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      • 순막조건반응과 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 다단위 신경활동에 적핵손상이 미치는 영향

        최준식,김기석 한국심리학회 1990 한국심리학회지 생물 및 생리 Vol.2 No.1

        토끼 순막반응의 고전적 조건화 동안 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 다단위 신경활동을 기록하고 대측 적핵 손상이 순막조건반응과 치상-중간핵의 신경활동에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 다단위 신경활동은 조건화가 진행되는 동안 순막반응과 함께 발달하는 양상을 보였다. 적핵 손상 후에는 순막 무조건 반응은 영향을 받지 않았지만 조건화된 순막반응은 완전히 사라졌다. 신경활동은 다소 감소하였으나 파괴전과 비교할 때, 또 적핵이외의 구조물이 손상된 통제집단과 비교해서 통계적으로 유의미한 차이가 관찰되지는 않았다. 본 연구는 토끼의 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 신경활동이 조건화와 깊은 관련을 맺고 있으며, 소뇌로부터 원심성 입력을 받는 적핵을 손상하면 조건화된 반응이 사라진다는 이전 연구들을 지지한다. 그러나 적핵손상 후에 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 신경활동이 감소하는 것은 선행연구들로는 설명되지 않는 결과로서 더욱 정교한 방법을 이용한 후속실험의 여지를 남겼다. Multiple unit activity(MUA) was recorded from the cerebellar dentato-interpositus nucleus during classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response(NMR) in 12 rabbits, with the use of a tone conditioned stimulus(CS:1㎑, 85㏈ 300msec), and an airpuff unconditioned stimulus(US:100g/㎠, 100msec). Comparisons of MUA with the amplitude-time course of NMR show that they are closely related and it supports previous studies that cerebellum is critically involved in acquisition of conditioned NMR. Following 5 days of the acquisition trainning, contralateral red nucleus(RN) was lesioned electrolytically. Results show that lesions of the RN completely abolished the previously established CR but not UR. No signs of CR recovery was seen after the additional 2 days of relearning period. This result is consistent with previous studies which have demonstrated that RN is an essential locus mediating the classically conditioned NMR. Neuronal responses were decrease after lesion. Even though this decrease is not statistically significant, it suggests that red nucleus does not only relay CR to the accessory abducens nucleus but also has some effect on cerebellar neuronal activity through another unidentified pathway.

      • 파블로프 공포 조건화에 관련된 편도체 회로

        최준식,김진석 한국뇌학회 2002 한국뇌학회지 Vol.2 No.1

        공포반응(fear)은 동물의 행동-인지-정서반응에 걸친 포괄적인 시스템으로서 위험한 자극으로부터 개체를 보호하는 기능을 수행하는 과정에서 나타난 진화의 산물이다. 일부 자극에 대한 공포반응은 선천적으로 타고나지만, 많은 다른 종류의 자극에 대한 공포반응은 신속하게 학습될 수 있고 그렇게 학습된 반응은 오랫동안 지속된다. 이런 학습과정을 통해 동물들은 새로운 위협에 적절히 반응할 수 있게 된다. 이 논문에서는 이러한 공포반응의 어떤 측면들이 정서, 학습 그리고 기억의 신경생물학적 기제를 이해하는 데 유용한 모델 시스템으로 쓰일 수 있는가를 설명하려 한다. Fear is an innate behavioral-cognitive-emotional system that evolved because of its evolutionary success in protecting animals (including humans) from danger. While fear to certain kinds of stimuli is unlearned, fear can also be acquired rapidly and lastingly to other kinds of stimuli, allowing animals to respond adaptively to new environmental threats. This article will present key aspects of fear that makes it a useful model system for understanding the neurobiology of emotion, learning and memory.

