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목적 : 본 연구는 화상환자에서 면역이상의 기전을 조사코져 T-세포의 활성을 나타내는 가용성 interleukin-2 수용체(IL-2R), 대식세포의 활성을 나타내는 neopterin, tumor necrosis factor(TNF) 및 interleukin-6 (IL-6), 그리고 호중구의 활성을 반영하는 elastase-α1-antitrypsin을 측정하였다. 또한 lipopolysaccharide(LPS)가 이들 면역세포의 활성화에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 대상 및 방법 : 30예의 화상환자를 대상으로 화상후 1일, 7일, 14일, 21일, 28일에 각각 혈액을 채취하여 혈청중 가용성 IL-2R, TNF, IL-6, 그리고 elastase-α1-antitrypsin은 각각 효소면역법으로, 혈청중 neopterin은 radioimmunoassay법으로 측정하였다. LPS가 말초 단핵세포에 미치는 영향은 역전사 중합효소 연쇄반응을 통하여 각종 cytokines의 mRNA 발현을 측정하였다. 결과 : 화상환자에서 혈청중 가용성 IL-2R은 화상후 1일째부터 대조군에 비하여 유의성 있게 증가되어 7일과 14일째에 최고치를 나타냈으며 그 이후에는 다소 감소하였으나 대조군보다는 유의한 증가를 나타냈다. 화상환자를 중화상, 중등도화상, 경도화상으로 분류하여 혈청중 가용성 IL-2R 치를 비교해본 결과 중증 화상일수록 더욱 높은 치를 나타냈다. 화상환자에서 혈청중 neopterin 역시 화상후 1일째부터 증가되어 전 관찰기간 동안 대조군에 비해 유의한 높은 치를 나타냈다. 경도화상과 중등도 화상에서는 서로 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았으나 중환자에서는 경도 혹은 중등도 화상환자에 비해 유의한 증가를 보였다. 화상환자에서 혈청중 TNF 농도는 화상후 1일부터 증가되어 관찰전기간에 걸쳐 유의한 증가를 나타냈으며 중등도 화상환자에서 가장 높은 치를 보였다. 혈청중 IL-6치 역시 화상 전기간에 걸쳐 대조군보다 유의한 증가를 나타냈으며 중화상 환자에서 가장 높은 치를 나타냈다. 화상은 또한 혈청중 elastase-α1-antitrypsin 농도를 현저히 증가시켰다. 즉 화상후 1일에 elastase-α1-antitrypsin 농도는 정상인보다 5배 높았으며 그 이후 약 4주간 계속 높은 농도를 유지하다가 환자가 회복되면서 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 중등도화상 및 중화상환자의 혈청중 elastase-α1-antitrypsin 농도는 경도 화상환자에서 비해 유의한 증가를 보였다. 한편 화상환자에서 면역이상을 초래하는 주된 요인으로 여겨지는 lipopolysaccharide는 면역세포를 총체적으로 활성화시켜 IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF, IFN-γ, TGF-β, GM-CSF, IL-2R의 유전자발현을 현저히 증가시켰다. 결론 : 화상환자에서 T-세포, 대식세포, 호중구의 활성화를 반영하는 가용성 IL-2R, neopterin, ,TNF, IL-6, elastase-α1-antitrypsin치가 혈중에 증가되어 있으며 화상의 정도가 심할수록 더 높았다. Cell-mediated immunity frequently becomes severely impaired after thermal injury. However, the cause of postburn immune dysfunction is unclear and controversy exists over both pathophysiology and clinical relevance of these abnormalities. This study was undertaken to investigate the immune responses in vivo of patients with burn. Levels of soluble IL-2R, a sensitive marker of T-cell activation, levels of serum TNF, IL-6, and neopterin, an index of macrophage activation, and levels of serum elastase-α1-antitrypsin, an index of neutrophil activation, were measured in serial serum samples taken from 30 burned patients. In patients with burn, soluble IL-2R levels were increased over a 4-week interval with peak concentrations reached during the 2nd week after burn. Patients with severe burn showed a higher soluble IL-2R levels than those with mild or moderate burn. In addition soluble IL-2R significantly correlated with burn size. The levels of serum neopterin were already increased at the first day following burn, and remained at a high level throughout the total period studied (28 days). Patients with severe burn showed significantly higher concentration of serum neopterin than mild or moderate burn. There was positive relationship between the burn