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The purpose of this study was to evaluate body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and exercise behavior in female adolescents and to develop strategic countermeasures against those epidemic phenomenon. A total of 269 junior female high school students participated in this study, and were divided into three groups based on the body mass index (BMI); BMI<18.5: underweight (UW), 18.5-24.9: average weight (AW), and 25.0-29.9 overweight (OW), A questionnaire consisted of Body Dissatisfaction Index (BD[), Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT26), Obesity Related Stress (ORS), and exercise behavior was administered, For the comparisons of means, one-way ANOVA was employed, and relationships between variables were assessed by correlation coefficient, For the analyses of relationship between BDI and EAT26, and physical activities, X² was utilized, The BD[ between UW and OW was significantly different (P<.05) while no differences were found in EAT26 among groups. ANOVA revealed ORS score was statistically different (P<.05), but post-hoc test did riot show any differences among groups, In each group, BMI and EAT26, and BMI and BDI were highly correlated (P<.05). However no relationships were found between BDI and EAT26. When comparing the level of physical activities among groups, no differences were found. The prevalence or inactive (less then average) was 24.7, 28.9, and 45.2% in UW, AW, and OW, respectively. The desire for exercise was 94.6, 94.5, and 100% in UW, AW, arid OW, respectively, and this was statistically different (P<.05), The perception or exercise necessity was highly rated in all groups, particularly in OW female adolescents.
Blunt or nonpenetrating chest injuries are common after motor vehicle accidents or falls. Blunt injury to the heart ranges from contusion to rupture. Cardiac rupture, however, is un-common and associated with a very high mortality rate ; left ventricular rupture due to falling is even more rare. We experienced a case of left ventricular rupture of the heart caused by a fall, which the patient survived. A 63-year-old man fell off a ladder and presented with hypotension from left hemothorax and pericardial tamponade. The hemothorax was relieved via an emergency closed thoracostomy but dyspnea and hypotension continued. And so, echocardio-graphy was done and pericardial tamponade was detected. Emergency left thoracotomy was done to repair the rupture site. We believe that patients with cardiac rupture who reach the hospital alive can often be saved by prompt diagnosis and immediate surgical treatment.
Root canal preparation process is of utmost importance in successful treatment of root canal. Also, one of the most important purpose of the root canal preparation is to enlarge the root canal three dimensionally without changing the curvature of the root canal. However, as the curvature of the root canal increases, there are many difficulties involved in formation of optimum root canal. Therefore, in order to solve the above mentioned problems, new developments in methods of root canal preparation and equipments for such purposes were made. Recently, vigorous studies about newly introduced engine-driven nitckel-ti-tanium rotary file are conducted. As shown in research results to dates, it is well established that the use of nickel-titanium file is better suited for curved root canal than stainless steel file in maintaining the curvature of root canal and reducing the deformation of root canal. However, it is also acknowledged that there are a few discrepancies in research results according to protocol, due to failure to remove variables in experiments. In addition, although it is recommended by the manufacturer that the GT rotary file should maintain a low rotational speed of 150∼350rpm and 'light pressure' as light as not to break the lead of a pencil, academic studies about the vertical force which is not yet standardized are not sufficiently explored. Therefore, this research devised and utilized a special research equipment to standardize the appropriate range of vertical force for GT rotary file through experiments by breaking of the lead of a pencil as expressed by the manufacturer and to accurately measure factors involved through repeating and recreating the environment of root canal preparation. Forming nine experimental groups by varying the vertical forces (150g, 220g, 300g) and rpm (150rpm, 250rpm, 350rpm), the effects of changing vertical forces and rpm on working efficiency were measured in terms of time expended in root canal preparation by crown-down method using a transparent resin block with 35 degree curvature and GT rotary file (z-test). The following research using this special research equipment that involved nine experimental groups and varying the vertical force for root canal preparation from 300g which is within the normal vertical force range to 700g and 1000g which fall outside the normal rpm range. The results were as follows : 1.Analysis of the experiment results revealed that the tome spent in root canal preparation decreased as the vertical forces and rpm increased (p<0.05). Also, the effects of rpm were greater than those of the vertical forces within the normal vertical force range (β-weight test) . 