      • 순막조건화에서의 적핵과 소뇌 중간핵의 기능

        김현택,최준식,김기석 한국심리학회 1996 한국심리학회지 생물 및 생리 Vol.3 No.1

        토끼 순막조건화에 관여하는 뇌간과 소뇌의 구조물들의 기능을 검토하고자 뇌간의 대표적 운동핵인 적핵과 소뇌의 심부핵 중 하나인 중간핵을 연구대상으로 선정하였다. 실험 1에서는 조건자극으로 400msec동안의 정현파 청각자극을 제시하고 무조건자극으로는 뇌간의 운동핵이며 순막반응의 출력핵이라고 알려진 적핵에 자극용 전극을 삽입하여 전기자극을 가함과 동시에 각막 공기분사를 복합적으로 제시하면서 전형적인 지연조건화를 시켰다. 그리고 소거시에는 조건자극과 함께 적핵전기자극만을 제시하였다. 이와함께 조건반응의 신경적 가소성 형성의 후보구조물로 알려진 중간핵에 기록용 전극을 삽입하여 조건화동안의 중간핵 뉴런들의 다단위 활동을 기록하였다. 실험 결과 적핵자극은 조건화의 습득과 소거에 유의미한 영향을 미치지 못하였다. 따라서 적핵은 순막조건화에서는 단순운동 출력핵임을 확인하였다. 그와 함께 소뇌 중간핵에서의 다단위활동의 기록은 이 핵이 조건반응이 형성되는 가소성구조물 또는 그 출력을 받는 구조물임을 입증해 주었다. 실험 2에서는 조건자극 및 무조건자극복합은 실험 1과 동일하게 하였다. 단지 소뇌 중간핵에 자극전극을 삽입하여 전기자극을 가하면서 조건화를 시킨 점만 다를 뿐이다. 결과를 보면 중간핵을 자극하면 순막조건화의 습득에서 유의미한 지체를 보였고 소거에서 유의미한 촉진을 보였다. 이는 중간핵이 조건반응의 형성 및 해제에 중요한 역할을 하는 구조물임을 시사하는 것이다. The red nucleus and the cerebellar interpositus nucleus were successively investigated in terms of multiple plastic structures mediating the classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response (NMR). In experiment 1, monopolar tungsten stimulating electrodes and low-impedance monopolar tungsten recording microelectrodes were chronically implanted into the red nucleus and the interpositus nucleus respectively. All animals were trained with delay conditioning paradigm. In order to investigate any involvment of the red nucleus in the conditioning of NMR, animals of the experimental group were trained with the tone conditioned stimulus (CS) (400msec, 1㎑, 85㏈, sine wave) and unconditioned stimulus (US) consisted of the electrical stimulation of the red nucleus (100msec, 400㎐, pulse width 0.1msec, 60~150㎂) and simultaneous corneal airpuff(100msec, 100g/㎠) in the five aquisition sessions. In two successive extinction sessions, the animals were trained with the tone CS and the electrical stimulation US of the red nucleus alone. Animals of the control group were trained with the tone CS and the corneal airpuff US in the same aquisition sessions and with the tone CS alone in the same extinction sessions. Results showed that the electrical stimulation US of the red nucleus neither facillitates the learning rate in the aquistion stage nor maintains the conditioned response(CR) in the extinction stage. It may be concluded that the red nucleus is a mere output structure and is not an essential one in the neural network mediating the conditioning of NMR. Multiple unit activity(MUA) recorded from the cerebellar interpositus nucleus was processed to 16msec-bin histogram and the NMR was averaged in each session. The averaged NMR was highly correlated with the histogram and the histogram of MUA preceded the averaged NMR. This supports the previous reports that the cerebellar interpositus nucleus may be the neural substrate of the conditioning of NMR. In experiment 2, stimulating electrodes and recording microelectrodes were chronically implanted into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus and the red nucleus respectively. All training methods were identical with the experiment 1, except for exchanging the stimulating target structure for the recording one. Results showed that the electrical stimulation US of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus severely retarded the aqusition of the CR. It is concluded that the cerebellar interpositus nucleus may be a structure of plasticity included in an essential neural network mediating the conditioning of NMR. Possible interpretations of the result, concerning the side effect of the electrical stimulation and the function of the inferior olive-cerebellar cortex-interpositus nucleus-inferior olive recurrent loop, are discussed.

