된 18세기에는 鄭敾(1676~1759)과 金弘道(1745~1806 이후) 등 당대를 대표하는 화가들의 양식 정립에 영향을 미쳤다. 요컨대 17~18세기 산수판화는 중국과 한국 지식인들에게 인문지리와 시문의 학습서가 되는 한편, 화가들에게는 회화교본으로 기능하기도 했던 것이다. Woodblock prints of Chinese real, as opposed to imaginary, landscapes began to secure their independent status during the Wanli period(萬曆年間, 1573~1620) in the Ming Dynasty which also saw a development in the printing and publication industry as well as in travel culture particularly in the region of the southern banks of the Yangtze River. Such kinds of woodblock prints were established through accommodating characteristics of traditionally used topography and real-view landscape paintings with elements of actual landscapes. Eventually they reached a level where they could be likened to the canvas of a painting. In China, during the 17th and 18th centuries woodblock prints of real-view landscape gradually moved away from being mere representations of local topography to being pure painting. Examples of the former include Sancaituhui(三才圖會, 1607) and Haineiqiguan(海內奇觀, 1609), while representations of the latter are Mingshantu (名山圖, 1633), Taipingshanshuitu(太平山水圖, 1648) and woodblock print of Huangshan(黃山). Wodblock prints of real-view landscape were either produced with reference to local topography(方志) or drew on earlier styles. Thus, the Haineiqiguan drew on the book of Earth in Sancaituhui. The Mingshantu contributed to improving aspects of painting through reflecting achievement of the real-view landscape painting partially as well as borrowing a part of style of Haineiqiguan. Such trend originated in the woodblock print album of Huangshan and Taipingshanshuitu produced during the early Qing period and became closer to general paintings. The Gujintushujicheng(古今圖書集成) which comprise woodblock prints of landscape was compiled during the reign of Emperor Kangxi(康熙帝, r. 1662~1722) and adopted as its main style that of the Mingshantu. During the 17th and 18th centuries Chinese woodblock prints of real-view landscape were introduced to the Joseon Dynasty without time lag. From the end of the 16th century enthusiasm for collecting Chinese publications was wide spread among the literati and it inspired others to collect them too, such as painters and members of the royal court. The main interest of the literati mostly lay in anthropogeography and literature but influence of woodblock prints was not small. In particular during the 18th century when real-view landscape painting flourished they partly impacted on the styles of Jeong Seon(鄭敾, 1676~1759) and Kim Hong-do(金弘道, 1745~1806?) who were representative painters at this time. In short, woodblock print books of real-view landscape became texts for cultural knowledge of the literati of Korea and China at that time and to the painters they became a kind of material for paintings.

