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고추의 품질향상과 품질평가척도 등을 제시하는 효율적인 건조조건을 규명하기 위하여 건조온도(40, 50, 70, 90℃)와 건조시간(12, 24, 36, 48시간)을 달리하여 고추를 건조한 다음, 건조조건별로 고추의 수분함량 및 색도의 변화를 조사하였다. 고추품질면에서 최적수분함량(11.85~11.05%)을 고려할때 50℃에서 36시간 또는 48시간 건조하는 것이 양호한 것으로 나타났으며 태양건조와 열풍건조를 비교한 결과 열풍으로 50℃에서 48시간 건조하는 것이 고추의 색도가 가장 양호하였다. 고추 색도 특성은 hexane 추출물에서 284nm와 carotenoids(430-474nm)의 전형적인 흡광도 값의 비가 2.5-3.4범위에 있는 것이 가장 좋았으며, 이것은 육안판정에서도 확인되었다. The moisture contents and colors of red pepper were analyzed to observe the changes of the qualities of red pepper with various drying conditions. The moisture content was 11.8%, known as optimal condition for storing red pepper, when dried at 50℃ for 36 and 48 hours. The color of air-dried red pepper at 50℃ for 48 hours was estimated to be the most excellent in comparison of sun drying and air drying. The optimal absorbances of hexane extract from red pepper were examined. The ratios between the absorbances at 280nm and at the typical wavelengths of carotenoids(430 nm, 450 nm, 474 nm) were from 2.5 to 3.4 and these were also confirmed by the sight of the eye.
Phosphorus is the second most important nutrient for plants and microbes. In the present study we isolated 53 P-solubilizing strains from different regions of Chungbuk province Fifty three isolates were screened for their efficiency in iron, aluminum and calcium phosphate solubilization The examined isolates showed 438-1421 percent tricalcium phosphate, 035-139 percent aluminum phosphate, 035-495 percent iron phosphate solubilization Among P-solubilizing bacterial isolates HK 69, HK 14-1 and HK 20-1 were the most efficient iron, aluminium and calcium phosphate solubilization, respectively The efficiency of these bacteria also confirmed by modified media with pH indicator dye based on yellow color zone formation due to organic acid production The size of yellow zone directly correlated to the P-solubilization in liquid media.
The effect of phosphogypsum and lime application on the soil pH, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K concentration in acid soil and their effect on plant growth and yield of garlic(Allium sativum L) were investigated at National Danyang Garlic Agricultural Experiment Station, Danyang, Korea. The Phosphogypsum(PG) and lime were applied to soil at the rate of 100kg/10a the soil pH and exchangeable Ca and Mg concentration in subsoil increased due to the application of phosphogypsum when compared to soils of lime and control treatments howerver, K concentration remained unaffected te application of phosphogypsum improved the plant height, leaf length and weight over control the lime application also increased the plant growth and yield slightly over control. Therefore phosphogypsum application could be recommended for acid soils to improve some of the soil chemical properties in order to improve productivity of garlic.
