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The family characteristics of Hata Uji are generally defined as Labor work groups, local-oriented, and lower-class clan groups, and this perception is supported by many researchers. However, if you look closely at Rikokushi(六国史), Shinsen- shojiroku(新撰姓氏 録), it is easy to see that Hata Uji was the largest clan group in Japanese ancient times. Therefore, there is a gap between recognition and facts and the intent of this study is to try to convert them. According to Rikokushi's records, in the early days of the ancient tombs, Hata Uji was already a major force and a large group already accounting for 8 percent of Japan's total population. In the 700s, the collective residence records of Hata Uji spreaded nationwide. In particular, Hata groups showed such enormous economic power that it would not be possible without their financial support for the construction of Emperor's palace. Based on their economic power, Hata Uji founded Hachiman Jinja(八幡神社), Inari Jinja(稲荷 神社) and Shimogamo Jinja(下鴨神社), which are loved by numerous Japanese even now In the ancient times, there are three points where the Korean immigrants arrived in Japan. First, it is a route that they departed from the south coast and arrived in Kyushu(九州). Hata Uji in this area established Hachiman Jinja. The second route was stopping over at Izumo(出 雲) and they arrived in Tsuruga(敦賀) and finally settled in Oumi(近江). Hata Uji worshipped Shilla Myojin(新羅明神) in Onjoji Temple(園城寺) in Oumi(近江). The last route was that they arrived at Naniwa(難波) via Setonaikai(瀬戸内海) and settled in Katsuragi Gose(葛城御 所) where was the native land of both Yamashiro Hata Uji(山城秦氏), and Kamo Uji(賀茂氏) who established Shimo- Kamojinja in Kyoto(京都). Minamoto Yoshiie(源義家), Yoshitsuna(義 綱) and Yoshimitsu(義光) who were the middle ancestors of Minamoto Yoritomo(源頼朝), the founder of Kamakura Bakufu(鎌倉幕府), held an adult ceremony in front of God Yamata (八 幡神), God Kamo(賀茂大明神) and Shilla Myojin(新羅明神) respectively and each was called by Yawata Taro(八幡太郎), Kamojiro(賀茂次郎) and Shillasaburo(新羅三朗), depending on each God's name.
Respect for individual honor and protection of privacy belong to the very important provisions of the Press Ethics Code, and they have been frequently violated in the newspapers. This study was conducted quantitatively and qualitatively for investigating the fact above by analyzing the cases that violated Article 5 of the Press Ethics Code of the Korea Press Ethics Commission, and Article 11 (Respect for Honor and Credit) and 12 (Protection of Privacy) of the Press Ethics Code of Practice which are directly related to the Article 5 of the Press Ethics Code. Unlike the legal sanctions of broadcasting act, Press Ethics Code has its own limitations in that it is self-restriction. However, Press Ethics Code is a bottom line to protect respect and dignity of the person such that it should be well-appreciated. Therefore, it is recommended to comply with those values for newspapers to report and critique the articles. 개인의 명예 존중과 사생활 보호 문제는 신문윤리강령에서 매우 중요한 조항들에 속하며, 이는 실제로 신문들이 빈번히 위반하는 조항들이기도 하다. 이 연구는그 실상을 조사하기 위하여 한국신문윤리위원회의 신문윤리강령 제5조와 이에 직접적으로 연관된 신문윤리실천요강 제11 조(명예와 신용 존중), 제12조(사생활 보호)의 위반 사례들을 양적 및 질적으로 분석한 것이다. 신문윤리강령은 방송법의 법적 제재와는 달리 자율적인 제재라는 점에서 그 실효성의 한계를 갖는다. 그러나 신문윤리강령은 기본적으로 인격에 대한 존경과 존엄, 품위를 보호하기 위한 가치이며 그런 의미에서 높이 평가되어야 한다. 따라서 신문은 보도와 평론을 함에 있어서그러한 가치를 준수해야 할 것이다.
