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A strongly cytotoxic fraction (Fc-2, ED_50=0.0003㎍/㎖) against L1210 cell was obtained from the root, seed and fruit of Trichosanthes kirilowii, Administration of Fc-2 prolonged the life span of the BDF1 mice bearing L1210 and the ICR mice bearing S-180 by 135% and 130%, respectively. The Fc-2 affected L1210 cells were enlarged in their diameters two or three times in comparison with the untreated ones. When 20㎎/㎏ of Fc-2 was administered, intraperitoneally, all the mice were killed.
In order to investigate the antidiabetogenic activity of T. kirilowii on the alloxan-treated mice, the effects of the oral administration of the methanol extract on the blood glucose, the survival rate and the histological changes of the Langerhans' islet were observed. The blood glucose was reached at the highest levels of $265.03\pm15.07$ and $186.41\pm0.16mg/dl at 30 min after alloxan injection, and at the lowest levels of $43.35\pm5.28$ at 4 hour and $20.40\pm3.264mg/dl at 10. hour in experimental and control group, respectively. 57.15% of the experimental group and 4.2%, of the control group were survived more than 24 hours. The life spans of the mice, which were dead within 24 hours, were $631.45\pm60.17$ for the experimental group and $414.60\pm36.24$ min for the control group. The mice from the control group, which were dead within 10 hours, showed totally necrotized $\alpha$- and $\betha$-cells. However, 3 of the 10 mice from the experimental group, which were survived until 24 hours, showed a normal histological feature of the Langerhans' islet.