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      • KCI등재

        陳洪綬의 遺民意識과 〈何天章行樂圖〉

        張俊九(Chang June-gu) 미술사연구회 2008 미술사연구 Vol.- No.22

        Chen Hong-shou (陳洪綬, 1598-1652) was a late-Ming literati painter who made a significant contribution in establishing and reviving antiquarianism in figure paintings in the history of Chinese painting. Chen was an artist with diverse talents. He was a painter, a calligrapher of high-caliber, a famous illustrator for popular novels and romance, and a poet. Archaic and antiquarian thematic and pictorial styles formed the distinctive quality of Chen’s works. Existing researches on Chen Hong-shou have not yet investigated several important issues, such as how his paintings were inter-related with his state of psychology or to his varied and complex life experiences as a Ming leftover loyalist. I believe that Chen was fundamentally an anguished drifter unsettling in between neither Ming nor Qing dynasty. Ho T’ien-chang in The Pleasure Outing of Ho T’ien-chang can be regarded as a symbol of the collective identity of leftover Ming intellectuals, who decided to become hermit scholars like Tao Yuan-ming. In this imaginary group portrait, Chen Hong-shou depicted the thwarted and conflict-ridden lives of left-over loyalties of Ming dynasty, including the painter himself. Chen represented the main subject of life and culture of his contemporary leftover intellectuals such as Ho T’ien-chang by portraying him as Tao Yuan-ming, a legendary hermit scholar whom Ming loyalists wished to associate themselves with. In The Pleasure Outing of Ho T’ien-chang appears Ho T’ien-chang, who lived in retirement out of suffering and conflict from the fall of his country. He sits tranquil in a quite surrounding, which represents the life of Ho T’ien-chang as a hermit scholar who received high-esteem from Ming loyalists. Large pine trees, bamboos, and Taihu rocks in the background symbolize the pure image of Ho T’ien-chang. The large pine trees extending their branches wide, the bamboos standing behind the pines and the Taihu rocks lying in the foreground all refer to the way of life of a nobleman who does not give up their spiritual nobleness even in perilous conditions. These objects are no mere sceneries. They were traditionally metaphors of unbent will and integrity of the noble men situated in the time of hardships, and they visually amplify Ho T’ien-chang who led his life with a clean and pure spirit despite the desolate reality. However, The Pleasure Outing of Ho T’ien-chang takes note of the tragic reality where such a literati intellectual with exceptional talent and nobleness like Ho T’ien-chang should end his life as a drifter and a hermit scholar. An almost inconspicuous chrysanthemum on the corner of the rock to the right side of Ho T’ien-chang in the painting implies the unfortunate lives of drifters as a visual metaphor. Among the drifting intellectuals, chrysanthemums have thus been regarded as a symbol of hardship and frustration of Ming leftover loyalists. By depicting the portrait of Ho T’ien-chang, Chen Hong-shou attached strong social significance and a high level of pictorial symbolism in The Pleasure Outing of Ho T’ienchang. From the outer appearance, the painting seems to have rendered the “pleasure outing”of Ho T’ien-chang, but it is a symbolical painting of Chen Hong-shou who represents the common “consciousness of Ming leftover”among Ming loyalists and the artist himself.

      • KCI등재

        方人定의 繪畵 연구

        장준구(Chang, June-Gu) 동서미술문화학회 2014 미술문화연구 Vol.5 No.5

        영남화파의 2세대 화가인 方人定(1901-1975)은 다른 영남화파 화가들이 잘 다루지 않았던 분야인 인물화를 중점적으로 개척함으로써 영남화파의 지평을 넓히는 데 기여하였다. 그의 경우 영남화파의 기본적인 목표인 ‘中西折衷’을 1세대 화가들과 달리 인물화를 통해 실현코자 한 것이다. 실질적으로 고검부, 고기봉, 진수인이 영남화파의 화조화, 산수화의 1세대 화가라고 한다면, 방인정은 영남화파의 1세대 인물화가라고 볼 수 있다. 방인정은 영남화파의 영수 고검부로부터 사사하게 되면서 본격적인 화가의 길을 걷게 되었고, 이후 일본과 미국으로의 유학과 여행을 통해서 개성적 인물화가로 거듭나게 된다. 귀국이후 예술을 통해 항전에 참여하였으며, 항일전쟁 종료이후에는 교육자로서, 또 화단의 중진으로서 보다 큰 역할을 하였다. 1960년대 중반에는 문화대혁명의 발발로 뜻하지 않게 4년여의 곤욕을 치루기도 했다. 방인정의 회화론은 기본적으로 스승 고검부의 이론을 계승하는 것으로 고검부가 제시한 회화의 ‘중서절충’과 ‘현실의 반영’이라는 두 가지를 골격으로 하고 있다. 다만 방인정은 고검부와 달리 인물화의 중요성을 강조하여 차이점을 보여준다. 그는 스승을 그대로 계승함으로써 개성을 잃게 될 상황을 피하기 위해 인물화 개척이라는 독자적인 길을 걷게 된다. 방인정의 회화는 고검부로부터 배운 뒤 일본으로 유학을 다녀온 1기, 미국을 다녀온 2기, 중화인민공화국 성립 후인 3기로 세분해볼 수 있다. 1기는 일본에서의 직간접적인 예술 자극을 통해 방인정 자신만의 독자적 인물화 개발해갔던 시기이며, 2기는 미국에서의 경험을 통해 중서의 결합을 본격적으로 실천하였던 시기이고, 마지막 3기는 중화인민공화국의 성립에 따른 선전화의 제작 시기였다. 한 화가의 회화가 이렇게 폭넓게 변모하는 것은 흔치 않은 일로, 이를 통해 복잡다단했던 중국근대 역사의 한 단면을 엿볼 수 있다는 점 또한 흥미롭다. Fang Rending contributed to help broaden the horizons of the group by pioneering focus portraits. His basic goal of the fusion of Western Art is one wishes to achieve through the portraits unlike the first generation of painters. He is the first generation to go to see portraits of Lingnan School. He was walking the street while learning from Gao Jianfu of authentic painter, since Japan is a painter and distinctive character through the study and travel to the United States. Participated in the avionics through art after returning home, as an educator, after the anti-Japanese war ended, another was a great role as a mogul in the flower bed. The mid 1960s, accidentally undergo four years of suffering to the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution. His view of art is to inherit Gao Jianfu by default. Gao Jianfu is a reflection of the reality of compromise and Eastern and Western painting. He had the same idea. But he shows the differences highlight the importance of Gao Jianfu and other portraits. He is to walk your own path through the portraits in order to avoid a situation to lose their individuality by inheriting the teacher as it is. His art world is held to study in Japan after the first phase learned from mentors, American held two groups, divided into three groups after the establishment of the People"s Republic of China. The first group came time to develop their own portraits of their own through the direct or indirect stimulation of art in Japan. Two groups who over a period of practical experience in the US in earnest a combination of Western art. Three groups were making good time of the phone according to the establishment of the People"s Republic of China. A painter"s paintings are so big that it was through this complex, multi-stage glimpse a glimpse of Chinese Modern History is also interesting.

      • KCI등재
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