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We report the preparation of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) by the sulfonationof graphene oxide followed by radiation-induced chemical reduction. Graphene oxideprepared by the well-known modified Hummer's method was sulfonated with the aryldiazonium salt of sulfanilic acid. Sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) dispersed in ethanolwas subsequently reduced by γ-ray irradiation at various absorbed doses to produce SRGO. The results of optical, chemical, and thermal analyses revealed that SRGO was successfullyprepared by γ-ray irradiation-induced chemical reduction of the SGO suspension. Moreover,the electrical conductivity of SRGO was increased up to 2.94 S/cm with an increase of theabsorbed dose.
Purpose: Considerable amount of interest has been focused on the positive relationship between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and future risk for developing MS. Therefore, we investigated whether the baseline plasma levels of WBC count could be associated with future risk for MS in apparently healthy Korean. Materials and Methods: A total of 1135 subjects (781 men and 354 women with a mean age of 49 years), who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in both 2002 and 2005 were enrolled. The presence of MS was defined using the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III using BMI instead of waist circumference. Results: The baseline levels of WBC count were significantly higher among incident MS cases than among subjects without MS. The relative risks of incident MS were 1.4, 3.2 and 2.7 for WBC quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared with the first quartile (p-value for trend <0.001). These positive associations persisted after adjustment for baseline body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; adjusted relative risk of incident MS for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups vs. the lowest quartile were 1.2, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively (p-value for trend =0.011). Conclusion: This retrospective cohort study suggests that an elevated WBC count could be associated with incident MS, suggesting that baseline inflammation mirrored by WBC level can impact future MS development.
This study was aimed to develop the reduction process of natural indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) by using bacterialstrain (Dietzia sp. KDB1) separated from Korean traditional fermentation bath. In detail, changes in pH, oxidation reductionpotential (ORP), and color intensity (K/S) of dyed ramie fabric were evaluated by using some of alkaline mediums, pHadjustments, and concentrations of KDB1 and indigo, respectively. In terms of pH control and reducing power, buffersolution of NaHCO3/NaOH was the most effective among the mediums used. In the baths with buffer solution, initial pH 10.7exhibited faster initiation of reduction and higher K/S than other initial pH values. The bath adjusted at pH 10.0 showedhigher K/S and more negative ORP, than the baths adjusted at pH 10.5 and 10.7. Better reducing power was obtained athigher indigo and KDB1 concentrations. With the combination of buffer solution, scale-up, repeat dyeing, and higher KDB1concentration, K/S range of 9.5-16.0 was obtained at days of 4-6. Use of single bacterial strain for indigo reduction attains asimple, reliable and eco-friendly dyeing process which can be applied as an alternative to sodium dithionite reduction.
Background: It is not clear whether microangiopathies are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the relation of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and other microangiopathies with carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM. Methods: A total of 131 patients with T2DM were stratified by mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥ or <1.0 mm and the number of carotid plaques. CAN was assessed by the five standard cardiovascular reflex tests according to the Ewing's protocol. CAN was defined as the presence of at least two abnormal tests or an autonomic neuropathy points ≥2. Diabetic microangiopathies were assessed. Results: Patients with CAN comprised 77% of the group with mean CIMT ≥1.0 mm, while they were 29% of the group with CIMT <1.0 mm (P=0.016). Patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) comprised 68% of the group with CIMT ≥1.0 mm, while they were 28% of the group without CIMT thickening (P=0.003). Patients with CAN comprised 51% of the group with ≥2 carotid plaques, while they were 23% of the group with ≤1 carotid plaque (P=0.014). In multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis, the patients who presented with CAN showed an odds ratio [OR] of 8.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 44.8) for CIMT thickening and an OR of 2.9 (95% CI, 1.1 to 7.5) for carotid plaques. Furthermore, patients with DR were 3.8 times (95%CI, 1.4 to 10.2) more likely to have CIMT thickening. Conclusion: These results suggest that CAN is associated with carotid atherosclerosis, represented as CIMT and plaques, independent of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM. CAN or DR may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM.
Background: Few studies have examined the relationship of sarcopenia with the microcirculation. The current study investigatedthe relationship of sarcopenia with microcirculatory function, as assessed by skin perfusion pressure (SPP), in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods: In total, 102 T2DM patients who underwent SPP measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were enrolledin this cross-sectional study. SPP was assessed using the laser Doppler technique. Sarcopenia was defined as low height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass (men, <7 kg/m2; women, <5.7 kg/m2) using BIA. We divided the participants into two groups based on SPP(≤50 and >50 mm Hg), and an SPP below 50 mm Hg was considered to reflect impaired microcirculation. Results: Fourteen patients (13.7%) were diagnosed with impaired microcirculatory function of the lower limb based on SPP. Theprevalence of sarcopenia in all subjects was 11.8%, but the percentage of patients with an SPP ≤50 mm Hg who had sarcopenia wasmore than triple that of patients with an SPP >50 mm Hg (28.6% vs. 9.1%, P=0.036). A significant positive correlation was foundbetween SPP and appendicular muscle mass adjusted for height (P=0.041 for right-sided SPP). Multiple logistic regression analysisshowed that patients with sarcopenia had an odds ratio of 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 24.9) for having an SPP ≤50 mm Hgeven after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusion: These results suggest that sarcopenia may be significantly associated with impaired microcirculation in patients withT2DM. Nonetheless, the small number of patients and wide CI require cautious interpretation of the results.
As the substitute of synthetic coloring materials for hair dyeing, we selected some natural ones of three primary colors such as sappan wood, logwood(red), gardenia blue(blue) and amur cork tree(yellow). Mixed colorants and metallic mordanting technique were used to widen the color space of dyed samples. In view of similarity in morphological and chemical structure, wool was adopted as the reference material for human hair to evaluate the color properties of hair dyeing. The color properties of the dyed samples were evaluated by using CIE L*a*b* and Munsell color systems. The addition of an alum or ferrous mordants was effective to expand the color space of hair and to increase the colorfastness to washing and light more than the rating of 1. Displaying the dyed samples by using Munsell color system, better linearity of hue values between the dyed samples of wool and human hair was shown when alum mordant was used.