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        • KCI등재

          Synergistic Effect of Laminin and Epidermal Growth Factor on Biological and Morphological Properties of Co-Cultured Myoblasts and Fibroblasts

          Mat Afandi Mohd Asyraf,Maarof Manira,Chowdhury S. R.,Bt. Hj. Idrus Ruszymah 한국조직공학과 재생의학회 2020 조직공학과 재생의학 Vol.17 No.6

          Background: One of the long-standing problems of myoblasts in vitro expansion is slow cell migration and this causes fibroblast population to exceed myoblasts. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of laminin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on co-cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts for cell attachment, proliferation and migration. Methods: Skeletal human muscle cells were cultured in four different conditions; control, EGF, laminin (Lam) and laminin EGF (Lam + EGF). Using live imaging system, their cellular properties; attachment, migration and growth were exposed to Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, and EGF-receptor (EGF-R) inhibitor, gefitinib were measured. Results: Myoblast migration and proliferation was enhanced significantly by synergistic stimulation of laminin and EGF (0.61 ± 0.14 µm/min, 0.008 ± 0.001 h−1) compare to that by EGF alone (0.26 ± 0.13 µm/min, 0.004 ± 0.0009 h−1). However, no changes in proliferation and migration were observed for fibroblasts among the culture conditions. Inhibition of Rho kinase resulted in the increase of the myoblast migration on the laminin-coated surface with EGF condition (0.64 ± 0.18 µm/min). Compared to the untreated conditions, myoblasts cultured on the laminin-coated surface and EGF demonstrated elongated morphology, and average cell length increase significantly. In contrast, inhibition of EGF-R resulted in the decrease of myoblast migration on the laminin coated surface with EGF supplemented condition (0.43 ± 0.05 µm/min) in comparison to the untreated control (0.53 ± 0.05 µm/min). Conclusion: Laminin and EGF preferentially enhance the proliferation and migration of myoblasts, and Rho kinase and EGF-R play a role in this synergistic effect. These results will be beneficial for the propagation of skeletal muscle cells for clinical applications.


          The Re-Expression of Collagen Type 2, Aggrecan and Sox 9 in Tissue-Engineered Human Articular Cartilage

          ( Munirah Sha`ban ),( Aminuddin Bin Saim ),( Samsudin Osman Cassim ),( Chua Kien Hui ),( Fuzina Nor Hussein ),( Ruszymah Bt Hj Idrus ) 한국조직공학과 재생의학회 2005 조직공학과 재생의학 Vol.2 No.4

          This study was designed to verify the optimal · basic culture media that promote chondrocytes proliferation in vitro in order to facilitate adequate amount of chondrocytes for cartilage reconstructionas well as maintaining cartilage specific phenotype. Human articular chondrocytes were cultured in three types of basic culture media Ham`s F12, DMEM and the equivalent mixture of F12:DMEM. Cultured chondrocytes were trypsinized as they reached confluency. The viability and total number of cell were recorded at every passage. Large-scale culture expansion was used to reconstruct tissue-engineered cartilage. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression of collagen Type II, collagen Type I, aggrecan and Sox 9 gene, both in monolayer culture and in the engineered cartilage. The mixture of F12:DMEM promotes significantly greater (p<0.05) chondrocytes proliferation at every passage compared to the individual medium. Monolayer cultured chondrocytes exhibited down-regulation expression pattern of collagen Type II gene, aggrecan and Sox 9, whilst the expression of collagen Type I is up-regulated. Tissue-engineered cartilage morphologically and histologically resembled normal hyaline cartilage. Moreover, tissue-engineered cartilage re-expressed the specific chondrogenesis markers; collagen Type II, aggrecan and Sox 9. In conclusion, the mixture of F12:DMEM enhanced human articular chondrocytes proliferation thus provided adequate amount of chondrocytes for cartilage reconstruction. The new cartilage formed phenotypically resembles native cartilage. This results hold promise for the use of tissue-engineered cartilage implant for future orthopaedic reconstructive surgery.

