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The brief contents about the background of the appearance of Seo-won in Yi-Dynasty, the actual state of its education and its social role are as follows : 1. Our nation’s Seo-won was not settled as a Confucian educational institute until Sun Confucianism (性理學) was introduced in the middle of Yi-Dynasty. 2. The ultimate purpose of the Seo-won education was to establish the permanent aim of the following saints (法聖賢) and to cultivate sages by laying emphases on the ethical and moral education and the state examination education. 3. So-hak (小學) and Ka-lye (家禮) were introductory courses and Sa-se (四書) and Oh-kyeong (五經) were fundamental ones in the contents of education. 4. It took the educational method of Joo Ja (朱子) in Song-Dynasty and emphasized practical moral education by autere training syatem. 5. They administered it by the income of real estate which they secured, while they expanded its paddy fields with surplus income. 6. The educational system and equipment of Seo-won was similar to that of China which had a director and Yoo Sa (有司) system although there was some difference according to the class of Seo-won. 7. Seo-won did its duty as the distribution of information, the promotion of Confucianism, the enlightment of their countries, the inheritance of their traditional culture, the foundation of science and the publication or custody of publications.
본 연구는 소총사수 P의 집중력 훈련에 관한 것이다. P 선수는 만 21세의 남자선수로서 운동경력은 8년이며, 10M 공기소총이 주종목이다. 집중력훈련은 단일사례실험 중 가장 단순한 시계열 설계인 AB 설계를 적용하였다. A단계에서 집중력, 주의력 질문지가 1-2주 간격으로 4회 반복측정 되었으며, B단계는 7월-10월까지 집중력 훈련이 진행되는 기간으로 개별면담과 질문지 측정, 수행평가를 위한 시합기록이 수집되었다. 집중력 질문지는 1개월에 1회 측정되었고, 주의력 검사지는 집중훈련 전과 후에 각각 한차례 시행되었다. 집중 루틴은 선수의 개인적 습관과 장점을 최대한 존중하여 훈련과 최고시합 때 습관적으로 하는 행동과 생각을 포함시켜 상당한 시합 부담 상황에서도 최고시합때의 행동과 생각의 흐름을 유지할 수 있도록 강력한 의미를 가진 행위와 키워드로 구성하였다. 완성된 루틴 프로그램은 4개월 훈련 후 집중력과 주의력, 수행평가를 실시하였다. 훈련결과 루틴 훈련은 집중조절 능력을 향상시켰으며, 주의유형은 긍정적인 형태는 증가하고 부정적 형태는 감소하였다. 수행 기록은 루틴 훈련 과정에서 출전한 5회 시합에서 모두 결선에 진출하므로서 수행향상에도 기여한 것으로 밝혀졌다. This study is about a concentration training of a rifle Marksman, P, The male Marksman P is 21 years old, and has played a rifle for eight years. His major is 10M air rifle. We apply AB design which is the simplest time-series design among single case experiments. In A step, we have applied the questionnaire for examining the ability of concentration and attentiveness for four times at an interval of 1 or 2 weeks. In B step, we developed a programme for improving the concentration training and applied it to the player. During the training in B step, which had continued from July to October, we have collected individual interviews, survey, records of games in order to evaluate achievement. The questionnaire for concentration has been served once a month, and the TAIS has been operated once each time before and after the concentration training. The concentration routine is directed to the way of considering the athlete's personal habit and merit most. Therefore, the concentration routine includes the essential matters of habitual acting and thought in ordinary training and in the final match. The concentration routine is consist of powerful meaningful movement and keyword in order to maintain the stream of movement and thought at the final match even though the Marksman is under the heavy pressure of the game. The practice evaluation has been done by a completed routine programme after the four-month-training. After examining the result of the evaluation, the concentration training improves the ability of controlling concentration. The positive type of TAIS is increased and the negative type is decreased. About the record of achievement, the player had advanced to the final once before the training, on the other hand, advanced to all the five final matches after the training. Consequently, it is discovered that the concentration training contributes to the achievement.
