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      • KCI등재

        A Comparative Study of Behavioral and immunohistological Changes after Spinal Cord Injury between Young and Adult Rats

        Jun-Young Yang(양준영), June-Kyu Lee(이준규), Kwang-Jin Rhee(이광진), Kyung-Cheon Kim(김경천), Ui-Pyo Hong(홍의표), Jung-Bum Lee(이정범) 대한정형외과학회 2004 대한정형외과학회지 Vol.39 No.5

        목적: 어린 쥐와 성숙 쥐의 척수 손상에서 나타나는 행동상과 면역 조직 화학상의 변화의 차이를 비교함으로써 척수 손상에서 나타나는 변화의 기전 차이를 설명하고자 하였다. 대상 및 방법: 생후 5주된 수컷 쥐 25마리와 16주된 수컷 쥐(Spraque-Dawley rat) 25마리가 사용되었다. 쥐들을 페노바비탈로 마취시킨 후 제 11번, 12번 흉추 위치에서 추궁절제술을 시행하였으며 개량된 뉴욕 대학 충격기(modified New York University impactor)를 이용하여 20 ㎜ 높이에서 10 gm의 충격을 줘서 척수 손상을 유발하였다. 이에 따른 배뇨장애를 방지하기 위해 매일 2회씩 손으로 눌러 방광을 비워주었으며, 수술을 받지 않은 쥐를 정상 대조군으로 사용하였다. 척수손상을 입은 쥐들에 대한 행동 시험을 Basso-Beatti-Bresnahan (BBB) 가산표를 이용하여 시행하였고, 행동 시험은 척수손상 후 제 1, 7일에 시행하였다. 쥐들의 손상된 척수를 수술 후 제 1, 7일에 절개하였으며, 척수 절편에 H-E 염색과 c-Jun과 GFAP유전자에 대한 면역조직화학 검사를 시행하였다. 면역 반응은 상온에서 1시간 동안 말초 혈액 도말 내의 avidinbiotin-peroxidase 복합체 내에서 그리고 0.05% 3,3 -diaminobenzidine과 0.01% 과산화 수소에서 5-10분간 반응 시켰다. 결과: 생후 5주된 쥐들의 뒷다리는 수술 1일 이후 마비되었고 수술 7일후에 부분적으로 회복되었으나, 생후 16주된 쥐들의 경우 수술 후 7일째에도 마비된 상태로 남아있었다. 생후 16주된 쥐들에서는 손상 받은 척수의 회백질에서 c-Jun유전자의 발현이 7일째까지 증가했으며, 생후 5주의 쥐들에서는 c-Jun유전자의 발현이 수술 1일째 상당히 증가하였으나, 회백질의 c-Jun유전자의 발현은 수상 후 7일째부터 감소하였다. 회백질의 GFAP유전자의 발현은 생후 16주의 성인 쥐들에서는 수상 후 제 1일째부터 증가되기 시작하였으나 수상 제 7일째부터 괴사부분에서 감소되기 시작하였고, 생후 5주의 어린 쥐들이 회백질에서는 GFAP유전자 발현이 수상 후 7일째까지 점진적으로 증가하였다. 결론: 나이가 많은 쥐들에서 척수 손상이 회복되지 않은 것은 척수 손상 후 c-Jun유전자 발현의 지속적인 상향조절 또는 GFAP유전자의 하향조절과 연관되어 있을 가능성을 제시한다. 반대로, GFAP유전자의 상향조절 또는 c-Jun유전자의 하향 조절은 동일한 손상을 받은 어린 쥐들에서 척수 손상의 부분 회복과 관련되어 있는 것으로 사료된다. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral and immunohistochemical changes in a spinal cord injury (SCI) between young and adult rats and to clarify the differences in the mechanism underlying the changes in a SCI between young and adult rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 young and 25 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks and 16 weeks old) were used. The rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital and laminectomies were carried out at the level of the 11th and 12th thoracic vertebra. Using a modified New York University Impactor, a SCI was induced by dropping a 10 gm weight at a height of 20 mm. The bladders were emptied manually twice a day to prevent urinary problems. The animals that received no surgery were used as the normal controls. Behavior tests were performed using the Basso-Beatti-Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system, 1 and 7 days after the weight drop injury. The difference in the BBB score between the young and adult rats were analyzed by a paired t-test with a p value <0.05 considered significant. The injured spinal cords were dissected at 1 and 7 days after surgery. H-E stain and immunohistochemistry for c-Jun and GFAP were performed in the spinal cord sections. The immunoreactions were visualized by incubation for 1 hour at RT in an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex in PBS and 5-10 min in 0.05% 3,3 -diaminobenzidine and 0.01% H₂O₂ in 0.1 M PBS. Results: The hind limbs of young rats were paralyzed 1 day after surgery, but had recovered partially 7 days after surgery. However, the adult rats remained in the paralyzed status 7 days after surgery. The c-Jun expression level increased in the gray matter up to 7 days after the weight-drop injury in adult rats. The c-Jun expression level increased significantly in the gray matter 1 day after the injury in the young rats. However, the c-Jun expression level decreased significantly in the gray matter 7 days after the injury in the young rats compared with that of the 1 day post-injury. The GFAP expression level in the gray matter increased 1 day after the weigh-drop injury in the adult rats. However, it decreased in the necrotic region 7 days after the injury in the adult rats. GFAP expression in the gray matter increased gradually up to 7 days after the injury in the young rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that lack of recovery from a SCI in adult rats may be related to the continuous upregulation of c-Jun expression and/or the downregulation of GFAP after the weight-drop injury. In contrast, the upregulation of GFAP expression and/or the downregulation of c-Jun expression in the spinal cord might be related to a partial recovery in young rats after a weight-drop injury.

