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Objectives : Cinnamomi Ramulus (CR), the young twing of Cinnamomi loureirii nees, has been used for treating symptoms related to pain. rheumatic arthritis and inflammation in Korean herb medicine. This study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of CR in vivo and in vitro. Methods : Extracts of CR were prepared and the chemical components of the extracts were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extracts were administrated to the rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of CR. The expressions of nitric oxide (NO). prostaglandin E2(PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were also quantified in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages to survey the effect of CR in vitro. The main components were cinnamaldechyde and coumarin. Results : We examined the anti-inflammatory activity of the 80% ethanol extract of Cinnamomi Ramulus in vivo by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Maximum inhibition of 54.9% was noted at the dose of 1000㎎/㎏ after 2 hours of drug administration in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and this showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Conclusions : The results showed that Cinnamomi Ramulus suppressed dose-dependently LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and also decreased iNOS protein expression. Cinnamomi Ramulus also showed a significant inhibitory effect in LPS-induced PGE2 production and COX-2 expression.
Objective : The use of herbal therapy is becoming an increasingly attractive approach for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. The Alpiniae officinari Rhizoma is popular in Aisa as a traditional herbal medicine. Alpiniae officinari Rhizoma is a species of the ginger family(Zingiberacease). Method : This study was performed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Alpiniae officinari Rhizoma extract by the methods of "carrageenan induced paw edema" and "Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells". Result : We suggest that Alpiniae officinari Rhizoma extract decreased paw volume induced by plantar injection of carrageenan. Also Alpiniae officinari Rhizoma extract inhibited nitric oxide, prostaglandin E₂production and induced nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression in Mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Conclusion : This study shows that Alpiniae officinari Rhizoma extract seems to have anti-inflammatory effect by inhibition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E_(2) production and nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression.
The changes of serum and urine IgG levels were observed with the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) at before and after treatment in human paragonimiasis. Serum and urine samples from 18 cases of confirmed paragonimiasis were tested at before and 12 months after treatment with praziquantel 75mg/kg t i d for 2 days. The ELISA was performed with veronal buffered saline antigen of crude Paragonimus westermani adult worm with the protein concentration of 14.3㎍/ml, peroxidase conjugated anti-human IgG (y-chains) rabbit serum and orthophenylene diamine as a substrate by micromethod. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Before treatment, the mean diameter of wheal size (mm) by the intradermal test was 14.3±3.9, 17 positive reaction out of 18 paragonimiasis cases showed and pseudopodia showed at the wheal by the intradermal test in the 11 out of 18 cases. But 12 months after treatment, the mean diameter was 13.6?4.6, 14 positive reaction out of 18 paragonimiasis which were treated effectively showed and pseudopodia showed in the 7 out of 18 cases. 2. Before treatment, the mean O.D. (optical density) values in the serum samples of 18 paragonimiasis cases was 1.60±0.37 and 18 positive reaction out of 18 paragonimiasis cases showed if we proposed the O.D. value 1.00 as a differential point of positive reaction. But 12 months after treatment, the mean O.D. values in the serum samples was 1.20±0.46 and 13 positive reaction out of 18 paragonimiasis which were treated effectively showed. 3. Before treatment, the mean O.D. values in the urine samples of 18 paragonimiasis cases was 1.22±0.53 and 17 positive reaction out of 18 paragonimiasis which were treated effectively showed if we proposed the O.D. values 0.50 as a differential point of positive reaction. But 12 months after treatment, the mean O.D. values in the urine samples was 0.26±0.24 and 3 positive reaction out of 18 p-aragonimiasis which were treated effectively showed. 4. Before treatment, the relation of the absorbance values between the serum (y-axis) and the urine (x-axis) samples made the regression equation; y-0.571x+0.913, and showed high correlations (r=0.75, n=18, p<0.001). In conclusion, these findings suggested that ELISA using a urine sample is more feasible and seems to be better suited for the evaluation of treatment effect.
