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This paper proposes a compensating algorithm for the secondary current of the measurement current transformer (CT) that removes the effects of the hysteresis characteristics of the iron-core. The exciting current resulting from the hysteresis characteristics of the core causes an error between the primary current and the secondary current of the measurement CT. The exciting current can be decomposed into the magnetizing current and the core loss current, The core Joss current is obtained from the measured secondary current and the core loss resistance. The core flux linkage is calculated by integrating the measured secondary current, and then inserted into the flux-magnetizing current curve to obtain the magnetizing current. The exciting current at every sampling interval is obtained by summing the core-loss and magnetizing currents and then added to the measured current to obtain the correct current. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated under various conditions using EMTP generated data. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of the measurement CT significantly, and thus reduce the size and the cost of the measurement CT.
Current differential relays may maloperate during magnetic inrush and over-excitation because a significant differential current is produced. To prevent maloperation, the relays adopt some harmonic components included in the differential current. The harmonic restraints may increase the security of a relay but cause the operating time delay of a relay when an internal fault occurs. Moreover, the operating time delay is more increased if a current transformer (CT) is saturated. This paper describes a current differential relaying algorithm for power transformer protection with a compensating algorithm for the secondary current of a CT. The comparative study was conducted with and without the compensating algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm was investigated when the measurement CT (C40) and the protection CT (C400) are used. The proposed algorithm can compensate the distorted current of a CT and thus reduce the operating time delay of the relay significantly for an internal fault with CT saturation.
A coupling capacitor voltage transformer (CCVT) is used in an extra or ultra high voltage system to obtain the standard low voltage signal for protection. To avoid the phase angle error between the primary and secondary voltages, a tuning reactor is connected between a capacitor and a voltage transformer. The inductance of the reactor is designed based on the power system frequency. If a fault occurs on the power system, the secondary voltage of the CCVT contains some errors due to a de offset component and harmonic components resulting from the fault. The errors become severe in the case of a close-in fault. This paper proposes an algorithm for compensating the secondary voltage of a CCVT in the time-domain. From the measured secondary voltage of the CCVT, the secondary and primary currents are obtained; then the voltage across the capacitor and the inductor is calculated and then added to the measured secondary voltage to obtain the correct primary voltage. Test results indicate that the proposed algorithm can compensate the distorted secondary voltage of the CCVT irrespective of the fault distance, the fault inception angle, and the burden of the CCVT.
This paper proposes an algorithm to estimate the circulating currents in the transformers in parallel in an ultra high voltage system. For the Y-Y-Δ transformers operated in parallel, there exist two kinds of the circulating currents i.e. one is between the tanks and the other between the banks of the delta side. As the former is 90 deg out of phase of the load current, it is estimated by decomposing the line current into the component 90 deg out of phase of the load current in the frequency domain. The latter is estimated in the time domain from applying the Kirchhoff's voltage law on the delta winding which gives a first-order differential equation in terms of the delta winding currents. To estimate the circulating currents between the tanks, the performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated when the impedances of the two transformer tanks are different or the taps of the on-load tap changer of the transformers are mismatched temporarily. To estimate the circulating currents between the banks, the performance of the proposed algorithm is also examined under magnetic inrush and over-excitation. Test results indicate that the algorithm can estimate the two kinds of the circulating currents successfully.
A doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) system has been widely used in the modem wind turbines due to variable-speed operation, high efficiency and small converter size. It is well known that an inter-tum fault of a generator is very difficult to be detected. The DFIG system uses a wound rotor induction machine so that the magnetizing current of the generator can be fed from both the stator and the rotor. This paper proposes a protection algorithm for a DFIG using the d-q equivalent circuit in the time domain. In the case of a DFIG, the voltages and currents of the rotor side as well as the voltages and currents of the stator are available. The proposed algorithm estimates the instantaneous (i.e., converted into the stationary frame) induced voltages from the rotor and the stator sides. If the difference between the two estimated induced voltages exceeds the threshold, the proposed algorithm detects the inter-turn fault. The algorithm can detect a inter-turn fault of a winding. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated using a PSCAD/EMTDC simulator under inter-turn fault conditions and normal operating conditions such as an external fault and the change of the wind speed.
An air-gapped current transformer (CT) has been used to reduce a remanent flux in the core, particularly in the case of auto-reclosure. However, it causes larger transient, ratio and phase errors than the iron-cored CT because of the small magnetizing inductance. This paper proposes a compensation algorithm for the secondary current of the air-gapped CT during the fault conditions including auto-reclosure as well as in the steady-state. The core flux is calculated from the measured secondary current of the CT and inserted into the hysteresis loop to estimate the exciting current. Finally, the correct current is estimated by adding the measured secondary current to the estimated exciting current. Various test results clearly indicate that the proposed compensating algorithm can improve the accuracy of the air-gapped CT significantly and reduce the required core cross-section of the air-gapped CT significantly.
This paper describes a compensation algorithm for a measurement voltage transformer (VT) based on the hysteresis characteristics of the core. The error of the VT is caused by the voltages across the primary and secondary windings. The latter depends on the secondary current whilst the former depends on the primary current, i.e. the sum of the exciting current and the secondary current. The proposed algorithm calculates the voltages across the primary and secondary windings and add them to the measured secondary voltage for compensation. To do this, the primary and secondary currents should be estimated. The secondary current is obtained directly from the secondary voltage and used to calculate the voltage across the secondary winding. For the primary current, in this paper, the exciting current is decomposed into the two currents, i.e. the core-loss current and the magnetizing current. The core-loss current is obtained by dividing the primary induced voltage by the core-loss resistance. The magnetizing current is obtained by inserting the flux into the flux -magnetizing current curve. The calculated voltages across the primary and secondary windings are added to the measured secondary current for compensation. The proposed compensation algorithm improves the error of the VT significantly.
A large scale embedded generator or a micro-grid is usually interconnected to the grid through the dedicated line. Immediately after the removal of the grid supply, it must be disconnected and remain disconnected until the normal grid supplies are restored. This paper proposes an islanding detection algorithm based on complex power at the intertie. Complex power at the intertie delivered to the grid has a value depending on power flow during normal operation. When loss of mains occurs, complex power at the intertie moves to a value depending on the parameters of the dedicated line. The performance of the proposed algorithm was investigated under various operating and fault conditions. The proposed algorithm can detect an islanding operation even if no power is exchanged prior to loss of mains and discriminate the fault condition from islanding.