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Pterygium is a proliferative disease. Recent research has reported that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of various proliferative diseases, including solid tumors and diabetic proliferate vitreoretinopathy. In previous literature, we hypothesized that adult stem cells originated from bone marrow were involved in the pathogenesis of pterygium. We proved this by immunohistochemical staining with various stem cell markers. The staining showed adult stem cells in the pterygium. c-kit positive cells were observed primarily in the stroma, and some cells were also found in the basal epithelium. AC133 and CD34 positive cells were primarily found in the basal epithelium and were ovoid shaped, similar to the c-kit cells. However, some cells were found in vascular endothelium. STRO-1 positive cells were found mainly in the stroma and were spindle shaped. In recurrent pterygium, cells were more scattered and the expression pattern was denser. Therefore, we suggest a new theory of pterygium pathogenesis. Inflammation caused by environmental factors triggers the abnormal production of some growth factors and cytokines in order to recover from cellular damage. If these healing signals are excessive, limbal basal cells will be changed to abnormally-altered pterygial cells. The excessive wound healing process and remnant altered cells result in recurrence using the same mechanism.