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( Mi Hee Kim ), ( Sung Jun Kim ), ( Hyoung Soo Kim ), ( Kyung Ho Kim ), ( Myoung Kuk Jang ), ( Jin Heon Lee ), ( Hak Ang Kim ), ( Yeoung Soo No ), ( Jin Hwan Kim ), ( Woon Geon Shin ) 대한내과학회 2012 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2012 No.1
<P>An effective resistive-switching effect has been observed in silicon nitride (Si<SUB>3</SUB>N<SUB>4</SUB>) dielectrics in Ag/Si<SUB>3</SUB>N<SUB>4</SUB>/Al memory cells. The ratio of the low resistance to high resistance state was larger than 10<SUP>7</SUP> at ±1.2 V for a 10 nm thick Si<SUB>3</SUB>N<SUB>4</SUB> layer. This switching behavior is attributed to a change in the conductivity of the Si<SUB>3</SUB>N<SUB>4</SUB> dielectrics, depending on whether nitride-related traps are filled with electrons under positive biases or unfilled under negative biases. This assertion is experimentally confirmed from the relationship between the amount of charges trapped in the Si<SUB>3</SUB>N<SUB>4</SUB> layer and the corresponding changes in its resistance with respect to bias voltages. In addition, the formation or dissolution of the conductive path is confirmed by conductive atomic force microscopy current images.</P>
<P>In the area of wireless sensor networks, the efficient spatial query processing based on the locations of sensor nodes is required. Especially, spatial queries on two sensor networks need a distributed spatial join processing among the sensor networks. Because the distributed spatial join processing causes lots of wireless transmissions in accessing sensor nodes of two sensor networks, our goal of this paper is to reduce the wireless transmissions for the energy efficiency of sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient distributed spatial join algorithm on two heterogeneous sensor networks, which performs in-network spatial join processing. To optimize the in-network processing, we also propose a Grid-based Rectangle tree (GR-tree) and a grid-based approximation function. The GR-tree reduces the wireless transmissions by supporting a distributed spatial search for sensor nodes. The grid-based approximation function reduces the wireless transmissions by reducing the volume of spatial query objects which should be pushed down to sensor nodes. Finally, we compare naïve and existing approaches through extensive experiments and clarify our approach's distinguished features.</P>
Background: The Korean government launched a project in 2008, where the amount of rice used as raw ingredient in rice-based foods in 2012 was planned to increase up to 10% (470,000 ton) of the total rice production through developing various new rice-based processed foods and their commercial manufacturing technology. Among the four major rice-based processed foods, rice cakes and noodles need rice flour as their main raw ingredient. Technology in rice flour utilization and manufacturing is far behind than the technology pertinent to wheat flour in many subject areas. Purpose: This review aims to provide information on rice flour utilization and manufacturing with some fundamental subjects in the area of size reduction. Results: A variety of food items including bread, noodle, cake, cookie, muffin, pre-mix, beverage, vinegar, surimi, and artificial meat have found rice flour as their raw ingredient. Rice bread made out of 100% rice flour has been developed and is now sold in retail stores. Various noodle products made from rice flour are also on the market. Issues on product definition and labeling regulation about rice flour content of the products were explored. Generalized grinding equations available in the literature were seldom used in practice; instead, it has been a general practice to develop empirical equations from test milling data. Introductory remarks on three popular particle size measurement methods (sieving, Coulter counter, light diffraction) were explained. Mathematical expressions frequently used to describe particle size distribution and to correlate cumulative quantity of particles with particle size were represented. Milling methods used in producing rice flour were described along with their advantages and disadvantages. Because of their profound effect on functional properties of the rice flour, four rice flour milling equipments used at both laboratory experiments and commercial manufacturing plants were discussed.
<P>There has been much interest in a spatial query which acquires sensor readings from sensor nodes inside specified geographical area of interests. A centralized approach performs the spatial query at a server after acquiring all sensor readings. However, it incurs high wireless transmission cost in accessing all sensor nodes. Therefore, various in-network spatial search methods have been proposed, which focus on reducing the wireless transmission cost. However, the in-network methods sometimes incur unnecessary wireless transmissions because of dead space, which is spatially indexed but does not contain real data. In this paper, we propose a hybrid spatial query processing algorithm which removes the unnecessary wireless transmissions. The main idea of the hybrid algorithm is to find results of a spatial query at a server in advance and use the results in removing the unnecessary wireless transmissions at a sensor network. We compare the in-network method through several experiments and clarify our algorithm's remarkable features.</P>