      • 순막반응의 조건화에 관여하는 신경회로에서의 부외전핵의 역할

        김현택,이두현,최준식,김기석 한국심리학회 1990 한국심리학회지 생물 및 생리 Vol.2 No.1

        토끼의 소뇌 중간핵에서 순막조건화 기간동안 다단위 기록을 하였다. 다단위 활동은 학습의 초기에는 조건자극과 무조건자극에 대한 유발반응만을 보였으나 학습이 진행됨에 따라 증가하였다. 이 다단위 활동을 회기별로 16msec bin 히스토그램을 작성하여 회기별 순막반응 평균치와 교차 상관값을 구하니 상당한 정도의 상관을 보였으며 더우기 다단위 활동의 히스토그램이 평균화된 순막반응을 수십 msec 앞섰다. 이런 결과는 중간핵의 다단위 활동이 학습의 신경적 지표가 되며 중간핵은 순막조건화의 신경적 근저가 될 수 있음을 보여주었다. 몇몇 연구에서는 부외전핵 또는 외전핵에 무조건 자극으로 전기자극을 주어 순막조건화가 가능하였다고 보고하고 있으므로 본 연구는 이 부외전핵이 단순한 반응의 출력핵에 불과한지 또는 습득된 순막조건화의 파지에 필요한지를 밝히고자 하였다. 그래서 조건화정도의 지표로서 행동적 순막반응과 중간핵 다단위 활동의 히스토그램을 관찰하면서 학습이 진행된후 부외전핵을 손상시켰다. 손상후 행동적 순막반응은 크게 감소하거나 사라졌지만 중간핵에서의 다단위 활동은 여전히 형성된 순막조건화가 건재함을 보여 주었다. 이 결과로서 부외전핵은 단순운동출력핵이며 순막조건화의 파지에 관여하는 부위가 아니라고 결론지었다. Multiple unit activity(MUA) was recorded from the cerebellar dentato-interpositus nucleus during classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response(NMR) in the rabbit with a tone conditioned stimulus(CS) and an airpuff unconditioned stimulus(US). The MUA was processed to 16msec bin histogram and the NMR was averaged in each session respectively. The result showed that The averaged NMR was highly correlated with the histogram and that the histogram of MUA preceded the averaged NMR by several tens millisecond. This supports the previous reports that dentato-interpositus nucleus may be the neural substrate of the NMR conditioning. In some studies, it was reported that the stimulation of accessory abducens nucleus as US can support the NMR conditioning. So, one purpose of this study was the examination of the role of accessory abducens nucleus in the NMR conditioning. Following days of aquisition, the nucleus was lesioned electrolytically. The result showed that the lesion abolished both conditioned and unconditioned responses, but MUA recorded from deutatointerpositus nucleus maintains the same level as it prior to lesion. Results suggest that accessory abducens nucleus is merely motor output nucleus and isn't involved in the retention of the NMR conditioning.

      • OB-63 : Positive effects of Teratogenic risk counseling in pregnant women inadvertently exposed to medications

        ( Hyo Yeon Gwak ),( Jung Eun Lee ),( Ju Young Choi ),( So Yeon Kim ),( Song Mi Park ),( June Seek Choi1,),( Hyun Kyong Ahn ),( Min Hyung Kim ),( Jin Hoon Chung ),( Moon Young Kim ),( Hyun Mee Ryu ),( 대한산부인과학회 2014 대한산부인과학회 학술대회 Vol.100 No.-

        목적: To evaluate the positive effects of teratogenic risk counseling in pregnant women inadvertently exposed to medication in early pregnancy. 방법: In a prospective cohort study, 250 pregnant women exposed to medications in early pregnancy were recruited after teratogenic risk counseling at Korean MotherSafe Counsling Center, which has given information about teratogenic risk of medication to pregnant women. Positive effects are evaluated by visual analogue scale(VAS) for perception on teratogenic risk and percent prefering termination of pregnancy after medication exposures in pregnancy. 결과: Mean age of participants is 31.8±5.3years old. Mean gravidity is 2.4±2.1. Medications exposed in early pregnancy include antibiotics, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, antacid and so on. Mean perceptive teratogen risk before and after the counseling is 33.9±1.6% and 15.8±1.6%, respectively. And mean percent prefering termination of pregnancy (≥5) before and after the counseling is 31.1±1.9% and 13.5±1.7%, respectively. 결론: Our data suggest that information on teratogenic risk for pregnant women inadvertently exposed to medication may have positive effects for reassuring pregnant women and preventing termination of pregnancy.

      • The role of amygdala nuclei in the expression of auditory signaled two-way active avoidance in rats.

        Choi, June-Seek,Cain, Christopher K,LeDoux, Joseph E Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press 2010 Learning & Memory Vol.17 No.3

        <P>Using a two-way signaled active avoidance (2-AA) learning procedure, where rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus, we tested the contributions of the lateral (LA), basal (B), and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala to the expression of instrumental active avoidance conditioned responses (CRs). Discrete or combined lesions of the LA and B, performed after the rats had reached an asymptotic level of avoidance performance, produced deficits in the CR, whereas CE lesions had minimal effect. Fiber-sparing excitotoxic lesions of the LA/B produced by infusions of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) also impaired avoidance performance, confirming that neurons in the LA/B are involved in mediating avoidance CRs. In a final series of experiments, bilateral electrolytic lesions of the CE were performed on a subgroup of animals that failed to acquire the avoidance CR after 3 d of training. CE lesions led to an immediate rescue of avoidance learning, suggesting that activity in CE was inhibiting the instrumental CR. Taken together, these results indicate that the LA and B are essential for the performance of a 2-AA response. The CE is not required, and may in fact constrain the instrumental avoidance response by mediating the generation of competing Pavlovian responses, such as freezing.</P>

