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Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting flare prevention and skin barrier stabilization are needed. We and others have shown that normal looking, non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients is immunobiologially not normal but characterized by an invisible inflammation and barrier defect. This has led to the novel concept of proactive therapy, which is defined as long-term, low-dose intermittent application of anti-inflammatory therapy to the previously affected skin, together with an ongoing emollient treatment of unaffected skin. This review article describes the most important long-term treatment options for atopic dermatitis, which includes emollient therapy, the novel concept of proactive treatment, the different ultraviolet light modalities and a selection of systemic immunosuppressive drugs and biologics. Current trial data, licensed indications, off-label use and relevant side effects of the different treatment modalities are summarized.
Background: Perioral dermatitis (POD) is a common inflammatory skin disease without standard therapy. Objective: We sought to evaluate the clinical value of a soothing fluid for the treatment of POD. Methods: We included 51 patients with POD in this 8-week clinical trial. The Toleriane Fluide Efficacy in Perioral Dermatitis (TOLPOD) study had an open-label design and involved twice-daily application of Toleriane Fluide, a soothing cosmetic fluid. Clinical assessment of POD was performed with a predefined questionnaire including the POD severity index (PODSI). Control visits were made after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Results: The results were compared with those of a historical control group treated with a vehicle cream. Patients treated with the soothing fluid showed a continuous and significant improvement of the PODSI over time. The improvement of PODSI observed with the soothing fluid was better, but not significantly better, than that observed in the historical controls. In addition, the subjective complaints of patients such as disease burden, itching, distension of the skin, and appearance improved during treatment. Conclusion: A soothing fluid could be a clinically useful treatment option for POD. (Ann Dermatol 26(4) 462~468, 2014)