Objective : The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of acupuncture at HT7(Shinmun) on the feeding behavior and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y(NPY) expression in the maternally separated rat pups. Methods : To show the effect of acupuncture, we performed maternal separation(MS) for 7 days beginning on postnatal day 14, and observed body weight, food intake, and NPY immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus(PVN) of hypothalamus after acupuncturing at HT7, the end of the transverse crease of the ulnar wrist of the forepaw. Results : MS induced a significant decreases in body weight and food intake, while acupuncture treatment at acupoint HT7 showed much more improvement in those evaluations. NPY-immunoreactivity in area PVN were decreased in the MS group, but significantly increased in the HT7 group. Conclusions : These findings suggest that acupuncture has an effect on the feeding disorders caused by MS, possibly by modulating NPY expression in the PVN.
Background : The cun measurement System, an essential and convenient method in locating acupoints, has been widely used in the practice of acupuncture. However, traditional cun measurement has been criticized for its lack of reliability. Objectives : The purposes of this study are to determine if one cun measured by the directional methods have a consistency with that of proportional methods and to investigate which factors are related with these differences, especially in forearm. Methods : The distance between the elbow crease and the wrist crease of forearm was compared to a reference value of one cun obtained by the directional method. In this method, one cun is one third of the distance between index finger and Small finger of a subject, measured at proximal interphalangeal joint. In addition, to investigate the factors influencing the differences between these two methods, we measured the height and body weight and calculated body mass index (BMI). Finally we analyzed the factors correlated with these lengths by linear regression test. Results : The results showed that one cun obtained by the directional methods were significantly different from one cun by the proportional methods in forearm. It was demonstrated that the length acquired with the directional method was more correlated with body weight and body mass index, while the length obtained by the proportional method was more correlated with the height.
The Working Group on the revision of Clinical Research Methodology for Acupuncture met in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 24 to 26 August 2005. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the regional publication guidelines for Clinical Research on Acupuncture, to make necessary revisions in the guidelines, to make recommendations on further collaboration and activities in the field of research on acupuncture, and to discuss scientific evidence-based approaches in the clinical research on acupuncture. Fourteen members from the eight Member States, one secretariat staff from the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific and ten observers from the Republic of Korea attended the meeting. The members presented their papers to review the current status of clinical research on acupuncture. The drafts of proposed revision to the previous guidelines for clinical research methodology on acupuncture were discussed extensively. The issues covered during the discussion included: the definition of the new terms; reorganization of clinical research design; revision and update of contents (e.g., control group); introduction of Institutional Review Board (IRB) on the section of ethical approval; additional outcomes including health-related quality of life (HRQOL), qualitative measures, etc. In the course of these discussions, the working group developed the revised guidelines for clinical research on acupuncture and made recommendations for promoting the dissemination of the revised guidelines.
The authors investigated HBeAg and anti-HBe in 1,000 cases(male 941, female 59) of HBsAg positive among the 225,512 blood donors in Seoul Nambu Blood Center in 1994. HBeAg and anti-HBe was detected by the method Enzyme Immunoassy. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. HBeAg and anti-HBe positive rates were detected 498 cases(49.8%) and 445 cases(44.5%) respectively among 1,000 cases HBsAg positive blood donors. 2. In HBsAg positive carriers, HBeAg positive rates were not significantly different between anti-HBe positive rates, but in sex were significantly different between HBeAg positive rates and anti-HBe positive rates. 3. HBeAg positive 498 cases were analyzed with age and it was found percentages of positive rates were 63.6% in 1st decade, 53.7% in 2nd decade, 20.6% in 3rd decade, 19.6% in 4th decade and 8.3% in over 5th decade, but anti-HBe positive 447 cases were 32.4% in 1st decade, 40.5% in 2nd decade, 69.2% in 3rd decade, 78.3% in 4th decade and 91. 7% in above 5th decade. 4. HBeAg positive rate decreased stepwise with age, while anti-HBe positive rate increased stepwise with age. 5. ALT abnormal cases in the HBeAg positive donors were higher than normal cases, but ALT normal cases in the anit-HBe positive donors were higher than abnormal cases.
