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유전자 집적에 의해 아황산가스 저항성 증진 페튜니아를 개발하고자 비생물적스트레스 저항성 유전자로 널리 알려진 SOD2 와 NDPK2유전자가 각각 도입된 SOD2 형질전환 계통 SOD2-2-1-1-35(T₄)[S(T₄)]와 NDPK2 형질전환 계통 NDPK2-7-1(T₂)[N7-1(T₂)]간 상호교잡을 실시하여 교잡 제1세대를 획득하였다. 교잡 제1세대 중 SOD2와 NDPK2유전자가 모두 집적된 개체 획득율은 32.1-73.0%이었고, SOD2와 NDPK2유전자가 모두 집적된 개체는 SOD2 또는 NDPK2유전자가 단독 도입된 개체에 비해 아황산가스 30ppm처리 피해율이 2.6-5.1배 낮아 아황산가스 저항성이 증진되었음을 확인하였다. 또한 아황산가스 저항성이 증진된 교잡 제1세대를 자가수분에 의해 세대진전 시켜 획득한 교잡 제2세대의 아황산가스 저항성 검정을 통하여 교잡 제1세대에서의 아황산가스 저항성이 후대에서도 안정적으로 발현함을 확인하였다. 또한, 광합성 효율 증진 조사를 통해 아황산가스 저항성이 증진된 SOD2와 NDPK2유전자 집적 후대가 아황산 가스에 대한 스트레스를 덜 받고 있음을 확인하였고, RT-qPCR분석을 통해 SOD2와 NDPK2유전자 집적 후대의 아황산가스 저항성 증진이 SOD2와 NDPK2 유전자 집적에 의한 효과임을 확인하였다. The aim of this study was to develop a transgenic petunia with enhanced resistance to sulfur dioxide (SO₂) gas by stacking two genes, SOD2 and NDPK2, which are both known to confer resistance to abiotic stresses. The first-generation hybrids (TF1) were obtained through reciprocal crosses between an SOD2-transgenic line SOD2-2-1-1-35(T₄)[S(T₄)] and an NDPK2- transgenic line NDPK2-7-1(T₂)[N7-1(T₂)]. Approximately 32.1-73.0% of the first-generation hybrids (TF₁) carried both SOD2 and NDPK2 genes. These hybrids showed 2.6 and 5.1 times less damage than hybrids carrying only SOD2 or NDPK2 genes, respectively, when they were treated with SO₂ gas at 30 ppm. This confirmed that the heterozygous hybrids were more resistant to SO₂ than the hybrids carrying either one of the resistance genes. Second-generation hybrids (TF₂) were obtained by selfing the TF₁ individuals. We confirmed the expression of the stacked genes in the TF₂ hybrids by phenotypic observation of their response to SO₂ gas at 30 ppm as well as using RT-qPCR and photosynthetic efficiency.
This study was to examine the neuroticism related to psychological characteristics of each Sasang types using SCL-90-R with 107 students from College of Oriental Medicine, Daeguhaani University. We did ANOVA analysis with seven neuroticism-related sub-scales and found significant differences in somatization (F=3.701, p=0.028) and hostility (F=4.396, p=0.015). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (23.17±8.95) has significantly (p=0.048, p=0.012) higher score than Tae-Eum (19.25±5.97) and So-Yang(19.25±5.76) type in somatization. In hostility, the So-yang type (11.31±3.98) has significantly (p=0.011, p=0.015) higher score than Tae-Eum (8.80±2.61) and So-Eum (9.44±3.35) type. The ANOVA analysis with female subjects found significant differences in anxiety (F=3.88, p=0.03) and hostility (F=5.04, p=0.01). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (20.36±5.44, 12.36±3.82) has significantly (p=0.043, p=0.015) higher score compared to the So-Eum type (15.46±3.36, 8.69±2.06) in anxiety and hostility. The profile analysis using seven neuroticism-related subscalesof SCL-90-R did not revealed significant differences (Flatness with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=202.347, p=0.0001), Parallelism with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=1.428, p=0.191)). We discussed the implications of neuroticism in Sasang typology and SCL-90-R somatization, anxiety and hostility scales. This study showed opposite results compared to the previous studies that So-Eum type has higher neuroticism compared to the So-Yang and Tae-Eum type. The reason for this discrepancy between this and previous studies, and differences between male and female should be examined thoroughly with larger and balanced sample.