      • KCI등재

        제천전(濟川煎)과 약물(藥物) 가감(加減)이 흰쥐의 사하작용(瀉下作用)에 미치는 영향(影響)

        이승희,이상준,박수연,김홍렬,박성규,Lee,Seung-Hee,Lee,Sang-Jun,Park,Soo-Yeon,Kim,Hong-Yeoul,Park,Seong-Kyu 대한한의학방제학회 2002 大韓韓醫學方劑學會誌 Vol.10 No.1

        We have examined the purgative effect of three Jechun-jun formulas in sprague dawley(SD) rat. Three jechun-jun formulas were Jechun-jun(Sample I ) and augmented Jechun-jun(Sample II) and augmented Jechun-jun add rhubarb(sample III ). We examined the amount and the humidity of feces in rat. The experimental animals were devided into four groups. as control group and three Jechun-jun (sample I, II, III). We administerd the water extract of sample I, II, III to rat per oral for 8days long. After every 24hours measured the amount of wet feces from rats in metabolic cage. Humidity rate of feces from rat was at first measure wet feces for 24hours (W) and measure dried feces (W1) and then we consider W-W1 as humidity. High humidity rate means constipation changes into moistening stool. The amount of wet feces and humidity rate of feces in rats were increased in sample I, II, III. Sample I has highest humidity rate of feces. so showed strong moistening effect. Sample II has mild effect in treating constipation. sample III has most amount of wet feces. in conclusion Jechun-jun has an effect of moistening stool. and augmented Jechun-jun add rhubarb has strong purgative effect.