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한미 자유무역협정을 통하여 국내에 처음 도입된 법정손해배상제도가 최근 개인정보침해로 인한 피해자의 효과적인 구제라는 취지하에 정보통신망법과 신용정보법에 각각 규정되었다. 이에 따르면 개인정보의 누출등의 사실을 안 날부터 3년 이내에 실손해배상을 청구하는 대신 300만원 이하의 범위에서 상당한 금액을 손해액으로 하여 배상을 청구할 수 있도록 규정하였다. 이처럼 새롭게 도입된 법정손해배상제도의 합리적이고 조화로운 해석과 함께 문제가 있는 경우에는 개선방안을 도출하는 것을 이 글의 목표로 삼았다. 이를 위하여 한미 자유무역협정을 통하여 소개된 미국의 법정손해배상제도와 비교법적인 검토와 함께 국내 여러 법률에 규정된 법정손해배상제도 사이의 비교를 시도하였다. 그 결과 우리의 법정손해배상제도는 기존에 존재하던 상당손해액형 손해배상과 미국의 실손해 대체형 법정손해배상의 중간에 위치한 절충형으로 파악할 수 있었다. 그러나 향후 피해자 구제의 실질화 내지 강화라는 측면에서 법정손해배상액의 하한 설정을 심도있게 검토할 필요가 있다. 아울러 명확성을 제고하기 위해서 증명책임의 전환을 명확히 하고, 소멸시효를 일원화하며, 시간적 적용범위와 선택권의 행사 및 그 기한을 명확히 하는 방향으로 입법적 노력이 전개되어야 할 것이다. The Statutory Damages Claim was recently provided in two controversial laws, ‘Information Communications Network Act' and ‘Credit Information Act' after it had been first introduced as “pre-established damages” in the Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. According to those laws, statutory damages can be claimed in lieu of real damages claim no later than three years after data subject may have knowledge about infringement fact. The maximum damages to be allowed should be no more than three million Korean won. This paper focuses on reasonable interpretation on the statutory damages provisions as well as suggestions to the legal reform on problematic issue if any. For such purpose, this also tries to analyze various provisions on statutory damages in Korea as well as US from the comparative perspective. To the conclusion, Korean statutory damages claim deems to be in the middle of American statutory damages and the previous Korean claim for considerable damages. Most important aspect of legal nature of the statutory damages claim is that it is not a punitive damages claim, but have ‘in lieu' nature because it can be raised instead of real damages claim. For reinforcing its nature of protecting victim from personal data infringement, in-depth study is necessary to stipulate the minimum of statutory damages. Clarification is also necessary to transfer burden of proof and Statute of limitations for statutory damages claim should be simplified and unified in line with the Civil Act. A legislative effort should be taken to clarify application scope of time, selection between general claim and statutory claim, and time limit to exercise the claim.
Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria capable of denitrification under aerobic conditions, which are known as HN-AD species, were investigated. Instead of the isolation and subsequent cultivation of a pure HN-AD strain, the activated sludge obtained from the domestic wastewater treatment plant was enriched to enhance the fraction and activity of the indigenous HN-AD species by adding ammonium and organic carbon. The enriched culture showed both rapid ammonium removal at a rate of 13.3 mg-N/L/hr and nitrate removal at a rate of 12.3 mg-N/L/hr, which was higher than those for the pure HN-AD bacteria reported in the literature. On the contrary, the activated sludge that was not enriched showed insignificant nitrification and aerobic denitrification. These results implied that the selective enrichment procedure improved the fraction and/or activity of the HN-AD culture in the mixed biomass. Consequently, the enriched HN-AD culture from activated sludge could be a feasible alternative over the conventional BNR process.
Nutrient removal from artificial wastewater in autotrophic condition by the co-culture consortium of Scenedesmus dimorphus and nitrifiers was investigated. The batch experiments of co-culture, S. dimorphus- and nitrifiers-only treatments were conducted and compared for 9 days. As a result, the co-culture system showed enhancement in both nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) removal compared to each single culture. Especially, total N removal efficiency and P removal efficiency in co-culture reactor were enhanced 3.4 and 6.5 times compared to nitrifiers-only reactor, respectively. This result implies that post-treatment systems such as denitrification of nitrate and luxury uptake of P can be deducted by using the co-culture consortium of Scenedesmus dimorphus and nitrifiers. In addition, unlike nitrifiers-only reactor, the co-culture maintained high Dissolved Oxygen (DO) without external aeration. Thus it is suggested that co-culture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and nitrifiers is an efficient and economic method to removal nutrient from wastewater.
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At the first time, one of Supreme Court cases made me study about the issue discussed here-onto. It relates to the attribution of copyright in software development contract, especially in the existence of special agreement. Despite the special agreement. a copyright is held to be owned by creator herself at the very time of creation of the work. And the special agreement could be construed as an assignment of all copyright except personal rights. But it makes the time of assignment earlier, for example at the time of development completion. Here this paper takes a look at some related issues as followings; ① what is legal nature of the contract in case where a client makes software development contract with a developer. ② whether Civil Act can apply to the contract. ③ what means the special agreement providing acquisition of all rights by client. ④ how can the special agreement be constructed in void of the agreement. ⑤ whether the Article 5 of Computer Program Protection Act can apply to such a development contract between parties in special relationship. This paper tries to harmonically deal with the above issues in the aspect of civil law and intellectual property law related to software.<BR> In conclusion. a software development contract can be considered as a contract for work in many cases but its legal nature can vary according to real facts. The Civil Act applies to a software development contract as a contract for work but tangible-related provisions will be excluded. A special agreement will be void under two imperative provisions of Computer Program Protection Act. That is, Article 2 and Article 7. However. it can be constructed as another meaning, such as the assignment of rights or the time of copyright acquisition. From my broader perspective on the Article 5 of Computer Program Protection Act. the provision can be applied to a software development contract. Finally. this paper provides a systematic construction and reasoning of software development contract.