      • KCI등재

        심리학 및 행동생물학적 연구에서 동물 로봇의 활용과 전망

        최준식(June-Seek Choi) 한국로봇학회(논문지) 2022 로봇학회 논문지 Vol.17 No.1

        Utilization of small robots in psychology and biology provides a new breakthrough in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of various animal behavior. The expansion of robot use in animal research is partly due to increased availability of economically plausible mobile robots and also due to the current shift in animal research toward more ecologically valid experiments. Ground-breaking experimental findings are expected when the behavioral variables are manipulated in more natural situations. In addition, the results from laboratory could be generalized more easily with added ecological validity. The current paper attempts to review a wide range of applications of animal robots used to study animal behavior and to highlight major advantages and limitations. In particular, this review focuses more on the psychological impact of animal robots than engineering details about their structure and operation. Finally, this review will provide some practical considerations when employing robots in animal experiments.

      • KCI등재

        순막조건반응과 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 다단위 신경활동에 적핵손상이 미치는 영향

        최준식(June Seek Choi),김기석(Ki Suk Kim) 한국심리학회 1990 한국심리학회지 인지 및 생물 Vol.2 No.-

        토끼 순막반응의 고전적 조건화 동안 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 다단위 신경활동을 기록하고 대측 적핵 손상이 순막조건반응과 치상-중간핵의 신경활동에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 다단위 신경활동은 조건화가 진행되는 동안 순막반응과 함께 발달하는 양상을 보였다. 적핵 손상 후에는 순막 무조건 반응은 영향을 받지 않았지만 조건화된 순막반응은 완전히 사라졌다. 신경활동은 다소 감소하였으나 파괴전과 비교할 때, 또 적핵이외의 구조물이 손상된 통제집단과 비교해서 통계적으로 유의미한 차이가 관찰되지는 않았다. 본 연구는 토끼의 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 신경활동이 조건화와 깊은 관련을 맺고 있으며, 소뇌로부터 원심성 입력을 받는 적핵을 손상하면 조건화된 반응이 사라진다는 이전 연구들을 지지한다. 그러나 적핵손상 후에 소뇌 치상-중간핵의 신경활동이 감소하는 것은 선행연구들로는 설명되지 않는 결과로서 더욱 정교한 방법을 이용한 후속실험의 여지를 남겼다. Multiple unit activity(MUA) was recorded from the cerebellar dentato-interpositus nucleus during classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response(NMR) in 12 rabbits, with the use of a tone conditioned stimulus(CS:1㎑, 85㏈ 300msec), and an airpuff unconditioned stimulus(US:100g/㎠, 100msec). Comparisons of MUA with the amplitude-time course of NMR show that they are closely related and it supports previous studies that cerebellum is critically involved in acquisition of conditioned NMR. Following 5 days of the acquisition trainning, contralateral red nucleus(RN) was lesioned electrolytically. Results show that lesions of the RN completely abolished the previously established CR but not UR. No signs of CR recovery was seen after the additional 2 days of relearning period. This result is consistent with previous studies which have demonstrated that RN is an essential locus mediating the classically conditioned NMR. Neuronal responses were decrease after lesion. Even though this decrease is not statistically significant, it suggests that red nucleus does not only relay CR to the accessory abducens nucleus but also has some effect on cerebellar neuronal activity through another unidentified pathway.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy using the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea scale in Korea

        ( Hyun Joung Choi ),( Yoon Joo Bae ),( June Seek Choi ),( Hun Kyong Ahn ),( Hyun Sook An ),( Dal Soo Hong ),( Jeong-Sup Yun ),( Jung Yeol Han ) 대한산부인과학회 2018 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.61 No.1

        Objective Severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and poorer quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of NVP and maternal well-being status using the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) scale in a Korean population. Methods A total of 527 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at 4 hospitals were asked to participate in the study between January 2015 and June 2015. The severity of NVP was evaluated by the PUQE scale and maternal well-being status was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical analyses were performed to determine the risk factors associated with NVP and the associations between the severity of NVP and QOL. Results Among the 472 eligible pregnant women, 381 (80.7%) were suffering from NVP during pregnancy. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in any of the variables between the 2 study groups, with the exception of smoking, alcohol consumption, and history of NVP. NVP history was found to be the most powerful risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 11.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-28.7). The correlation coefficient (r) between the VAS scores of maternal well-being status and PUQE severity was -0.25 (r<sup>2</sup>=0.062; P-<0.001). Conclusion In this study, an explicit decline in maternal well-being status was observed according to severity of NVP. The PUQE scale may be of help to clinicians, healthcare providers, and researchers because of its simplicity and usefulness as a tool for NVP evaluation.

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