2.Observation of the deformation of GT rotary file revealed that deformation increases in a direct correlation with the vertical force increase and in a reverse correlation with the rpm decrease, In the case of the vertical forces close to the normal range, the probability of GT rotary file deformation were quite different depending on the rpm changes. In the case of◎eater tier◎cal forces, the occurrences of deformation of the file were more frequent regardless of the rpm changes. 3.Deformation and breakage of file were also commonly observed in the expended time measurement experiments and GT rotary file deformation experiments in which low speed rpm (150rpm) was used and at the curved portion of the resin block. Key words : GT rotary file, Crown-down method, Working efficiency, Vertical force, Rpm, Deformation and breakage of file
Background: Light based therapy and laser have emerged as alternative therapies for the treatment of acne. Blue and Red LED combination phototherapy and Pulsed dye laser are recognized as effective modalities treating acne vulgaris. Objectives: To compare the efficacy between LED combination phototherapy and PDL mono therapy for treatment of acne. Methods: : We randomly allocated 11 patients to receive LED combination therapy or PDL mono therapy. Outcome assessments include the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, investigator’s and subject’s assessment, Dermavision<sup>TM</sup>, Mexameter<sup>TM</sup>, corneometerTM and skin biopsy. Results: Five males and six females were enrolled, and 9 of 11 completed the study. After treatment, a greater improvement in the inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions was recorded in combination LED phototherapy group. Erythema score was more decreased in PDL-treated group than in LED-treated group. Patient’s self-satisfaction was better in LED-treated group than PDL-treated group. Conclusion: This study suggests that combination LED phototherapy could be more effective than PDL monotherapy for the treatment of acne. Additional large scale studies should be done to compare the efficacy of those two treatments.
Hobnail hemangioma is a vascular tumor affecting the limbs or trunk. Characteristically, the lesion has a “targetoid” clinical feature and dilated vascular spaces lined by hobnail endothelial cells at histologic examination. We report a case of trauma-induced hobnail hemangioma with atypical appearance. A 79-year-old female visited our clinic for erythematous papules and with excoriation on her right thigh. The skin lesions developed the 2 years ago and were treated by topical steroid. From 14 days ago, the erythematous patches and pruritus aggravated. At first, we diagnosed clinically as prurigo nodularis. We implemented punch biopsy and it histologically showed compact hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia in epidermis and many dilated lumens in upper dermis. Ectatic vessels and proliferation of endothelial cells that were stained for CD 31, CD 34, Factor 8 witch was appropriate to hobnail hemangioma. The patient has clinical features of prurigo nodularis, but histopathological findings was hobnail hemangioma. We consider that hobnail hemangioma induced by trauma, such as excoriation, and report this impressive case.
Molluscum contagiosum(MC) is a common benign skin disease caused by poxvirus infection, presenting as small, pearly to flesh-colored multiple papules with central umbilication. It usually occurs in childhood, but several cases of adult-onset MC have been reported in immunosuppressed patients. 76-year-old male patient presented with disseminated whitish papules on the both thighs. The lesions had presented since approximately 2months. The patients had applied topical calcipotriol and steroid for 3months due to eczema. Histopathologic examination revealed infected epidermal cells bearing large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Molluscum body). Laboratory findings including anti-HIV antibodies were unremarkable. There was no history of immunodeficiency. All lesions were removed by repeated curettage. Because the patient may have produced significant change in his skin barrier function by daily application with topical calcipotriol and steroid, we think that the lesion showed disseminated pattern in immunocompetent adult. Herein, we report a rare case of disseminated MC in a patient following treatment with topical calcipotriol and steroid.