CREST syndrome is variant of scleroderma characterized by calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomena, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly & telangiectasia. In the past, it was believed that CREST patients live longer than scleroderma because rare involvement of internal organ, but recently noted that CREST patients may die early by involvement of internal organ. Recently, authors experience one case of CREST syndrome associated with pericardial effusion, herein presenting our experience and literature and reviewed.
출산기에 임박한 조피볼락 암컷에 20㎎/㎏체중의 농도로 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T_3)를 주사한 뒤, 출산 자어로의 호르몬 전이여부, 자어 성장과 활력을 조사하였다. 출산자어의 갑상선호르몬을 분석한 결과, 출산직후에 T_3구가 대조구 보다 높은 T_3 농도를 나타냈으나, L-thyroxine (T_4)의 농도는 대조구와 유의차가 없었다. 그러나 실험기간 동안 어체내 모든 실험구의 갑상선호르몬 농도는 T_3가 T_4에 비해 상대적으로 낮았고, 실험구별로는 T_3가 대조구에 비해 높은 것을 알 수 있었다. 자어의 성장률은 대조구에 비하여 T_3에서 높았으며, 출산후 경과일수에 따라 직선적인 전장성장 경향을 나타냈다. 실험종료시 생존율은 T_3구의 자어가 대조구에 비해 높았으며, 유영활성에서도 T_3구의 자어가 대조구에 비해 유의하게 높았다. 출산직전 T_3 모체주사는 외부영양원 섭취 개시기의 자어성장 및 생리활성을 증진시키는 데 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 연구결과로부터 출산전 모체주사를 통하여 외인성 T_3가 자어로 전이되며, 전이된 호르몬은 출산후의 자어의 초기발달기 동안 생리적으로 긍정적인 작용을 할 것으로 추측된다. We have experimentally evaluated the content of thyroid hormones (THs), the growth and activity of larval rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) born from parturient mother fish injected with 20 ㎍/g BW of 3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine (T_3). There was no difference of L-thyroxine (T_4) levels between controls (sham control and control) and T_3 groups in yolk-sac larvae just born from broodstock, while T_3 level of T_3 group was significantly increased compared with controls. In addition, the both larval T_3 and T_4 levels in T_3 group were always higher than those of controls during experimental period. Also, there were significant differences in the development of larvae from the two groups. The larval growth in total length and body weight according to the elapsed days after parturition showed the linear and curve equations, respectively, and the slopes of T_3 group were significantly higher than those of control. The survival rate of larvae in T_3 group was higher than that of control. Although the survival rate in T_3 group under the condition of starvation was significantly depressed compared with the control, larval swimming index in T_3 group was higher than control. Finally, these findings suggest that the exogenous T_3 could be transferred into hatched larvae in parturient rockfish by maternal injection, and subsequently the exogenous hormone could play some roles on physiological metabolism of larva after parturition and may confer a distinct advantage to the fragile larvae during the early developmental stage.
It has recently been reported that gamma-inteferon(INF-r) and tumor necrosis factor(TNF) or lipopplysaccharide(LPS) activate macrophages to kill intracellular parasites by means of nitrc oxide (NO). It is now generally accepted that NO is the endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and that it also paticipates in the regulation of the nervous and immune systems. Activated macrophages form NO?? and NO?? from the terminal guanidino nitrogen atoms of L-arginine by the process now known to proceed via the formation of NO. This pathway is inhibited by the L-arginine analog(N?? monomethyl-L-arginine; N??MMA), forms L-citrulline as a co-product and is responsible for the cytotoxic action of macrophages. In this study, the authors found that INF-r and/or LPS induced murine macrophages to kill Rickettsiae tsutsugamushi in vitro and macrophages from BCG-infected mice got the host resistance against R.tsutsugamushi in vitro as well as in vivo. The rickettsicidal effect induced by the combination of INF-r and/or LPS induced mice got the host resistance against R.tsutsugamushi in vitro as well as in vivo. The rickettsicidal effect induced by the combination of INF-r and/or LPS can also be completely inhibited by N??MMA, leading to a dose-dependent inhibition of NO production. These datademonstrate that INF-r and/or LPS as well as BCG-activated macrophages mediate host resistance aganist R.tsutsugamushi infection through NO, which is necessary for the intracellular parasite.
