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In this study, I intend to consider two important aspects of Auden's early poetry, psychology and Mortmere. That Auden is a serious student of psychology is apparent in his early poems and is overwhelmingly evident in his essay, "Psychology and Art Today." In this essay Auden, in the course of an interpretation of Freud and Layard, attributes the doctorine to them: "Not only what we recognize as sin or crime, but all illness is purposive. It is an attempt at cure." As Spears points out, both in poetry and in prose, Auden's approach may be said to remain primarily psychological throughout all changes of ideology and his knowledge of this is extensive. Another important feature of Auden's early poetry is the myth called Mortmere. This imaginary world produced by Isherwood and Upward served both to provide escape from and to express revolt against the existing order. This fantastic element in Auden's early poems served the same purpose. His effort to expose and convey the feeling of alienation from society sought a solution in fantasy called Mortmere. The problem in Auden's early poems is to unite the inner, magical world with the rational, social world to bring together fantasy and diagnosis.
Stephen King is well known as a popular horror writer. His works have been neglected and even ignored as mass entertainment by academic circles. However, he is reappraised as a feminist horror writer because his recent works deal with women's problems. The aim of this paper is to study the femininity in his horror novels. Also this paper investigates what King's perspective of women is and how his feminism is embodied in his four novels, Carrie (1974), Rose Madder (1995), Gerald's Game (1992) and Dolores Claiborne (1992). King creates terrible female characters in his horror novels: Carrie of Carrie, Rosie of Rose Madder, Jessie of Gerald's Game and Dolores of Dolores Claiborne. In Carrie, his protagonist is repressed by her religious fanatic mother and is alienated from her friends. Therefore, she hurts and kills them by exercising her psychokinesis. In Rose Madder, King shows the Dionysian power of a woman warrior who fights against men's violence. In Gerald's Game and Dolores Claiborne, women fight against male sexual harassment in the patriarchal society. In King's novels, the aliens who most frighten and horrify us are the women who live with and within us, yet remain isolated from a male-centered culture. Women that King's novels seem to show us are often "the perpetrators and victims of an American domestic horror". These women hide theirs alien and terrifying face beneath a familiar mask. Thus King's women in his horror novels make males fear women who live in the patriarchal society. The theory of King's domestic horror is based on Freud's "uncanny" strangeness and "otherness" of the Kristeva's horror world. The uncanny strangeness and otherness of the horror world represent the human aspects of a fanatic Dionysian world which is the opposite of the rational Apollonian. In the Dionysian world, everything is contradictory and all humans are Janus-faced. King's women prove that all human beings, not only women but also men, can reveal fanatic Dionysian power. King's terrible female characters embody the idea that it is necessary to maintain an equal and harmonious relationship between men and women in the society which does not repress women's self.
One of the dominant themes of Auden's poetry is love, but his love poems lack the agony, rapture, and passion that are characteristic of the love poems of such poets as Spencer, Shakespeare, and Donne. The reason is that Auden's intellectual and moralistic concern discourages his poetic sensibility from indulging in the realization of love as an emotional experience. The aim of this paper is to trace how and by what ideas Auden's love poems were generated.