      • KCI등재

        Antispasmodic Effects of Junsibaekchul-San In Vivo and In vitro

        Jin,Il,Hur,Joon,Seok,Byun,Dae,Jun,Kim 한의병리학회 2010 동의생리병리학회지 Vol.24 No.1

        In Vivo and In vitro antispasmodic effects of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San, a Traditional Korean Polyherbal Medicineconsisted of 7 types of herbs were observed in the present study. To clarify the effects of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San, on accelerating small intestinal movement induced by the stimulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, we evaluated the effects of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San on In vivo carbachol (an acetylcholinergic agent)-accelerated mice small intestinal transit and on In vitro contractions induced by low-frequency electrostimulation, KCl, histamine or acetylcholine using isolated guinea pig ileum. To induce the acceleration of mice small intestinal transit, Carbachol 1 mg/kg was once subcutaneously dosed 15min before last administration of the test drugs. In the present study, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg or domperidone 20 mg/kg were orally pretreated on the carbachol-accelerated mice small intestinal transit once a day for 7 days and the small intestinal transit rateof activated charcoal powder were monitored. In vitro assays, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ml or domperidone 2×10<SUP>-5</SUP>M were treated 10min before ileal contraction was induced by filed stimulation, acetylcholine, KCl and histamine, and the % changes of contractions were observed compared to the treatment of inducer alone. In spontaneous contraction, the % changes of contractions were observed compared to treatment of vehicle alone at 10min after Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San or domperidone treatment. The efficacy of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San was compared to those of domperidone. High concentration, 1 mg/ml of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San was found to decrease the spontaneous contraction of the isolated guinea-pig ileum. In addition, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San decrease contractions induced by electrostimulation, acetylcholine, histamine and KCl in the isolated guinea-pig ileum. In addition, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San effectively inhibited the accelerated small intestinal movement induced by carbachol stimulation of cholinergic neurotransmission in In vivo. Based on the results, although the exact molecular or action mechanism and which herbs or compound in Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San are responsible for actions, it was concluded that Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San normalization in the accelerated intestinal motility might be interfere with a variety of muscarinic, adrenergic and histaminic receptor activities or with the mobilization of calcium ions required for smooth muscle contraction non-specificly. Therefore, it is expected that Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San will be promising as a prescription of clinical treatment of digestive tract disorders such as accelerated the motility of intestine, diarrhea or intestinal painful contractions.

      • KCI등재

        Antispasmodic Effects of Junsibaekchul-San In Vivo and In vitro

        Hur,,Jin-Il,Byun,,Joon-Seok,Kim,,Dae-Jun The Physiological Society of Korean Medicine 2010 동의생리병리학회지 Vol.24 No.1

        In Vivo and In vitro antispasmodic effects of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San, a Traditional Korean Polyherbal Medicineconsisted of 7 types of herbs were observed in the present study. To clarify the effects of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San, on accelerating small intestinal movement induced by the stimulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, we evaluated the effects of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San on In vivo carbachol (an acetylcholinergic agent)-accelerated mice small intestinal transit and on In vitro contractions induced by low-frequency electrostimulation, KCl, histamine or acetylcholine using isolated guinea pig ileum. To induce the acceleration of mice small intestinal transit, Carbachol 1 mg/kg was once subcutaneously dosed 15min before last administration of the test drugs. In the present study, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg or domperidone 20 mg/kg were orally pretreated on the carbachol-accelerated mice small intestinal transit once a day for 7 days and the small intestinal transit rateof activated charcoal powder were monitored. In vitro assays, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ml or domperidone $2{\times}10^{-5}M$ were treated 10min before ileal contraction was induced by filed stimulation, acetylcholine, KCl and histamine, and the % changes of contractions were observed compared to the treatment of inducer alone. In spontaneous contraction, the % changes of contractions were observed compared to treatment of vehicle alone at 10min after Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San or domperidone treatment. The efficacy of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San was compared to those of domperidone. High concentration, 1 mg/ml of Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San was found to decrease the spontaneous contraction of the isolated guinea-pig ileum. In addition, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San decrease contractions induced by electrostimulation, acetylcholine, histamine and KCl in the isolated guinea-pig ileum. In addition, Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San effectively inhibited the accelerated small intestinal movement induced by carbachol stimulation of cholinergic neurotransmission in In vivo. Based on the results, although the exact molecular or action mechanism and which herbs or compound in Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San are responsible for actions, it was concluded that Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San normalization in the accelerated intestinal motility might be interfere with a variety of muscarinic, adrenergic and histaminic receptor activities or with the mobilization of calcium ions required for smooth muscle contraction non-specificly. Therefore, it is expected that Jun-Si-Baek-Chul-San will be promising as a prescription of clinical treatment of digestive tract disorders such as accelerated the motility of intestine, diarrhea or intestinal painful contractions.