sizes and the levels of neopterin. A significant positive correlation was also found between serum soluble IL-2R levels and neopterin levels in burn patients. Levels of serum TNF and IL-6 were also significantly increased over a 4-week interval in burn patients. The levels of serum elastase-α1-antitrypsin were also already increased at the first day following burn, and remained at a high level over a 4-week. Patients with moderate or severe burn showed significantly higher concentration of serum elastase-α1-antitrypsin than those with mild burn. There was no significant relationship between the burn extent and the level of elastase-α1-antitrypsin. LPS increased the transcription of all the cytokines we examined in peripheral mononuclear cells, i.e., IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5_IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF, TGF-β, GM-CSF, and IL-2R. We conclude that soluble IL-2R, neopterin, TNF, IL-6, and elastase-α1-antitrypsin might be useful parameters for monitoring of the clinical course in burn patients. Moreover, they indicate that T-cell, macrophage, and neutrophil activation might play the central role in the pathogenesis of the immuno-logic and metabolic disturbance that follows thermal injury.
Objectives:In Korean medicine, Curculiginis Rhizoma was treated for arthritis in remedy. But efficacy of Curculiginis Rhizoma on collagen induced arthritis was not revealed. Methods:Anti inflammatory effect of Curculiginis Rhizoma was researched in vitro with RAW264.7 cell and cell toxicity, levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12) and PGE2 were analyzed by ELISA assay. Inflammatory protein were analyzed by western blotting assay (JNK, ERK, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-1β). In vivo, collagen induced arthritis mice model was used to evaluate anti-inflammation effect through arthritis index, immune cell number and cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) in serum. Results:ECR(Extract of Curculiginis Rhizoma) has not shown cell toxicity in 200 ㎍/㎖ on RAW264.7 cell. ECR suppressed releases of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and PGE2 on RAW264.7 cell treated with lipopolysacharide (1 ㎍/㎖). And ECR inhibited regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA, reduced protein release of JNK, ERK, iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α. AI of group treated with ECR 200 ㎎/㎏ and 100 ㎎/㎏ were significantly decreased compared to vihicle arthritis mice, the number of immune cell in foot joint was increased on control mice but those of group treated with ECR 200 ㎎/㎏ and 100 ㎎/㎏ were significantly reduced. This results correspond with contens of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in serum. Conclusions:Curculiginis Rhizoma has anti-inflammation effect on RAW264.7 cell in vitro and collagen induced arthritis in vivo . So it is necessary to research more mechanism for cascade imfact.