        • KCI등재후보

          Original Article : Sox-9 Transient Transfection Enhances Chondrogenic Expression of Osteoarthritic Human Articular Chondrocytes In Vitro: Preliminary Analysis

          ( Munirah Sha` Ban ),( Samsudin Osman Cassim ),( Nor Hamdan Mohd Yahya ),( Aminuddin Bin Saim ),( Ruszymah Bt Hj Idrus ) 한국조직공학과 재생의학회 2011 조직공학과 재생의학 Vol.8 No.1

          In this study, we are taking step to actively manage osteoarthritis that may help gain control over osteoar-thritic pain and delay the degenerative changes in articular cartilage in future. We transiently over expressed cartilage transcriptional factor, human sox-9 gene in chondrocytes derived from consented osteoarthritic patients after joint surgery. The expression vector carrying human sox-9 gene, pAdTrack-sox9 was transformed into One Shot® TOP10 Chemically Competent E. coli according to the manufacturer protocol. Plasmid purification was performed in accordance with QIAGEN® plasmid purification kit procedure. We compared the efficiency between two transfection techniques i.e. lipofection using Lipofectamine™ 2000 kit from Invitrogen, USA and nucleofection using Human Chondrocytes Nucleofector® kit from Amaxa Biosystem, Germany. Chondrocytes were cultured and transfected with sox-9 gene at passage 1 according to the manufacturers’ protocols. Transfected chondrocytes were expanded until passage 3. Expression of chondrogenic markers namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR method using iScriptTM One Step RT-PCR Kit with SYBR® Green, BIO-RAD. Chondrogenic dedifferentiation marker, collagen type I was also analyzed using the quantitative RT-PCR method. Expression level of each targeted gene was normalized to the housekeeping gene, human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Overall efficiency ranging from 50% to 60% could be achieved using both transfection techniques. Transiently transfecting cells demonstrated remarkable competency sustaining specific chondrogenic genes namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9, significantly better than in the non-transfected cells. It is believed that this preliminary finding has to be extended to develop its full potential since sox-9 transcription factor is essential for chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage formation. Sox9 gene therapy would delay the degenerative changes in articular cartilage which is consistent to the up-regulation of cartilage-specific markers especially collagen type II synthesis in vivo.

        • KCI등재

          Centella asiatica (L.)-Neurodifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote the Regeneration of Peripheral Nerve

          Hanita Mohd Hussin,Mahazura Mat Lawi,Nor Hazla Mohamed Haflah,Abdul Yazid Mohd Kassim,Ruszymah Bt Hj Idrus,Yogeswaran Lokanathan 한국조직공학과 재생의학회 2020 조직공학과 재생의학 Vol.17 No.2

          BACKGROUND: Centella asiatica (L.) is a plant with neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties; however, its effects on the neurodifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and on peripheral nerve injury are poorly explored. This study aimed to investigate the effects of C. asiatica (L.)-neurodifferentiated MSCs on the regeneration of peripheral nerve in a critical-size defect animal model. METHODS: Nerve conduit was developed using decellularised artery seeded with C. asiatica-neurodifferentiated MSCs (ndMSCs). A 1.5 cm sciatic nerve injury in Sprague–Dawley rat was bridged with reversed autograft (RA) (n = 3, the gold standard treatment), MSC-seeded conduit (MC) (n = 4) or ndMSC-seeded conduit (NC) (n = 4). Pinch test and nerve conduction study were performed every 2 weeks for a total of 12 weeks. At the 12th week, the conduits were examined by histology and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: NC implantation improved the rats’ sensory sensitivity in a similar manner to RA. At the 12th week, nerve conduction velocity was the highest in NC compared with that of RA and MC. Axonal regeneration was enhanced in NC and RA as shown by the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP). The average number of myelinated axons was significantly higher in NC than in MC but significantly lower than in RA. The myelin sheath thickness was higher in NC than in MC but lower than in RA. CONCLUSION: NC showed promising effects on nerve regeneration and functional restoration similar to those of RA. These findings revealed the neuroregenerative properties of C. asiatica and its potential as an alternative strategy for the treatment of critical size nerve defect.

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