      • KCI등재

        東皐 李浚慶의 國政運營論 硏究

        김준태(Kim, Jun-Tae) 한국동양철학회 2015 동양철학 Vol.0 No.43

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study aims to look into the theory of governance of Lee Jun-kyung who had been Yeongeuijeong (Premier of the Joseon Dynasty) through King Myeongjong and King Seonjo regimes. Lee Jun-kyung is a character with intellectual and political capabilities, who solved several challenges like overcoming the crisis of a political vacuum, evaluated as a leader who opened the so-called ‘Age of Politics by Sarim (Confucian Scholars).' Based on his own recognition of the major philosophical concepts of Confucianism such as ‘Tian Ren He Yi (Heaven-man Unity)' or ‘Zhonghe (The Golden Mean),' Lee Jun-kyung postulated that the king should take the responsibility for the realization. He thought that the political chaos and crisis of the times, like the massacre of scholars was caused by the king's lack of the cultivation of his own moral character. In other words, the king did not set his mind straight, and made wrong decisions. Thus, according to his judgment, in order to prevent such a calamity from recurring and allow stable governance, most of all, the king should cultivate his own moral character. Lee Jun-kyung emphasized ‘the acceptance of admonition' because of that. Along with this, Lee Jun-kyung thought that Confucian scholars' discussion about radical and excessive reform might throw the administration of state affairs into confusion and furthermore, cause a counteroffensive of impure forces. This is the reason why he took a position prioritizing stabilization on major political issues. In other words, political confrontation and conflict should be settled by proceeding step by step gradually, and variables that could cause risks should be prevented in advance. Thus, his argument means that it could bring complete success to affairs, even if it takes time. Lee Jun-kyung's theory of governance like this marks ‘stability' with a side dot. The king should cultivate his own moral character for the ‘stability' of governance and should manage policies and reforms gradually also for ‘stability.' This line may delay reforms and may cause missing the best time; however, it can exhibit a power to make the reforms have timeliness and minimize side effects on reality. 본고는 명종과 선조 대에 걸쳐 영의정을 지낸 동고 이준경의 국정운영론을 살펴보는 데 목적이 있다. 이준경은 학문과 정치적 역량을 겸비한 인물로, 권력 공백의 위기를 극복하는 등 여러 가지 난제들을 해결하고 소위 ‘사림정치의 시대'를 연 주역으로 평가받는다. 이준경은 ‘天人關係'나 ‘中和'와 같은 儒學의 주요한 철학적 개념들에 대한 나름의 인식을 바탕으로, 그 실현의 책임을 임금에게 상정했다. 그는 士禍 등 당시의 정치적 혼란과 위기의 책임이 임금의 수신이 부족한 데서 기인한다고 생각했다. 임금이 자신의 마음을 바로잡지 못했기 때문에 잘못된 결정을 내렸다는 것이다. 따라서 그러한 참화가 재발하지 않도록 하고 국정이 안정적으로 운영될 수 있도록 하기 위해서는, 무엇보다 임금이 수신에 힘써야 한다는 것이 그의 판단이다. 이준경이 納言을 강조한 것도 그래서이다. 아울러 이준경은 사림의 급진적이고 과격한 개혁 논의가 국정을 혼란에 빠트리고, 나아가 小人들의 역공을 유발할 수 있다고 생각했다. 문소전 배향, 삭훈, 붕당 등 주요 정치적 이슈들에 있어서 그가 안정 우선의 입장을 취한 이유이다. 점차적으로 단계를 밟아감으로써 정치적 대립과 알력을 해소하고, 위험을 일으킬 수 있는 변수들을 사전에 차단해야 한다는 것이다. 그래야 비록 시간이 걸리더라도 일을 온전히 성공시킬 수 있다는 것이 그의 주장이다. 이러한 이준경의 국정운영론은 安定에 방점이 찍혀있다. 군주가 수신을 해야 하는 이유도 국정의 ‘안정'을 위해서고, 정책이나 개혁을 점진적으로 운용해야 하는 것도 ‘안정'을 위해서인 것이다. 이러한 노선은 개혁을 지연시키고 자칫 最適期를 놓치게 할 우려도 있지만, 개혁이 시의성을 갖추고 현실에서의 부작용을 최소화하도록 하는 힘을 발휘할 수 있다.

