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The selective absorption ability of low density heavy metal(Pb(Ⅱ) ion or Cu(Ⅱ) ion) of eggshell(raw or boiled) is better than one of existing absorption materials in treatment ability and experimental condition. The elimination ability of chlorine of eggshell(raw or soiled) is worse than one of active carbon. In elimination of trihalomethane, the effect of treatment of eggshell is almost the same as one of pine cones. And surface of eggshell(raw or boiled) after absorption of heavy metal ion was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM). Application and availability of eggshell(raw or boiled) as absorption material need lots of experiments. The experiment on baked eggshell is proceeding.
This study was performed to identify risk factors for depression among the elderly in a rural area. A survey was done for the elderly living in Gosam-myenn, Ansung-kun during the period of July 28, 1997 and July 30, 1997. Demographic and sodoeconornic characteristics, and functional and health Status were assessed using a structured questionnaire, and the level of depression was measured by GDS score. The data obtained were analyzed by frequencies, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression, and the results were as follows: 1. The total sample consisted of 133 elderly. Of them, 47 elderly (35.4%) showed significant depressive Symptoms. 2. The GDS score was the highest for the group over 85 years of age (p < 0.05). Those living alone or widowed showed lower GDS score than those living with someone or married (p < 0.05). 3. The GDS score was the highest in the absolutely dependent group, followed by the partially dependent group, and the independent group (p < 0.01). The elderly who perceived their health Status as excellent showed the lowest GDS score. In contrast, those who had more than five chronic diseases showed the highest GDS score. 4. The elderly receiving financial and emotional support from their family or friends showed lower GDS score compared to those without any support. 5. The economically dependent group showed higher GDS score than that of independent group. 6. The elderly who involved in leisure activities showed lower GDS score than those without any involvement. 7. In terms of risk factors for depression, we found that perceived health Status, subjective economic Status, leisure activities, living arrangement and financial support were inversely associated with GDS score, whereas labor support was positively associated with GDS score. Based upon the above findings, this study suggests that these risk factors for depression in the elderly should be taken into consideration for a comprehensive mental health program for the elderly living in the rural area.
목적 : 2002년 말 중국에서 SARS가 발생한 이후 국내에서도 2003년 10월까지 총 3명의 추정환자, 17명의 의심환자가 보고되었다. 향후 추가적인 SARS의 유행이 우려되는 상황에서, 그간의 SARS 환자 진료에 있어서의 실질적인 준비사항, 진료 현황 등에 대한 조사를 통해 문제점을 파악하여, 향후 더 나은 대비가 될 수 있도록 개선점을 제시하고자 하였다. 재료 및 방법 : SARS로 의심되는 환자를 진료 경험이 있는 병원의료진을 대상으로 2003년 10월에 설문조사를 실시하였다. 설문에는 SARS 환자 진료 시의 실질적인 조치, 진료 현황, 병실, 응급실 및 외래에서의 격리 시설과 준비사항, 보건당국의 관리와 지원에 관한 사항을 포함하였다. 결과 : 대상이 되는 22개 병원 중 17개(17/22, 77.2%) 병원이 설문에 응하였다. SARS 환자를 위한 격리실은 응급실, 외래, 일반병실 및 중환자실에서 각각 9개(9/17, 52.9%), 5개(5/17, 29.4%), 15개(15/16, 93.7%), 4개(4/16, 25%) 병원에서 음압처리가 되어있지 않은 일인실 혹은 다인실이 사용되었고, 1개(1/16, 6.3%) 병원에서만 일반병실에서 음압격리실이 운영되었다. 입원환자의 진찰 시 개인보호구의 착용은 거의 모든 의료기관에서 이루어졌다. 보건당국에서 SARS지정병원의 시설 등을 사전에 확인한 곳은 1곳(1/12, 8.3%)이였고, 14개 병원(14/15, 93.3%)에서는 보건당국에 의뢰한 검사결과를 통하 받지 못하였다. 결론 : 의료기관에서 SARS 환자용 격리실뿐만 아니라 기존의 격리실 설비 등이 미흡하였으며, 특히 중환자실 및 외래의 준비가 더욱 부족하였다. 보건당국의 의료기관에 대한 종합적인 지원이 부족하였고, 병원과의 원활한 연계가 잘 이루어지지 않았다. SARS 만이 아닌 격리를 필요로 하는 질환의 적절한 진료를 위해 향후 병원 시설의 정비와 정부차원에서의 보다 구체적이고 실질적인 대책마련이 필요하다. Background : There was an worldwide outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) originated from China in late 2002. During that period three cases of suspected SARS and 17 cases of probable SARS were reported in Korea. With the concerns about the reemergence of SARS-coV transmission, it is important to be prepared for any possibility. So, this study is aimed to analysis the past measures in managing SARS and propose the amendatory plans to improve the preparedness. Materials & Methods : Questionnaires were collected among clinicians with any experience in managing the probable or suspected SARS cases in Oct. 2003. 17 out of 22 hospitals responded to the questionnaire. The contents in the questionnaire were practical activities, personal equipments, response plans, isolation facilities in emergency centers, outpatient clinics, general wards and intensive care units, and relationship with the public health department. Results : The dedicated isolation rooms in emergency centers, outpatient clinics, general wards, and intensive care units were prepared in 9 (9/17, 52.9%), 5 (5/17, 29.4%), 15 (15/16, 93.7%), and 4 (4/16, 25.0%) hospitals, respectively. Except for one hospital that newly made negative pressure room for SARS, single or multi-bed rooms without airborne infection control were used in all the other hospitals. The personal precaution principles were kept quite well in general wards. Before the designation of SARS hospital by the public health department prior evalution to see if the hospital was suitable for managing SARS was conducted in only 1 (1/12, 8.3%) hospital. The results of laboratory diagnosis were reported back in 1 (1/15, 6.6%) hospital. Conclusions : The isolation facilities which can control airborne infection were almost deficient not only for SARS but also for other respiratory transmissible diseases. For the infection control of transmissible diseases including SARS, more investment is needed on medical facilities and comprehensive support from the public health department required.