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        朝鮮 後半期 關北名勝圖 연구

        박정애(Park Jeong-ae) 한국미술사학회 2013 美術史學硏究 Vol.278 No.278

        조선시대 관북지역, 즉 함경도 소재 명승의 시각화는 1664년에 北道試官으로 파견된 金壽恒(1629~1689)이 편찬한 ≪北關酬唱錄≫에 실린 화원 韓時覺(1621~?)의 實景圖에서 비롯되었다. 그리고 1674년, 함경도관찰사 南九萬(1629~1711)이 왕실사적과 지역의 명승을 널리 알리고자 해당 경관을 설명하는 記文과 실경도를 조합해 완성한 ≪咸興十景圖≫와 ≪北關十景圖≫가 등장한 이후 본격화되었다. 총 20경으로 이루어진 ‘南九萬題 關北名勝圖’는 그의 생존 당시에 이미 한양에 알려졌고, 함흥 현지에 보관된 異本은 후임 관리들이 摹寫本을 만드는 데 활용되었다. 현재 1674년 당시에 제작된 작품은 알려져 있지 않으며, 국립중앙박물관 소장 ≪咸興內外十景圖≫가 원본을 충실히 답습한 사례로 꼽힌다. 이처럼 17세기 후반에 확립된 남구만본의 틀은 19세기말까지 큰 변화 없이 유지되며 관북명승도의 전개를 견인하였다. 현존하는 조선 후기와 말기의 관북명승도는 각각 두 가지 유형으로 나누어진다. 하나는 1731년에 제작된 ≪함흥내외십경도≫나 1882년에 羅元石이 그린 ≪咸興十景圖 關北十景圖≫와 같이 남구만본의 원형을 간직한 臨摹作 계열이다. 이들 작품은 상대적으로 회화성이 떨어지고 17세기 후반의 양식적 특징을 보전하고 있다. 다른 하나는 18세기에 제작된 동아대학교박물관의 <廣浦圖>와 1890년에 趙重?(1820~?)이 그린 ≪關北十勝圖≫처럼 제작 당시 중앙화단에서 유행하던 南宗畵風이 적용된 작품으로 세련되고 안정된 필묵법이 구사되어 있다. 첫 번째 유형의 경우 1731년에 시관으로 파견된 尹淳(1680~1741)의 주문으로 ≪北關別科圖≫와 함께 현지에서 완성되었다고 판단되는 ≪함흥내외십경도≫의 작자나 나원석이 모두 지역화사이다. 그리고 두 번째 유형은 조중묵과 같이 중앙에서 활약하며 명성을 얻은 화가의 솜씨가 발휘된 작품으로 생각된다. 즉 새로운 화풍의 습득이 원활하지 않았던 지역화단의 한계와 보수성을 드러내는 동시에 중앙화단과의 격차를 방증한다. 이상과 같이 관북명승도는 장기간에 걸쳐 꾸준히 제작되었지만, 관련 인사는 김수항·남구만·韓章錫(1832~1894)·洪岐周(1829~?) 등 대부분 외지 출신 문인관료들이다. 또한 18세기 중반부터 감영에 軍官畵師가 파견되었으나 이름이 알려진 화가의 작품은 드물다. 아무래도 변방에 대한 물리적, 정신적 거리감이 컸던 탓에 순수한 紀行寫景을 목적으로 관북지역을 찾는 일은 흔치 않았던 것 같다. 남구만의 정형이 고착화되어 내려온 것도 외부의 자극이나 새로운 시도가 부족했음을 드러낸다. 그 결과 지방관을 비롯한 파견 관리들이 핵심 주문층으로 자리 잡았고, 官歷을 기념하는 일종의 ‘宦遊物’로 제작되는 경향을 띠었다. 문자기록을 통해 관북의 실정과 풍속을 증언한 대다수 문사들이 外地人이었던 점과 같은 맥락선상에 있다고 하겠다. Gwanbuk myeongseungdo (關北名勝圖, The Paintings of Scenic Spots of Gwanbuk) began to be established in 1674 when a Governor of Hamgyeong Province Nam Gu-man (南九萬, 1629-1711) order anonymous painter to depict famous scenic spots in the province under his administration. He produced twenty landscape paintings under two titles, Hamheung sipgyeongdo (咸興十景圖, Ten Scenic Spots of Hamheung) and Bukgwan sipgyeongdo (北關十景圖, Ten Scenic Spots of Bukgwan), with an aim to introduce the royal historical sites and scenic spots of the province to a wider public. Each painting is attached with a postscript containing an explanatory note about the spot captured in it. His landscapes of the scenic spots of Gwanbuk were introduced to the capital of Joseon during his lifetime while a separate collection of paintings stored in his office in Hamheung was later used for the production of copies by his successors. The style and content of the Nam"s original paintings continued to be transmitted until the late 19th century although the remaining copies made in the 18th can 19th centuries are largely divided into two groups. The first group consists of the paintings copied from the originals by local painters, containing the style of the late 17th century landscapes. Meanwhile, the paintings of the second group display refined brush strokes influenced from the paintings of the Southern School which were enjoying great popularity among the contemporary painters in the capital area. Gwanbuk myeongseungdo continued to be produced for a long period but mostly related to literary officials living outside the region. Considering that few of these paintings were made by renowned artists, few painters seem to have visited actual sites in Gwanbuk for their works. These paintings were produced largely to meet the demand of the officials serving the local administration who wanted them to be art works of their official journey (宦遊物).

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