      • KCI등재

        개선한 일회성 난수를 이용한 RFID 상호인증 프로토콜

        윤은준(Eun-Jun Yoon), 유기영(Kee-Young Yoo) 한국정보과학회 2009 정보과학회논문지 : 정보통신 Vol.36 No.2

        2008년에 Kim-Jun은 의도하지 않은 정보의 누출로 인한 악의적인 공격들 및 범죄 악용 문제점들을 해결하기 위해 일회성 난수를 이용한 RFID 상호인증 프로토콜을 제안하였다. 보안성 분석을 통하여 Kim-Jun은 제안한 프로토콜이 재전송 공격을 포함한 다양한 공격들에 안전함을 증명하였다. 하지만 본 논문에서는 그들의 주장과는 달리 그들이 제안한 프로토콜이 여전히 재전송 공격에 취약함을 증명하며, 더 나아가 동일한 연산 효율성을 보장하며 재전송 공격을 막을 수 있는 간단히 개선된 일회성 난수 기반의 RFID 상호인증 프로토콜을 제안한다. In 2008, Kim-Jun proposed a RFID mutual authentication protocol using one-time random number that can withstand malicious attacks by the leakage of important information and resolve the criminal abuse problems. Through the security analysis, they claimed that the proposed protocol can withstand various security attacks including the replay attack. However, this paper demonstrates that Kim-Jun's RFID authentication protocol still insecure to the replay attack. In addition, this paper also proposes a simply improved RFID mutual authentication protocol using one-time random number which not only provides same computational efficiency, but also withstands the replay attack.

      • KCI등재

        노령 흰쥐의 뇌허혈 손상시 양격산화탕(凉膈散火湯)이 뇌해마의 c-Fos 및 c-Jun 발현에 미치는 영향

        김성준,신정원,손영주,정혁상,원란,손낙원,Kim,Seung-Jun,Shin,Jung-Won,Sohn,Young-Joo,Jung,Hyuk-Sang,Won,Ran,Sohn,Nak-Won 대한한방내과학회 2003 大韓韓方內科學會誌 Vol.24 No.2

        This study investigated the effect of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang on cerebral ischemia of the rats. Considering age-related impact on cerebral ischemia, aged rats (18 months old) were used for this study. Ischemic damage was induced by the transient occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries(BCAO) under the hypotension. Yanggyuksanhwa-tang was administered twice orally. Then changes of immunohistochemical expression of c-fos and c-jun in ischemic damaged hippocampus were observed. The BCAO in aged rats led significant increase of c-fos expression in CA1 and DG of hippocampus. While the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of c-fos expression in CA1 hippocampus following BCAO ischemia. Depending on changes of the normalized optical density(NOD) of immunohistochemical c-fos expression, the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of NOD in CA1 and DG of hippocampus. And there was not changes in CA2 and CA3 hippocampus with respect to the control BCAO group. The BCAO in aged rats led significant increase of c-jun expression in CA1 hippocampus. While the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of c-jun expression in CA1 hippocampus following BCAO ischemia. Depending on changes of the NOD of immunohistochemical c-jun expression, the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of NOD in CA1 hippocampus. And there was not changes in CA2, CA3 and DG of hippocampus with respect to the control BCAO group.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

        Quantitative Assay for the Binding of Jun-Fos Dimer and Activator Protein-1 Site

        Yang,,Chul,Hak,Jun,,Gyo,Lee,,Dug,Keun,Lee,,Sang,Kyou,Park,,Se,Yeon,Hahm,,Eun,Ryeong 한국생화학회 1998 BMB Reports Vol.31 No.2

        The Jun and Fos families of eukaryotic transcription factors form heterodimers capable of binding to their cognate DNA enhancer elements. We are interested in searching for inhibitors or antagonists of the binding of the Jun-Fos heterodimer to the activator protein-1 (AP-1) site. The basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of c-Fos was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase, and allowed to form a heterodimer with the bZIP domain of c-Jun. The heterodimer was bound to glutathione-agarose, to which were added radiolabeled AP-1 nucleotides. After thorough washing, the gel-bound radioactivity was counted. The assay is faster than the conventional electrophoretic mobility shift assay because the gel electrophoresis step and the autoradiography step are eliminated. Moreover, the assay is very sensitive, allowing the detection of picomolar quantities of nucleotides, and is not affected by up to 50% dimethylsulfoxide, a solvent for hydrophobic inhibitors. Curcumin and dihydroguaiaretic acid, recently known inhibitors of Jun-Fos-DNA complex formation, were applied to this Jun-GST-fused Fos system and revealed to decrease the dimer-DNA binding.