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Objectives : As the elderly population is continuing to increase, psychiatric diseases of the elderly are becoming an important social issue. This study looks into the demographical and clinical features of the elderly patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in a University hospital. Methods : The study subjects include patients admissioned in the closed wards of Soonchunhyang Seoul hospital and Cheonan hospital from March, 2000 to February, 2005 who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for bipolar disorder at the time of discharge. A total of 146 patients (76 men, 70 women) medical records were studied retrospectively. Subjects older than the age of 50 at time of admission were grouped as the old age group, whereas those who were younger than 50 as the young age group. Also among the old age group, those who had the first onset of episode under the age of 50 were grouped as the early onset group, whereas those who had the first onset after the age 50 were grouped as the late onset group. Results : The number of bipolar disorder patients in the young age group and old age group were 73 and 73 respectively. The number of early onset group and late onset group were 46 and 23 respectively. The old age group had a relatively higher incidence of bipolar II disorder than the young age group. Also in the old age group there was a higher incidence of hypomanic or depressive episode rather than manic episode compared to the young age group. And in the old age group psychotic symptoms were less common and the mean admission length shorter than the young age group. Additionally in the old age group treatment with Lithium monotherapy or with no mood stabilizers at all were relatively common. Among the old age group, late onset group had a higher rate of bipolar II disorder than the early onset group. Conclusion : This study shows differences in the demographical and clinical features among different age groups. But additional research would be required to determine whether the bipolar disorders in the elderly or late onset group are actually a different type of disorder from those of the young.
본 연구의 목적은 인터넷 게임을 중독적으로 사용하는 청소년들 (n=100)과 비중독적으로 사용하는 청소년들 (n=89)을 대상으로, 두 집단 사이에 충동성, 사회적 문제해결에 대한 태도와 능력, 의사소통 유형자 정도에 차이가 있는지를 알아보고자 하는 것이다. 각 집단은 Young의 인터넷 중독검사와 주 평균 사용시간을 사용하여 분류되었으며, 종속변인을 측정하기 위하여 Eysenck의 충동성 척도, 사회적 문제해결 양식 (SPSI), 사회적 문제해결 능력검사, Satir 이론을 바탕으로 구성된 의사소통 유형검사가 사용되었다. 연구결과, 게임을 중독적으로 사용하는 청소년들은 더 충동적이었으며, 문제해결에 대한 태도가 부정적이고, 문제해결 유능성이 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 두 집단 모두 회유형 의사소통을 주로 사용하는 것으로 나타났으나, 정도에 있어서는 중독집단이 더 산만하고, 지나치게 합리적으로 상황만을 중요시하거나, 지시적이고 명령적일 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 중독정도를 설명해주는 변인은 충동성이 가장 중요한 것으로 나타났으며, 두 집단을 가장 잘 판별해주는 변인은 SPSI의 문제지향적 접근행동에 대한 자기평가 (BS)였다. 이러한 결과는 과도한 인터넷 게임 사용이 청소년의 사회 기술 습득에 부정적인 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 시사하는 것이다. The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of young adolescents who are addicted to Internet gaming. Participants were 836 high school students and they were administered the modified Young`s Internet addiction inventory and other questionnaires assessing their Internet usage. We selected two groups of students -an addicted (n=100) and a non-addicted (n=89) group and compared their characteristics using the Eysenck impulsivity scale, social problem solving inventory (SPSI), social problem solving ability inventory, and the communication scale based on Satir theory. Results indicated that internet-addicted adolescents were more impulsive and showed low problem-solving abilities. In case of communication, they also showed poor abilities in seeing different points of view and understanding other`s feelings. To determine the relative contributions of these variables to explaining the Internet game addiction, stepwise multiple regression was conducted. It was demonstrated that impulsivity, cognitive attitudes of problem solving, and interpersonal negotiation strategy explained 24.7% of variance of Internet game addiction. In conclusion, these results suggest that the excessive Internet-gaming is associated with poor social skills in adolescents.
바나듐과 크롬의 쿠페론 착물의 전기화학적 행동을 아세트산 완충용액(pH 5.0)과 붕산염 완충용액(pH 9.5)에서 조사해 본 결과 크롬-쿠페론 착물의 환원봉우리전위(E_(ct)^(p))가 쿠페론의 봉우리전위(E₁^(p))보다 작다 (E_(ct)^(P) < E₁^(P)). 붕산염 완충용액에서 크롬-쿠페론계의 전도된 봉우리가 크게 나타나는 것은 E_(ct)^(P)와 E₁^(P)의 차이가 큰 때문인 것으로 생각된다 (ΔE = 0.40V). When the peak potentials of V-cupferron and Cr-cupferron complex compare at both buffer solution(pH 5.0 and pH 9.5), the peak potential of Cr-cupferron(E_(ct)^(P)) is smaller the peak potential of cupferron (E₁^(P)) at both buffer solution (E_(ct)^(p)) < E₁^(p)). The appearance of larger inverted peak of Cr-cupferron in borate buffer solution results from large difference of E_(ct)^(p) and E₁^(p) (ΔE=0.40 V).
