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본 논문은 샬럿 브론테의 『교수』가 일인칭 남성 서술자의 삶의 이야기에 나타난 빅토리아 시대 자립에 대한 신화의 정체를 어떤 방식으로 폭로하는가를 탐구한다. 서술자의 기억에 의존한 자서전적 서술방식은 자아 정체성 확립의 과정과 연계해 삶을 세 가지 부분으로 나누어 전개된다. 서술자는 우선 산업 자본주의 환경에서 강압적인 통제에 성공적으로 저항했다고 말한다. 다음 그는 외국 기숙학교에서 교사생활을 하면서 여성들로부터 받는 성적 유혹에 굴복하지 않았음을 밝힌다. 마지막으로 가정의 평화와 안정을 이루기 위해 노력했음을 강조한다. 빅토리아 시대 자립의 원칙을 충실하게 지켰음을 스스로 자부하는 화자의 서사는 사실상 자립이라는 경제 지배이데올로기의 희생자임을 인지 못하는 무지일 뿐 아니라, 타자에 대한 자아의 우위성을 확보하기 위한 기만적인 자기 합리화의 수사이다. 서술자가 계속해서 자아통제에 실패할까 걱정하는 불안이야말로 그로 하여금 서사 전반에 걸쳐 표현되는 자아와 타자에 대한 예민하고 집착적인 감시를 촉발하게 한다. 이 소설은 자립을 자부하는 한 영웅의 서사가 사실 거부와 억압으로 점철되는 병적 현상임을 밝히고 있으며, 남성적 자기관리에 대한 담론의 실체를 파헤친다. This essay aims to investigate the ways in which Charlotte Brontë’s The Professor debunks the Victorian myth of self-help embedded in the first-person male narrator’s life. The character’s autobiographical memories seem to record three phases of his life in accordance with the process of establishing his own self-identity: his successful resistance to tyrannical surveillance in capitalistic setting, his victorious attempt to overcome the sexual temptations from women in the romanticized and foreign environment, and his strong efforts to secure domestic peace and stability. The narrator’s panegyric on his own adherence to the Victorian self-help credo is not only a naive appraisal of his economic experience without recognizing that he is a victim of the dominant ideology of self-reliance, but it is also a deceptive and self-justifying rhetoric in order to assert the primacy of his own self over the other. The narrator’s restless anxiety over the failure of his self mastery entails his sensitive and fastidious habits of constant surveillance. Divulging a hero’s pathological symptoms of a series of denial and repression, the novel interrogates his discourse on masculine success of self-management.
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The aim of this essay was to examine the circumventive logic of subjection in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre. The Victorian classical novel has been lauded as a feminist revolutionary text because it portrays a heroine’s achievement of self-identity and self-assertion against the domination of patriarchy. From Michel Foucault’s theoretical perspective with regard to subjectivity, however, an individual cannot become a subject without the regulatory restrictions of external power. For Jane, the coercive and restrictive powers from the Reeds, Lowood institution, Mr. Rochester, and St. John Rivers contribute to the making of her subjectivity. To borrow Louis Althusser’s terms, the ideological interpellation of those external powers constructs Jane’s soul and her consciousness, although her decisions both to get married to the wounded Mr. Rochester and to sacrifice herself for taking care of him derive from her misconception that her moral and ethical enactments are firmly based on her own self will and her natural promptings as an independent female individual.
This essay purports to examine how Charles Dickens`s Hard Times depicts the unnatural and tragic relationships between utilitarian political economy and the individuals who are affected by the economic principle in both the private sphere and the public one. Special attention must be paid to the adverse impact of the novel`s character Thomas Gradgrind`s principle of utilitarian education on his children Louisa and Tom in the household. Under the influence of her father`s dogmatic rules, Louisa develops her perverse libido toward her brother Tom as a way of escaping from the restraints and repression imposed upon her, which can be explicated by the Freudian theory of the pleasure principle and perversion. The Gradgrind-Louisa-Bounderby triangular model can elucidate the operation of sexual exchange of Louisa as an economic property negotiated between her father and the industrialist, which can be theoretically supported by Eve Sedgwick`s arguments about triangular transactions between men. The tension between Stephen and Bounderby in the public realm also testifies to the domination of the economic logics of self-help and self-interest over the working-class people, which can be examined through the lens of the Foucauldian theory of governmentality. In contrast, Sissy Jupe`s adherence to fancy and her affectionate sympathy for the few ignored by and alienated from the arithmetic calculation of utilitarianism can serve as an antidote to the ideologies of male-centered political economy.
This essay purports to reveal how George Eliot’s stories provide an alternative to the dominant motivations of commercial spirit in Victorian England. Eliot’s two stories, “The Sad Fortunes of the Reverend Amos Barton” and Silas Marner, present the matrix of economically oriented society where, to borrow Michel Foucault’s terms, homo economicus is governed by the ideas of interest, investment, and competition. The fundamental matrix of governmentality represented by the idea of Economic Man, however, holds the gaps which open up the possibilities of forming human relationships with reference to sympathetic affection. Eliot’s emphasis on a feeling of affection, however, does not exclude the material values. Rather, the novelist illuminates how the materiality simultaneously registers the primacy of its value in the course of the practical realization of sympathy, and loses its controlling power of economic governmentality in the process of reconciliation between the self and the other prompted by the affective feelings. In “Amos Barton,” the death of Milly, the sacrifice of a female character, is the crux of a reconciliation between the economically insensitive character, Barton, and the materially oriented parishioners in the community. In Silas Marner, Eppie, though described in terms of anthropomorphous materiality, helps Silas to free himself from the alienation occasioned by labor and the pursuit of self-interest.