      • KCI등재

        Quantitative Assay for the Binding of Jun-Fos Dimer and Activator Protein-1 Site

        Yang,Chul-Hak,Jun,Gyo,Hahm,Eun-Ryeong,Lee,Sangkyou,Park,Seyeon,Lee,Dug-Keun The Korea Science and Technology Center 1999 BMB Reports Vol.32 No.6

        The Jun and Fos families of eukaryotic transcription factors form heterodimers capable of binding to their cognate DNA enhancer elements. We are interested in searching for inhibitors or antagonists of the binding of the Jun-Fos heterodimer to the activator protein-1 (AP-1) site. The basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of c-Fos was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase, and allowed to form a heterodimer with the bZIP domain of c-Jun. The heterodimer was bound to glutathione-agarose, to which were added radiolabeled AP-1 uncleotides. After thorough washing, the gel-bound radioactivity was counted. The assay is faster than the coventional electrophoretic mobility shift assay because the gel electrophoresis step and the autoradiography step are eliminated. Moreover, the assay is very sensitive, allowing the detection of picomolar quantities of nucleotides, and is not affected by up to 50% dimethylsulfoxide, a solvent for hydrophobic inhibitors. Curcumin and dihydroguaiaretic acid, recently known inhibitors of Jun-Fos-DNA complex formation, were applied to this Jun-GST-fused Fos system and revealed to decrease the dimer-DNA binding.

      • KCI등재

        상수관망의 신뢰도 산정을 위한 개별 관의 파괴 확률을 고려한 상수관 파괴모의 기법

        전환돈,Jun.,Hwandon 한국방재학회 2012 한국방재학회논문집 Vol.12 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        상수관망의 신뢰도 산정은 상수관망의 정확한 운영상황을 파악하기 위해서 중요지만 널리 받아들여지는 상수관망의 신뢰도 산정을 위한 방법은 없다. 관파괴와 이에 따른 영향을 바탕으로 한 Jun 등이 제안한 모델은 상수관망의 운영주체에서 실질적으로 활용이 가능한 기법이다. 그러나, Jun 등의 모델에서는 각 관의 파괴확률을 같게 설정하여 관파괴 모의를 실시하였기 때문에 실제 상수관망에서 발생하는 관파괴 양상을 정확하게 반영하지 못하였다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 각각의 관별 파괴확률을 고려하여 관파괴 모의를 가능케 Jun 등의 모델을 개선하여 상수관망의 신뢰도를 산정할 수 있는 모델을 제안하였다. 각각의 관별 파괴확률을 관경과 관길이를 바탕으로 산정하는 회귀식을 이용하여 산정한 후 이를 상수관망 신뢰도 산정을 위한 관파괴 모의에 적용하였다. 제안된 모델을 실제 상수관망에 적용하여 Jun 등의 모델과 본 연구에서 제안된 모델에 의해 산정되는 상수관망의 신뢰도를 비교하였다. 비교 결과 개별 관의 관파괴 확률을 반드시 고려하여야만 정확한 상수관망의 신뢰도 산정이 가능한 것으로 나타났다. Estimation of the reliability of a Water Distribution System(WDS) is important to understand the current operating condition of the system. Although, there is no widely accepted method to estimate the reliability of a WDS, the Jun`s model which is based on the pipe failure simulation and its impact can be efficiently adopted for the purpose by the water utility. In the model, however, it is assumed that the pipe failure probability of each pipe is even and this assumption may bring unrealistic estimation of the reliability of a WDS since with this assumption, the actual pipe failure characteristics occurred in the WDS cannot be simulated. For this reason, in this study, we suggest a modified method of the Jun`s model to consider the individual pipe`s failure probability. The regression equation which is based on diameter and length of the pipe is used to estimate the failure probability of the individual pipe and then, the pipe failure simulation is performed. The suggested model is applied to a real WDS to compare the results of the two models. Comparing them, it is concluded that the failure probability of the individual pipe should be considered to estimate the accurate reliability of a WDS when it is estimated by the pipe failure simulation.

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