The paper considers a cell allocation problem in the Mobile Wireless Communication Network with limited capacity of Base Switching Center(BSC) and Mobile Switching Center(MSC), and the aim is assigning cells to BSC and MSC for supporting an efficient handoff and reducing the cabling cost. The cell assignment problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming, and a genetic algorithm is developed to derive the optimal solution. A verity of numerical problems are presented and then some interesting properties are exploited that are useful for charactering the problem.
루테늄을 정량하기 위하여 벗김전압전류법을 사용하였다. 히드라진-초산용액에서 촉매효과와 측적방법을 결합하여 실험한 검출한계는 7.0x10-9M이다. 이때의 조건은 초산완충용액 0.01M, 히드라진0.01M, 축적전위 -0.76V, 축적시간 2.0분이다. Stripping voltammetric for the determination of Ruthenium is described. By the use of combined catalytic effects and accumulation in hydragine-acetate solution, the limit of detection is 7.0x10-9M. Optimized condition are 0.01M acetate buffer solution containing 0.01 M hydragine, an accumulation potential of -0.76V(vs. As/AgCl) and accumulation time of 2.0 min.
This study is to explore how consumers' needs for tactile cues affect their purchasing behaviors in the internet shopping mall. Since previous studies about internet shopping malls are mainly performed on the primary factors of perceived risk, there are insufficient studies of tactile cues for apparel products. Emphasis of this study is placed on verifying the following hypothesis; it is expected that consumers' needs for tactile cues affect apparel purchasing behaviors in inter-net shopping. The questionnaire was administered to 20 to 30 year old male and female respondents who are either students or businessmen living in the Busan area. 150 questionnaires were completed and collected for data analysis. The data were, using SPSS 10. 0 for Window, statistically analyzed by frequency and factor analysis for VARIMAX, Cronbach's coefficient and Linear regression analysis. Data were, using SPSS 10. 0 for Window, statistically analyzed by frequency and factor analysis for VARIMAX, Cronbach's coefficient, and ANOVA. The results of data analysis are as follows: First, the tactile cues negatively affect purchase intentions of consumers. This shows that apparel internet shoppers who have high desire for tactical cues tend to avoid purchasing products through the internet. Second, the factor analysis of the moderating effect on perceived risks shows that the perceived risks significantly moderate both the tactile cues and purchase intention of consumers. Third, analysis of purchased experience also shows that purchased experiences significantly moderate both the tactile cues and purchase intention.
쿠페론(Cupferron) 존재 하에서의 바나듐의 전기화학적 행동은 cupferron 1.0×10^(-4)M이 포함된 0.1M 아세트산 완충용액(pH 5.0)에서 순환전압 전류법으로 조사하였다. 이 조건에서 바나듐-쿠페론의 환원 반응은 (E_(p) = -0.76V) 확산 지배형 비가역반응으로 주사속도를 느리게 할 때 역주사에서 약한 전도된 봉우리가 나타난다. 이는 촉매현상의 표시가 된다. 바나듐-쿠페론 착물을 -0.40V에서 60초 동안 흡착 축적시키면 전류가 6배 정도 증가하므로 흡착과 촉매의 이중효과로 정량의 예민도를 높일 수 있다. 촉매효과를 증가시키기 위하여 보조 산화제로 브롬산 소듐을 가하였을 때 -0.10V 근처의 전도된 봉우리가 커지고 주 봉우리 (-0.75V)가 커지나 검출한계는 두 경우 비슷하다. 브롬산 소듐을 넣지 않았을 때와 넣었을 때의 검출한계는 각각 8.1×10^(-11)M, 7.1×10^(-11)M이다. Cyclic voltammetry is used for elucidating the electrochemical behavior of Vanadium-Cupferron complex in 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0) containing 1.0×10^(-4) M cupferron. The reduction of this complex (E_(p) = -0.76 V) is irreversible and diffusion controlled and scanning in the reverse direction produces a weak cathodic peak at slow scan rate, which is indicative of a cathodic process. When a 60 sec accumulation precedes the potential scan, a significantly (6 fold) larger cathodic peak is observed. Therefore, the dual amplification of adsorptive-catalytic effect offers higher sensitivity. By adding sodium bromate(oxidizing agent), the inverted peak current around -0.10 V in the reverse scan increase and main peak (-0.76 V) increases also a little, but the detection limit of both case is similar (8.1×10^(-11)M, 7.1×10^(-11)M)