목적 : 사람의 초기 임신 과정에서 phosphodiesterase type Ⅳ inhibitor인 rolipram이 탈락막내 IL-12를 억제하고 이에 따라 Th-1 계열의 cytokine이 감소하고 Th-2 cytokine이 증가하는지를 규명하는 것이 목적이다. 연구 방법 : 임신 12주 이전에 계류 유산으로 진단받은 10명과 정상임신에서 임신 중절 수술을 시행받은 10명에서 자궁 소파술을 통하여 탈락막 조직을 획득한 후 조직을 rolipram으로 6시간 처리한 후 IL-12, IL-10 및 TNF-a의 분비를 역전사 중합효소연쇄반응을 통하여 유전자 수준에서 확인하고 western blot과 면역 조직화학 검사로서 단백질 수준에서 확인하였다. 결과 : Rolipram은 1 ㎍/㎖ 이상의 농도에서 IL-12p35 mRNA (control : 46.37±7.38, rolipram : 24.34±8.46) IL-12p40 mRNA (control : 31.7±5.8, rolipram : 14.9±4.6) 및 단백질 (control : 52.4±8.9, rolipram : 40.9±12.1)의 분비를 유의하게 감소시켰다. 그러나 IL-12의 감소에도 불구하고 IL-10의 증가나 TNF-a의 감소는 mRNA 및 단백질 수준 모두에서 확인할 수 없었다. 또한 cytokine의 조절 양상은 정상임신과 계류유산 사이에 특별한 차이가 없었다. 결론 : Phosphodiesterase type Ⅳ inhibitor인 rolipram은 자궁 탈락막에서도 신체 다른 부위처럼 IL-12의 분비를 감소시킨다. 그러나 IL-12가 Th-1 계열의 cytokine을 증가시키고 Th-2 cytokine을 감소시키는 효과는 다른 조직과 달리 탈락막에는 나타나지 않는다. 이는 IL-12의 감소가 불충분다기 보다는 자궁 탈락막내의 국소 면역 반응의 양상이 다른 조직과는 상이하기 때문인 것으로 생각된다. Objective : To assess the capability of phospodiesterase type Ⅳ inhibitor (rolipram) to suppress IL-12 in human decidua and the subsequent changes of Th-2 cytokine (IL-10) and Th-1 cytokine (TNF-a). Methods : Decidual tissues of 10 first-trimester pregnant women and 10 first-trimester pregnant women diagnosed as missed abortion were collected by dilatationand currettage. The decidual tissues were treated with rolipram for 6 hours. Protein and mRNA expression in the tissues were analysed by western blotting, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results : Rolipram, in the concentration above 1 ㎍/㎖, could decrease the expression of IL-12p35 (control : 46.37±7.38, rolipram : 24.34±8.46) and IL-12p40 mRNA (control : 31.7±5.8, rolipram : 14.9±4.6) and protein (control : 52.4±8.9, rolipram : 40.9±12.1). However, the expression of IL-10 and TNF-a mRNA and protein did not changed by rolipram. There was no difference in the cytokine expression pattern between the decidual tissues of normal pregnancy and missed abortion. Conclusion : Rolipram, the phosphodiesterase type Ⅳ inhibitor, could induce the decrease of IL-12 in human decidua. In human decidual tissue, unlike other human tissues, the decrease of IL-12 by rolipram did not modulate other Th-1/Th-2 cytokines. Inability of IL-12 to modulate other Th-1/Th-2 cytokines might be related with unique cytokine network in human decidua rather than its small extent of decrease.
Jang, You-Jee,Park, Jae-Il,Jeong, Seong-Eun,Seo, You-Mi,Dam, Phuong T. M.,Seo, Young-Woo,Choi, Bum-Chae,Song, Sang-Jin,Chun, Sang-Young,Cho, Moon-Kyoung Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Or 2017 Reproduction, fertility, and development Vol.29 No.12
<P> The aim of the present study was to examine the regulation of interleukin (IL)-11 expression, as well as the role of IL-11, during ovulation in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), followed by human CG (hCG) to induce superovulation stimulated expression of the Il11 gene in theca cells within 6 h, as revealed by northern blot and in situ hybridisation analyses. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the IL-11 receptor, α subunit gene was expressed in granulosa and theca cells and that injection of hCG had no effect on its expression. IL-11 protein expression was stimulated in theca cells by hCG. LH-stimulated increases in Il11 mRNA levels in cultured preovulatory follicles were inhibited by protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 were detected in preovulatory follicles, and the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide, but not the TLR2 ligand Pam3Cys, increased Il11 mRNA levels in theca cells, but not in granulosa cells. Treatment of preovulatory follicles with IL-11 stimulated progesterone production and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) gene expression. Together, these results indicate that IL-11 in theca cells is stimulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and TLR4 activation, and increases progesterone production during ovulation. </P>
배기상 ( Gi Sang Bae ),박경철 ( Kyoung Chel Park ),최선복 ( Sun Bok Choi ),조일주 ( Il Joo Jo ),서상완 ( Sang Wan Seo ),김종진 ( Jong Jin Kim ),신용국 ( Yong Kook Shin ),김민선 ( Min Sun Kim ),박규환 ( Kyu Hwan Park ),김현식 ( Hyu 대한본초학회 2012 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.27 No.5
Objective : This study was performed to estimate the effects of OMC-2010 extract on cytokine production in mouse spleen cells. Methods : Mouse spleen cells were pre-treated with ethanol and water extract of OMC-2010 for 1 h, then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml) for 48 h. Then the cells were harvested for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect cytokines. Results : OMC-2010 ethanol extract significantly inhibited the LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-5 mRNA expressions, but not shown such changes in IL-6, IL-4, IL-13. OMC-2010 water extract significantly inhibited the LPS-induced TNF-alpha, and IL-5 mRNA expressions, but not shown such changes in IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-4, IL-13. Conclusions : Theses results could suggest that both ethanol and water OMC-2010 extract could inhibit the TNF-alpha and IL-5 mRNA expression.
