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This paper investigates and examines theoretical questions from the process of bilingual lexicography. One of the urgent objectives of bilingual lexicography is seeking and describing relations of lexical equivalences between two compared languages. From this point of view, equivalent relationship among language units is classified into three types: complete equivalence, not complete equivalence, and false equivalence. Not complete equivalence also has three subtypes: 1) More detailed segmentation in the source language, 2) Less detailed segmentation in the source language, 3) specific segmentation of definite reality in a given language. The last type, false equivalence is shown in one of the following two subtypes: 1) subtype occurred by mismatched national and cultural features in different languages, 2) subtype of incidental coincidences of external forms. This research can correctly and systematically describe a complicated mechanism of lexical equivalence in different languages. In the process of seeking and describing lexical equivalence, it is necessary to pay attention to national and cultural features of lexeme in a given language, because these characteristics are realized differently in other languages.
The basic of the modern lexicography is the presentation of systemic characteristics of lexicon. The theoretical and practical aspects of compiling dictionary explaining the lexicon of a language as fairly well-organized system is called systemic lexicography. The systemic lexicography has already been well developed by Ju.D. Apresjan in a series of research papers. Therefore in the present work only the main concept of integral dictionary is briefly mentioned. The integral description of a language supposes that dictionary and grammar be harmonized with each other in the type of information which is contained in them and in the way of describing them. In this case dictionary and grammar are able to have influence on each other in a uniform linguistic model. This universal analysis of lexeme shows the complexity of lexicographical description and makes a basis for integral dictionary.
The purpose of this research is to investigate grammatical homonymy in Russian. Interactions between grammatical and lexical meanings of Russian verbs are thoroughly analyzed and described based on the concept of Nikolaev's semantic inflexion. According to the analysis grammatical homonymy in Russian tense and moods is just a contextual variation of the basic meaning, not a change in the lexical meaning. Therefore it is not appropriate to relate this phenomenon to semantic inflexion as Nikolaev did. Novikov said that lexicalization of plural form of nouns is a way of building a new word called semantic word-formation, but there are opinions that these phenomena are related to inflexion, not word-formation. From this point of view it is appropriate to describe lexicalization of plural nouns in the framework of the semantic inflexion.