질산태 질소의 일중 농도 변화와 단기간의 저온 처리가 질산태 질소의 흡수 및 농도에 미치는 영향을 살펴보고자 상추(Lactuca sativa L.)를 공시 작물로 하여 온실에서 수경 재배하였다. 질산태 질소의 농도는 염산에 비하여 주맥에서 일중 지속적으로 2배 이상 높았으며, 질산태 질소의 일중 변화는 14:00까지 지속적으로 감소하여 최저치 (8.7 mg-N/GDW)를 나타낸 후 다시 증가하였다. 질산태 질소의 일중 흡수량은 11:00~17:00에 평균 4.8mg-N/GDW-Root/hr로 최대치를 나타내었다. 단기간의 저온 처리량을 50%~55%를 감소시켰다. 이러한 결과는 수확 전 단기간의 저온처리가 상추 잎의 질산태 질소함량을 낮출 수 있는 방법으로 응용될 수 있음을 보여준다. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants were grown under hydroponic system to characterize the diurnal change of nitrate concentration and nitrate uptake rate and to examine the effect of short term cold treatment to rhizosphere on nitrate concentration and uptake rate in lettuce plant. The nitrate concentrations in midrib were two times higher than those in leaf. Nitrate concentration in the shoot reached to minimum (8.7 mg-N/GDW) at 14:00 and, thereafter, increased continuously until 23:00. During 11:00~17:00, nitrate uptake by lettuce plant was maximum (4.8 mg-N/GDW-Root/hr). Short term cold treatment reduced nitrate concentration in the shoot by 14~18%, and nitrate uptake rate by 50~55%, respectively. These results showed that short term cold treatment before harvest could be applied for the purpose of reduction of nitrate concentration in the leaf under hydroponic culture.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of Chungkuk Jang added-diets on reducing cadmium toxiclt in rats (Sprague-Dalvley, ♂, 125 58±4.04g) used as experimental groups. There are six experimental groups, a normal group(Tn), a cadmium treatment group(control group Tc), four cadmium and Chungkuk Jang (0.25%, 0 50%, 1 00%, and 1 50%; T_1 T_2, T_3, and T_4) treatment groups which received different dietary feeding for 8 weeks each The results are as follows. 1 The amount of food intake at Chungkuk Jang mixed group(T_1, -T_2) was 3 5% greater than at the Tc group For the group fed Chungkuk Jang the average of weight gain was 4.42g/day, which showed higher value(2.79%) than the Tc(4 30g/day) group. The food efficency rate of intake Chungkuk Jang group (5.02) was a little higher without significance than that of the Tn(4 91) and Tc(4 99) groups. 2. The amount of water intake was the highest in the Tn(32.44?/day) group and 30.14% greater than that of the Tc(21.66?/day) group. For the water intake (T_3) among Chungkuk Jang added-diet groups showed the highest value(22.78?/day) relatively Cadmium intake of each group was in the range of 1.94 to 2.27 ppm and the T_3 group showed the highest cadmium intake. For the growth rate the Tc group was 7.62% lower than Tn group but the Chungkuk jang fed group resulted in a reduced fashion-about 3% in the growth process against the Tn group 3 There was no significant weight gain or loss of the organ and bone of rats among the experimental groups but in the case of liver and kidney the T_3 (8.59%. 12 36%) was higher than the Tc group 4 Cadmium accumulation was high to low in order of liver > kidney > spleen > heart > lung > testicle > brain > femoral muscle > femur >(T_1, T_2, T_3, and T_4). tibia > blood. The 70% accumulation rate was showed in liver (33 2%), kidney (31.25) and spleen (6 1%). The contents of cadmium in tissue and body-hair in the Chungkuk Jang intake groups(T_1, T_2, T_3, and T_4) were lower than in the Tc group. The chungkuk Jang added-diet groups (T_3, and T_4) showed low levels of cadmium accumulation
쌀, 조 수수, 및 콩의 식이가 흰쥐의 성장 및 혈액 성상에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여, 평균체중 180g의 Sprague-Dawley계 rat(♂) 각 5마리씩을 대조군(T_(0)), 쌀(T_(1)), 조(T_(2)), 수수(T_(3)), 콩(T_(4))급이군등 5개군으로 나누어 실온에서 6주간 사육하면서 사료섭취량, 급수량, 증체량과 6주후의 혈액상의 변화틀 조사하였다. 사료 섭취량은 대조군이 각 처리 실험군보다 높았으며 물의 급수량도 동일한 결과이었으며 그 순위는 쌀, 조, 콩, 수수 순으로 감소하였으며, 각 처리군의 증체량은 대조군 보다 낮았으며, 특히 수수는 초기보다 감소하였고, 각 처리군의 사료효율은 대조군보다 낮았으며 특히 수수처리군이 타 처리군보다 낮았다. 연액성상의 변희는 대조군에서는 큰 변화가 없으나 수수군에서 BUN, HOT지 다른군보다 높았으며 쌀의 처리군은 creatinine치가 높았고 조에서는 혈당치가 낮았으며, 콩에서는 LDH는 높았고, HGB, HCT, PI.T, RBC가 낮았고, 특히 콩 수수에서는 혈액상의 변화가 가장 컸으며 다른 실험군과 비교하였을 때 통계적인 유의성이 인정되었다. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rice, millet, sorghum and soybean diet on the growth rate, daily intake feed ratio and change in hematology of male rats. The experimental male rats of 180g average weight were fed on control (T_(0)), rice (T_(1)), millet (T_(2)), sorghum (T_(3)) and soybean diet (T_(4)) for 6 weeks. The amount of daily feed and water intake supply in each diet group is higher than that of control group to as shown in the following order: rice, millet, soybean, sorghum. The growth ratio of each diet group is lower than that of control group. Especially, sorghum made each diet group reduce the weight even more than the initial weight. Control group is lower than each diet group in regard to the effective ratio of feed. Especially, the sorghum group is lower than other groups. Control group remained same in the change of hematology, however, sorghum group is higher than other groups for BUN, HCT. Rice group is higher in creatinine and millet group is lower in glucose content of serum than any other groups. Soybean group is higher in LDH but lower in HGB, HCT, PLT, RBC than control group. Especially, the soybean and sorghum groups showed a big change in hematology and had the statistic significance in comparison to other groups.
There are numerous nutrients, including essential elements, in the soil. Nevertheless, most of the nutrients that exist in the soil are not suitable for the growth of plants. Therefore, in agriculture, chemical fertilizers have been widely used for the increasing of crop production from long time ago. As a result, soil nutrient has been over accumulated, environment was polluted and pathogens gained resistance. As a solution about these problems, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be used for the promotion of plant growth instead of chemicals. Recently, numerous studies on microbial plant growth promoting (PGP) characters were conducted based on molecular biology like genome sequencing by next generation sequencing (NGS) technique. In this review, we discuss PGP characters about nitrogen fixation, solubilizing/mineralizing phosphorus, production of siderophore, degradation of ethylene and biosynthesis of IAA and cytokinin at gene level and predict the essential set of genes for the PGPR function.
Soil fertility is fundamental in determining the productivity of all farming systems and is most�ﾠ�ﾠ commonly defined in terms of the ability of the soil to supply nutrients to crops. Organic farming systems rely on the management of soil organic matter to enhance the chemical, biological and physical properties of the soil, in order to optimize crop production. Organic agriculture excludes the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers, instead requiring a balance between supply and demand nutrients through the use of organic matter. Nutrient management is one of the main challenges facing organic farming. The short term challenge is supplying sufficient nutrients to crops at the correct point in their development to achieve economically viable yield, while in the long term, the difficulty is to balance nutrient inputs and runoffs to avoid nutrient rundown or environmental pollution. This paper reviews information from the literature to investigate strategies of managing nutrients by supplying organic matter in organic agriculture during the major phases of crop growth.
Tolclofosmethyl (TCFM) is heavily and annually applied to the turf soils of most golf courses in Gyeongju to control the fungi known to cause the disease brown patch. The soil samples used for the experiment was collected three weeks after the annual application at the end of May in the year 2002. The preliminary results obtained from this study demonstrated that the repeated field annual applications of TCFM to the turf soils of a golf course located in Gyeongju city in the southern area of Korea showed the enhanced degradation of the parent compound TCFM, especially in the surface (0~15 cm) soil rather than the shallow subsurface (15~30 cm) and deep subsurface (30~45 cm) soils, compared to the corresponding surface (0~15 cm) and shallow and deep subsurface (15~30 cm and 30~45 cm) soils of the untreated plot. It appears that microorganisms in the soil may be involved in the enhanced degradation of TCFM.