Jung, In Duk,Lee, Min-Goo,Chang, Jeong Hyun,Lee, Jun Sik,Jeong, Young-Il,Lee, Chang-Min,Park, Won Sun,Han, Jin,Seo, Su-Kil,Lee, Sang Yong,Park, Yeong-Min Williams Wilkins 2009 JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Vol.182 No.5
<P>Suppression of an excessive systemic inflammatory response is a promising and potent strategy for treating endotoxic sepsis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is the rate-limiting enzyme for tryptophan catabolism, may play a critical role in various inflammatory disorders. In this study, we report a critical role for IDO in the dysregulated immune response associated with endotoxin shock. We found that IDO knockout (IDO(-/-)) mice and 1-methyl-D-tryptophan-treated, endotoxin-shocked mice had decreased levels of the cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12, and enhanced levels of IL-10. Blockade of IDO is thought to promote host survival in LPS-induced endotoxin shock, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate IDO expression during endotoxin shock. In vitro and in vivo, IDO expression was increased by exogenous IL-12, but decreased by exogenous IL-10 in dendritic cells and splenic dendritic cells. Interestingly, whereas LPS-induced IL-12 levels in serum were higher than those of IL-10, the balance between serum IL-12 and IL-10 following challenge became reversed in IDO(-/-)- or 1-methyl-D-tryptophan-treated mice. Our findings demonstrate that the detrimental immune response to endotoxin shock may occur via IDO modulation. Restoring the IL-12 and IL-10 balance by blocking IDO represents a potential strategy for sepsis treatment.</P>
Background: Early-onset and severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in patients increase the probability of the development of allergic rhinitis or asthma. Treatment and prevention strategies in infants and young children with AD are targeted toward treating the symptoms, restoring skin barrier functions, and reducing the absorption of environmental allergens in an attempt to attenuate or block the onset of asthma and food allergy. Objective: Given that the initiating events in AD remain poorly understood, identifying those at risk and implementing strategies to prevent AD is necessary. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in a 43 control group and a disease group with 20 AD patients without atopic march (AM) and 20 with AM. Sanger sequencing was carried out to validate found variants in cohorts. Results: DOCK8, IL17RA, and KLK12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by WES as missense mutations: c.1289C>A, p.P97T (rs529208); c.1685C>A, p.P562G (rs12484684); and c.457+27>C, rs3745540, respectively. A case-control study show that total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level was significantly increased in the AA genotype of DOCK8 compared to the CA genotype in allergic patients. The rs12484684 of IL17RA increased risk of adult-onset AD (odds ratio: 1.63) compared to the control for (A) allele frequency. AD and AM Patients with the IL17RA CA genotype also had elevated IgE levels. rs3745540 of KLK12 was associated with AD in dominant model (odds ratio: 2.86). Conclusion: DOCK8 (rs529208), IL17RA (rs12484684), and KLK12 (rs3745540), were identified using a new WES filtering method. the result suggests that polymorphism of DOCK8 and IL17RA might be related to increase the total IgE level. (Ann Dermatol 32(3) 197∼205, 2020)
