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In recent years, gonorrhea has been pandemic and remains one of the most common STDs in the world, especially in developing countries. For the detection of a more effective therapeutic regimen and assessing the prevalence of Penicillinase Producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG), we have been trying to study the patients who have visited the Venereal Disease Clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul since 1980 by menas of the chromogenic cephalosporin method. In 1998, 93 strians of N. genorrhoeae were isolated, among which 60(64.5%) were PPNG. The prevalence of PPNG in Seoul, which had been decreased to 39% in 1996 after a peak of 74.3% in 1993, is increased to 64.5% in 1998.
Purpose: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)/neu amplification affects the cell proliferation through the modulation of multiple G1 cell cycle regulators in breast tumor cells. We performed this study to investigate whether retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and p27Kip1 were differently expressed according to the HER2 amplification status in human breast cancer. Methods: HER2 amplification was assayed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the expression of cell cycle regulators were assayed by immunohistochemistry on 153 consecutive invasive breast cancers. The proliferative activity of breast cancer was analyzed according to the HER2 amplification and cell cycle protein expression status. Results: HER2 amplification was observed in 39 (25.5%) of 153 breast cancers. In the HER2 amplified breast cancers, the pRB expression was significantly increased (p=0.011) whereas there was no significant relationship between HER2 amplification and p27Kip1 expression. There was an inverse correlation between pRB expression and Ki-67 labeling index in the HER2 amplified breast cancers (p=0.036). In contrast, Ki67 labeling index was significantly decreased as p27Kip1 expression increased in HER2 non-amplified breast cancers (p=0.028). In HER2 non-amplified breast cancers, we could not observe any association between the pRB expression and Ki67 labeling index. Conclusion: The proliferation of the breast cancers was associated with pRB expression in HER2 amplified tumors whereas it was associated with p27Kip1 expression in HER2 non-amplified tumors. The results of the current study indicate that the cell proliferative activity of the breast cancer is under different growth signal pathways according to HER2 amplification status.
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연구목적 : 본 시험의 목적은 임상시험 시작전에 연구자들을 대상으로 PANSS Workshop을 통하여 PANSS, ESRS에 대한 국내에서의 표준화 작업을 구축하고 새로운 정신병 치료제인 리스페리돈의 효과와 안정성을 재확인하여 리스페리돈 사용에 대한 적정화를 이루는데 있다. 연구방법 : 1996년 4월부터 1996년 9월까지 국내 39개 대학병원 정신과에 입원중인 혹은 증상이 악화되어 입원하는 정신분열병 환자 377명을 대상으로 다시설 개방 연구를 시행하였다. 1주일간의 약물 배설기간을 가진후, 리스페리돈을 8주간 투여하였고, 기준점, 1주, 2주, 4주, 그리고 8주후에 평가되었다. 용량은 제1일에는 리스페리돈 1mg씩 1일 2회, 제2일에는 2mg씩 1일 2회, 제3∼7일에는 3mg씩 1일 2회 투여하였다. 이후 환자의 임상상태에 따라 임의로 증량할 수 있으며, 최대 일일 16mg을 초과하지 않도록 하였다. 추체외로 증상을 조절하기 위한 투약을 허용하였다. 임상증상 및 부작용의 평가는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression) 그리고 ESRS(Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale)을 사용하였다. 연구결과 : 377명중 343명(91%)이 8주간의 연구를 완결하였다. 치료 종결시점인 8주후 PANSS 총점수가 20% 이상 호전된 경우를 약물 반응군으로 정의할때, 약물반응군은 81.3%였다. 리스페리돈에 반응하는 예측인자로는 발병연령, 이전의 입원 횟수, 유병기간이 관련 있었다. 리스페리돈은 1주후부터 PANSS양성, 음성, 및 일반정신병리 점수상에 유의한 호전을 보여 효과가 빨랐다. CGI의 경우도 기준점에 비해 1주후부터 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. ESRS의 경우, 파킨슨 평가점수는 기준점과 비교해 투여 1주, 2주, 4주후 유의하게 증가되었다가 8주후 기준점과 차이가 없었다. Dystonia 평가점수는 1주후만 유의한 증가를 보였으며, dyskinesia 평가점수는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 혈압, 맥박수의 생명징후 및 일반 혈액학 검사, 생화학적 검사, 심전도 검사에서 유의한 변화는 없었다. 결 론 : 이상의 다시설 개방 임상 연구를 통해 리스페리돈은 정신분열병 환자에서 양성증상뿐만 아니라 음성증상 및 전반적인 증상에도 효과적인 것으로 사료된다. 보다 명확한 평가를 위해서는 다른 항정신병약물과의 이중맹검 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각되며, 또한 장기적 치료에 대한 평가도 함께 이루어져야 하겠다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of Korean schizophrenic patients. Method : This multicenter open study included 377 schizophrenic patients drawn from 39 university hospitals. After a wash-out period of 1 week, the schizophrenic patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks and evaluated at 5 points ; at baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The dose was increased from 2mg/day(1mg twice daily) to 6mg/day(3mg twice daily) during the first week and adjusted to a maximum of 16mg/day over the next 7 weeks according to the patient's clinical response. Medication to control extrapyramidal symptoms was permitted. The psychiatric and neurological status of the patients was assessed by PANSS, CGI, and ESRS scales. Results : 343(91%) of 377 patients completed the 8-week trial period. Clinical improvement, as defined by a 20% or more reduction in total PANSS score at end point, was shown by 81.3% of patients. The predictors of response to risperidone were associated older age, shorter duration of illness, fewer previous hospitalization. Risperidone had rapid onset of action ; a significant decrease of the total PANSS and three PANSS factor(positive, negative, general), and CGI was already noticed at the end of first week. For the ESRS, parkinsonism rating scores were significantly increased until week 4 comparing with baseline. Dystonia rating scores were significantly increased until week 1, and dyskinesia rating scores were not significantly changed during the study. Laboratory parameters including vital sign, EKG, hematological, and biochemical values showed no significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : This study suggests that risperidone is generally safe and effective against both the positive and negative symptoms in our group of patients.