Macrophages have been implicated as a major class of effector in the host response to neoplasia. Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage are known to exhibit tumoricidal activity following stim-ulation by γ-interferon, tumor necrosis factor, BCG and bacterial products such as lipopoly-saccharide (LPS). While the mechanism involved remain obscure, the generation of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) by activated macrophages is considered a maior participant in mediating the tumorstatic effect. But much of what is known about the induction and release of RNI has been elucidated by using freshly isolated cells from blood and other tissues of experimental animals. In this study, we used a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and found that these cells showed above 99% positive of pan macrophage marker by immunohistochemical staining. These cells could produce nitric oxide (NO), when incubated with γ-IFN or poly I:C. Incubation of RAW 264.7 cells with γ-IFN for 48 hous in the presence of LPS agumented NO release in a dose dependent manner. Whereas, treatment of anti-TNE-α antibody or antisense TNF-α oligodeoxynucleotide inhibited the release of NO_2 by γ-IFN plus LPS activated macrophages. The production of NO was also inhibited reversibly or irreversibly by N^GMMA,NAA,arginase or DPI. Thease data suggest that RAW 264.7 cell line may be useful for the in vitro evalulation of biological response modifiers as well as the study of signal pathway of NO release by macrophages.
Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a syndrome characterized by thirst, polydipsia and polyuria. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is one of the etiologies of DI. Recently we experienced a central DI associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The 44 years old female patient complained right hip pain polydipsia and polyuria. We carried out water deprivation test. After vasopressin injection, urine osmotic pressure was increased form 109mOsmol/Kg to 327mOsmol/Kg (300%). Brain MRI showed a thickened pituitary stalk and at hot bone CT.CT guided biopsy revealed abnormal histiocytes proliferation and abundant lymphocytes, The final diagnosis was central DI associated with systemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis invading hip bone, L-spine and pituitary stalk. Desmopressin and etoposide chemotherapy were performed to the patient.
During recent years, the supply chain has become a major subject of management research and manufacturing theory. It has been represented by concepts like lean production, total quality management and just-in-time production in construction industry. The development of construction information system almost focused to the improvement of management ability in site. it is limited to the improvement of project outcome that the usefulness of information system is defined to in site. It is important that a lot of information transfer smoothly and share through information system. Therefore, this study aimed to propose the scope of application and the improvement directions for construction project information system with applying Supply Chain Management concept by curtain wall engineering case study.
Wound healing in the skin may be complicated by both microbial invasion and inflammation. Following injury, platelet degranulation releases a number of chemotactic factors including transforming growth factor (TGF-fl) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). TGF-19 is a cytokines that modulates many cellular function and gene expression. However, it is not known whether TGF-P could regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression during wound healing. Here we report that down regulation of TGF-Q gene expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides increase iNOS during wound healing. Our reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) result has shown that antisense TGF-fil oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) targeting the TGF-J11 translation initiation region markedly reduced TGF-(il mRNA levels in wounded skin. Also, marked reduction in TGF-fl1 mRNA after antisense treatment invited that the increment of iNOS mRNA in wounded skin. Therefore, our irnmunohistochemical studies revealed a "pattern of iNOS product in wounded skin treated antisense TGF-fl1 ODN that was similar to the pattern of RNA synthesis detected by RT-PCR. In conclusion, our results indicated that the regulatory actions of TGF fl1 on iNOS. might be involved in the initiation and faciliates the resolution of inflammation following wounding.
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The aims of this study are to demonstrate the reliability and the validity of the Korean version of Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS-K.) and to present the normative values of BDS-K among the Korean elderly. The BDS-K was administered in a standardized manner to 1,389 healthy volunteers aged over 65 years recruited from the cornmunity. The elderly with serious neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders were excluded using screening tests. BDS-K showed good intemal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.812), test-retest reliability (r=0.88) and inter-rater reliability (r=0.99). Age and educational level were found to affect BDS-K score. Based on this result, normative values of BDS-K. were calculated by age and educational level. The validity of the BDS-K were demonstrated in comparison with MMSE-KC (r=0.72). BDS-K is reliable and valid instrument for measuring executive function of the elderly. The normative values suggested by this study can be widely used as reference values to objectively interpret BDS-K scores of the Korean elderly.