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Although several genome-wide interaction studies (GWIS) have been performed in specific European populations to understand the missing link between genetic and environmental factors for lung function, GWIS of Asian samples remain rare. Therefore, we performed a GWIS of exposure to air pollution to identify loci for lung function in Korean adult men. A total of 1826 adult men recruited from two health check-up centers were included in the analysis and the annual mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM<SUB>10</SUB>) were used. In case of forced vital capacity (FVC), one SNP (rs12312730) that passed our genome-wide threshold of <I>p</I>int < 1 × 10–5 was detected in the intronic region of the <I>BICD1</I> gene on chromosome 12. In addition, we found two variants (rs6743376 and rs17042888) located near the <I>IL1RN-IL1F10</I> gene that were involved in the inflammatory response and associated with decreased FVC via interaction with PM<SUB>10</SUB> exposure. A stratified association analysis according to these SNP genotypes showed that PM<SUB>10</SUB> concentrations in subjects with one or two of the risk alleles, compared with those with the non-risk allele, were significantly correlated with a reduction in FVC. This pattern was replicated in another 892 Korean adult samples. The current study reports the first GWIS discovery in an Asian population: the <I>BICD1</I> and <I>IL1RN-IL1F10</I> genes may contribute to the decrease in FVC levels by interacting with PM<SUB>10</SUB> exposure.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Significant interactions between <I>BICD1 or IL1RN-IL1F10</I> and PM<SUB>10</SUB> for FVC were found. </LI> <LI> The several SNPs in these genes were more susceptible to FVC decline by PM<SUB>10</SUB>. </LI> <LI> For FVC, these interaction effects were reproducible in another sample. </LI> </UL> </P>
본 연구는 동충하초(Cordyces militaris) 유래의 기능성 물질인 코디세핀의 면역활성을 검증하기 위하여 C57BL6 마우스 복강 대식세포를 이용하여 코디세핀이 대식세포의 활성화에 미치는 영향에 대하여 시험하였다. 그 결과 LPS에 의해 유도된 마우스 복강세포는 코디세핀의 작용에 의해 IL-1β, IL-12, TNF-α의 염증성 사이토카인의 생성이 증대되어 초기 염증매개 반응을 유도하여 선천면역반응의 활성화와 그리고 면역작용에 있어 후기 적응면역의 전환으로의 T 림프구의 활성화가 예상된다. 또한 IL-6의 생성증대로 활성화된 T 림프구에 의해 B 림프구의 항체생성반응을 매개하는 면역반응도 상승할 것으로 사료된다. 그리고 대식세포에 의한 염증반응에서 염증매개인자인 NO와 H₂O₂의 생성을 증대시킴에 따라 대식세포의 독성작용을 활성화시켜 염증반응을 효과적으로 유도할 것으로 보이며, 또한 H₂O₂의 후기 생성을 저해하였는데 이는 염증반응에 유도될 수 있는 세포의 손상으로부터 세포를 보호할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. 따라서 코디세핀은 외부인자로부터 염증매개성 면역반응의 증강작용을 나타내는 것으로 사료된다. The effect of cordycepin purified from Cordyceps militaris on macrophage activation was investigated in peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL6 mice. Lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse peritoneal cells showed that cordycepin treatment increased the expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leading to early inflammation-mediated reactions, the activation of immunological responses, and T lymphocyte activation. T lymphocytes, activated by a greater production of IL-6, resulted in antibody-generating immune reactions, suggesting that cordycepin was effective at inducing immunological responses. Consistent with the increase in the inflammation-mediating factors including nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), the toxic response of macrophages was activated and effectively induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that cordycepin is involved in reducing cell injury provoked by inflammatory reactions. Therefore, these results suggest that cordycepin treatment of mouse peritoneal cells induces inflammation-mediated immunological responses and immunostimulation.