New technology plays a role of stimulator in releasing the constraints on growth imposed by resource endowment in any society. In an economy with high population pressures and limited land, increases in output depend on the development of land-saving technology, that can release the constraints imposed by the inelastic supply of land. The development of fertilizer-responsive crop varieties, which is identified as biological technology, can essentially be a new technology designed to facilitate the substitution of fertilizer (or pesticides) for scare land and to raise yield per Ha. In an economy characterized by a relative scarcity of labour, the improvement of agricultural machinery that can save labour and raise labour productivity may reduce the problem of labour shortage. The constraints imposed by an inelastic supply of labour may be offset by advances in so called mechanical technology. The Technology of Direct-Seeding in paddy rice cultivation (TDS), which has rapidly diffused among individual farmers in recent years, may be the same scale-neutral technology as Tong-il HYVs. It may be said that the TDS has been designed to solve the problem that results from the bottlenecks of labour shortage and high labour cost. It is also assumed that the TDS may be the technical innovation that is induced by changes in factor endowments in market economy while Tong-il HYVs may be the technological development that is leaded by the government's incentives to attain self-sufficiency of staple food. In the area of agricultural policy, the study has a crucial role in establishing a desirable direction for agricultural reconstruction-policy for improving agricultural infrastructure and in providing information for the scientific technology-policy for attaining more efficient resource allocation in agricultural research.
A numerical simulation of unsteady axisymmetric turbulent flow was performed for a reciprocating engine including port/valve assembly. The governing equations based on a non-orthogonal coordinate formulation with Cartesian velocity components were used and discretised by the finite volume method with non-staggered variable arrangements. The modified k-ε turbulence model which included the effect of compressibility was used. The results of two-dimensional transient calculation for the axisymmetric configuration were compared with the experimental data. Although slightly low rms velocity was predicted compared to the experimental data, predicted velocity distributions at the valve exit and in-cylinder region showed good agreements with the experimental data. The flow at the valve exit was separated at the same valve lift position with experimental data. The mean flow pattern at the valve exit was found to be more sensitive to valve lift than mass flow rate or valve motion. Two vortices in-cylinder region were generated during the initial intake process. The clockwise main vortex became strong and moved upward to the top wall. The counter-clockwise second vortex became weak and stick to the upper left corner of the cylinder. After middle intake process, new vortex adjacent to upper cylinder wall appeared by the piston motion and therefore, the in-cylinder flow was formed into three vortices. The cylinder pressure just before bottom dead center of piston was higher than inlet pressure and then the reverse flow occured at the valve exit. The in-cylinder flow characteristics were strongly dependent on piston motion, but insensitive to valve motion.
The main purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the depressive states for the patients with chronic pulmonary tuberculosis. A questionnaire(Self-rating Depression Scale, SDS) survey was performed toward 57 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with initial treatment who started chemotherapy and 53 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with retreatment, admitted to one tuberculosis-centered hospital and two general hospital. Fifty three healthy persons as control group were investigated with the same questionnaire for comparison. The survey was performed from July to August 1996. The results are as follws : 1. The patients had significantly high scores in the depression than control and the patient with retreatment showed significantly high scores in the depression than the patient with initia1treatment(P<0.01). 2. The depressive levels of the patients were associated with duration of admission and the expectancy of recovery (P<0.05). 3. The percentage of the subjects with 40 or more scores tentatively classifiable as psychologically depressed was 67.1% of the total subjects, 48.4% of the control groups, 75.0% of the patient with initial treatment and 84.1% of the patient with retreatment. Because patient with pulmonary tuberculosis with initial treatment showed higher depression scores than normal persons, and patients with retreatment due to failure of initial treatment showed higher depression scores than initial treatment, it is necessary to give attention to depression of the patients during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Heterotopic ossification is frequent complication in patients with spinal cord or brain injury, although the etiology is unknown. The extensive heterotopic ossification is a cause of limitation of active or passive joint motion and ultimately bony ankylosis which interferes independency in activities of daily living and ability of maximum rehabilitation. Whereas, the articular complication of heterotopic ossification have been well documented, the vascular complication are less well known. We experienced one case with vascular compression and obstruction by heterotopic ossification in a patient with traumatic brain injury and reported the case with clinical and radiologcal and laboratoric findings.
In this paper, we have analyzed and simulated the BER and CLP of Wireless ATM(WATM) cells adopting the concatenated FEC technique in Rician fading channel. Also, in Rician fading channel, we have contrived the performance improvement by introducing the fading compensation technique of inserting pilot symbols into the concatenated FEC. From the results, in Rician fading channel, it is known that since the superior BER performance in low ?? results in the divergence when the Viterbi decoder is conducted first, the performance difference of about 2 [dB] occurs between the theory analysis and the simulation. Besides, from the only simulation results, it is known that the system performance adopting the concatenated FEC technique by inserting pilot symbols is improved about 1 [dB] better in terms of ?? than the system performance adopting the only concatenated FEC technique.