The purpose of this study was to suggest guideline for optimal work environment of physiological laboratory in hospital. Therefore this study was carried out to analyze the actual condition of laboratory system, major equipments and persons. The period of survey was from September to November 1997 and the objects were 123 laboratory. The major results of this study were as follows. 1. The optimal areas of general ECG room, exercise ECG room and echocardiology room were all 9-18㎡, that of Holter ECG room was 3-12㎡. The optimal areas of neurosystem laboratory were all 9-12㎡, those of respiratory system laboratory were all 9-18㎡. 2. The optimal number of persons laboratory of hospital 500 beds and less were 2∼3, those of 501∼700 beds were 3∼4.701∼1.000 beds were 4∼5 and over 1.001 beds were 7∼8 persons in circulatory system laboratory. The optimal number of persons laboratory of hospital 500 beds less than were 1∼2, those of 501∼700 beds were 3∼4, 701∼1.000 beds were 6∼7 and over 1.001 beds were over 8 persons in neurosystem laboratory. The optimal number of persons laboratory of hospital 500 beds and less 1. those 501∼1.000 beds were 1∼2 and over 1.001 beds were 2∼3 persons in repiratory system laboratory. 3. The optimal number of equipments of general ECG were 2∼3 in the 500∼1.000 beds hospital. there were 3∼4 units in the 1,001 beds. The optimal number of equipment EEG were both 1∼2 in the hospital 500 beds and less and 501∼700 beds. those were 4∼5 units in hospital over 701 beds. The optimal number of equipments of spirograph were both 1∼2 in the hospital 500 and less and 501∼1.000 beds. those were 2∼3 units in the over 1.001 beds. 4. In view of speciality and legal problem of physiofunctional test. we sugget that non-licensee were so quickly change place licensee in the interests of optimal work environment. 5. We suggest that to upgrade qualitative level of domestic equipment and to the more amplify utilization with respect to domestic equipment for the purpose of reducing loss of foreign money.
The etiologic agents of haemorragic fever with ranal syndrom (HFRS) in Korea are Hantaan and Seoul virus in the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. In order to elucidate the role of maternal immunity to Hantavirus infection in rats, the protective effect of the maternal antibody were studies by using rats experimentally infected with Seoul virus strain HR80-39. Antibody titers of sera and viral antigen against Seoul virus were investigated by indirect immunofluorscence antibody technique (IFA). The dam sera had IFA antibody titers ranging from 1:128 to 1:1,024 after parturition. In fetuses, IFA antibody titers ranged from 1:16 to 1:64 just after birth, increased to peak titers ranged from 1:256 to 1:1,024 in the 2nd week after birth. Challenged newborn rats had IFA antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:1,024 after inoculation. No viral antigen was detected in lungs or other organs of the newborn rats. The maternal antibody to Seoul virus was transferred prenatally through placenta and postnatally via colostrum from immune dams to their offspring. These results demonstrated that maternal antibody to Seoul virus was quite effective in protecting newborn rats against same virus infection.
Hantavirus ale rodent-borne RNA virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae. Those viruses persistently infect a variety of rodents, and are transmitted by aerosols of their urine, feces and saliva. Antibody titers of sera obtained from normal laboratory rodents against hantavirus were investigated by indirect immunofluorscence antibody technique (IFA). Seroconversion rates of normal laboratory rodents showed higher in rats than that from hamster and mongolian (M), gerbil. Theses rates of normal laboratory rodents also showed higher in titers against puumala virus (PUUV) than in hantaan (HTNV) and seoul virus (SEOV). We are concerned about infections caused by hantaviruses, especially by PUUV, occurred in laboratory rodents.