The solubility of various fluoro-gases in high boiling-point solvents, n-Cnh_2n+_1OH(6<n<10)and ionic liquids(+ ions: 1-Buty 1-3-methy1-imidazolium, 1-Ethy1-3-methy1-imidazolium, - ions:BF_4, PF_6, S_6F_6, F_6O_4S_6) were measured at temperatures from 0 to 30℃, at total pressures up to 4 bat Solubility increased significantly with the decrease of n in n-Cn_2N+OH and showed no such a difference in the types of ionic liquids, Especially, the solubility of R22 gas in these solvents increases rapidly with increases in pressure and decreases in temperature, whereas other fluoro-gases were showed a little solubility Liquid-supported membranes were prepared with these solvents and polymer matrix and were applied to the separation of fluoro-gases including R22 gas. A high permeability and selectivity were exhibited in R22 gas against other fluoro-gases.
So far, the common elasticity data of textile fabrics has not been present because the method depends on the knowledge of measurement operators. In this paper, the new measurement equipment using road cell is presented to measure the coefficient of textile fabrics in real time. The measurement method is based on the volt: among textile fabrics. The textiles with strong elasticity are high voltage produced from others are low. The presented method can be applied to visualize the textile, sew the cloth, contrc textile fabrics. Also, these measurement datum are used to B2B electronic trading system.
A numerical variation and abnormalities were studied on egg bags and embryos of Korean salamander, Hynobius leechii from agricultural habitat. The teratogenic and toxic effects of fungicide benomyl were also investigated with early embryos from non-agricultural habitat. We collected 144 egg bags from agricultural region, and 3418 of early embryos were contained. The lengths of egg bags were varied from 10 to 23㎝ and the most frequent length was 19㎝. The number of embryos was varied from7 to 43, and the most frequent range was 22 to 26. Spontaneous abnormalities were occurred in 406 embryos among 116 egg bags, and 24 kinds of external abnormalities were found. Individuals showing severe external defect were histologically studied and they showed optic dyspalsia, thyroid carcinoma, somatic muscular dysplasia, partial biaxial structure, decrease of red blood cells in the heart, cephalic degeneration and intestinal dysplasia. 385 embryos from non-agricultural region were exposed to 200nM∼1μM of benomyl at blastula or gastrula for 12 days. All embryo were dead in the concentration of 1μM(LD_100) and 75% of embryos were dead in 800 nM of benomyl. Specific effect due to benomyl was acrania or cephalic dysplasia and this result suggests that the benomyl inhibit strongly to the development of neural tissue. These abnormal developments may be caused by antimitotic action, inhibition of tubulin complex, destruction of microtubule, inhibitions of neurulation and closing of neural fold, and by the inhibition of the movement of neural crest cells.
Aqueous corrosion characteristics of low carbon steel with small amounts of Cr, Co, Cu, Ni and Ca, in synthetic groundwater was studied by electrochemical corrosion tests (potentiodynamic test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements) and analytical techniques. Neither carbon steel nor newly alloyed steels showed passive behavior in this synthetic groundwater. Newly alloyed steels, containing Cr-Co, Cr-Cu-Ni and Cr-Cu-Ni-Ca showed higher corrosion resistance than carbon steel in the potentiodynamic tests. EIS measurements showed that the Nyquist plot presented two time constants. The high frequency resistance component (R_(rsut)) and low frequency resistance component (R_(et)) were affected by the alloying elements. The polarization resistance (RP= R_(et) +Ra) of steels could be clearly ranked as Cr-Cu-Ni-Ca steel >> Cr-Cu-Ni steel > Cr-Co steel > carbon steel. Results of surface analyses (XPS and EPMA) showed that Cr and Cu were concentrated in the inner region of rust. However, Co and Ni were uniformly distributed all over the rust layer. These alloying elements improved corrosion resistance of low alloy steel in synthetic groundwater. Especially, Cr-Cu-Ni-Ca steel had the lowest corrosion rate due to the inner rust film formation during the initial stage of corrosion, which suggested a potential for substituting carbon steel in soil environment (Received October 29, 2004)
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Objectives : Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) is an assessment tool to measure the seventy of different dimen-sions of auditory hallucinations and delusions. The reliability and validity of the Korean version of PSYRATS (K-PSYRATS)were examined in Korean patients with major psychosis. Methods : The inter-rater reliability of the K-PSYRATS was determined from the videotaped interviews of the five Schizoph-renic patients. To measure validity and internal consistency reliability, the 109 patients with auditory hallucinations or delusions were assessed using the K-PSYRATS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression-Se-verity (CGI-S) scale. Results : K-PSYRATS was found to have excellent inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient of auditory haliu-cination=0.81, P<.001, intm-class correlation coefficient ofde1usion=0.97, P<.001) and internal consistency reliability (Cron-bach's a of auditory hallucination =0.77, Cronbach's α of delusion =0.76). Significant correlation was found between K-PSY-RATS and positive syndrome subscale of PANSS and CGI. Conclusion : K-PSYRATS is a useful assessment instrument for psychotic symptoms in Korea.