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      • 중국서부지역 소수민족 사례연구 : 신강위구르자치구를 중심으로

        LIU BING 부경대학교 대학원 2012 국내석사

        RANK : 231999

        본 연구의 목적은 7.5사건의 배경을 살펴보고 이를 통해 신강지역에 대한 정책적 방향성 제시와 중국내 기타 소수민족 문제 해결에 시사점을 주고자 하는 것이다. 중화인민공화국 건국 이후 신강은 소수민족자치구로서 민족자치를 실시하였다. 중국정부는 신강 ‘생산건설병단’과 ‘서부대개발’과 같은 지역 발전 전략으로 이 지역의 통합을 위해 노력해 왔다. 그러나 신강지역 내, 국제적 민족분리 운동세력의 영향, 내지는 동부 연해지역과 내륙지역간의 경제적 격차로 서부 소수민족들이 느낀 상대적인 박탈감 요인으로 으로 인하여 이러한 프로젝트의 추진은 중앙정부의 추진 취지만큼의 성과를 거두지 못하고 있다. 또한 동투르키스탄을 비롯한 민족분리 세력의 사주로 신강지역 내의 소위 ‘독립단체’들은 중아정부에 대한 도전을 하고 있다. 이는 지난 2009년 신강 사건의 주된 원인이 되고 있다. 중국정부는 이들 분리단체들의 태러와 폭력에 대해 강경 단속과 그리고 지역적 균형발전을 위한 경제적 지원과 같은 온건정책 실행해 왔다. 특히 경제적 격차의 해소, 정치적 자주권 확보, 그리고 고유문화발전과 같은 프로젝트의 추진에 박차를 가하고 있다. 본고는 연구 환경의 제한 및 저자의 학식으로 인하여 많은 한계가 남아 있다. 키워드: 7·5 사건, 서부 소수민족 This paper focuses on the ethnic separatist event of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on July 5, 2009. We are trying to provide some policy implications on attempting to solve the minority issues. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, Xinjiang as a minority autonomous region has been implementing regional national autonomy for decades. The Chinese government by dispatching Production and Construction Corps’ and 'Western Development’ strategy to promote the regional development and integration made a lot of positive efforts. However, due to the regional and international ethical splitting force incites and East-West section disparity expands led to part of the western minority emerged discontent factors caused a certain gap appeared between government efforts and the original intention. In a sense, these factors became the background of the "July 5, 2009 event". The central government attacked resolutely the violence and terror of so-called "National independence" forces. At the same time, the government of the region from the view-point of balanced development took a series of strategies, such as actively eliminating the economic development gap; ensuring the national autonomous right; developing the regional national culture, etc. In this paper, due to the author's knowledge and the limit of research conditions many deficiencies still exists, needs further development and improvement. In addition, this paper is that academic research does not represent the author's political bias.Key words: 7·5 Event, Western Region Minority

      • Properties model for aqueous sodium chloride solutions near the critical point of water

        Liu, Bing Brigham Young University 2005 해외박사(DDOD)

        RANK : 231983

        Traditional excess Gibbs energy models in terms of temperature, pressure, and concentration become progressively less effective in describing the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions at temperatures above 300 °C, and are totally inadequate in the critical region of water. This deficiency is due to the strong ion association and the large property fluctuations (such as density) with small variations in pressure, temperature, and solute concentration around the critical point of water. In this work, a speciation-based model has been developed to describe the thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions in the critical region of water. The anomalous fluctuation problem is avoided by adopting a residual Helmholtz energy approach in terms of temperature, density, and solute concentration. Partial ion dissociation is accounted for by including an isochoric equilibrium constant equation and a mean spherical approximation in the present model. The present model includes such classical interactions or effects as hard-sphere interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, ion dissociation effects, long-range ion-ion interactions, and a non-classical perturbation term. The related parameters that account for these effects were regressed to fit the measured values in the critical region of water. Densities, compressibility factors, apparent molar volumes, heats of dilution, and apparent isobaric molar heat capacities were used to test the validity of the model. The predicted values in this work agree well with the literature data over a wide range of temperatures (350 to 400 °C), pressures (17.5 to 40 MPa), and sodium chloride concentrations (0 to 5 mol/kg). Comparisons with other models are also included in this work. This model can be used to predict speciation, solute dissociation reaction, and many other comprehensive properties in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at near-critical conditions.

      • Molecular beam epitaxy of germanium nanoclusters and indium gallium nitride thin films

        Liu, Bing University of Colorado at Boulder 2002 해외박사(DDOD)

        RANK : 231983

        Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an important method of growth of thin crystalline films. In this thesis, I study MBE of Ge on Si(100) substrates and InGaN on silicon and sapphire substrates. Formation and evolution of three-dimensional Ge/Si(100) islands of diameters between 10 to 150 nm are first investigated. Three types of Ge clusters are identified <italic>ex situ</italic> by atomic force microscopy. These are (i) pyramidal islands with four {105} facets, (ii) dome-type islands with steeper facets of {113}, and (iii) very large and strain relaxed “superdome” islands of {112}, {125} and {215} facets. The island size, shape, and spatial distributions are examined as functions of major growth parameters such as substrate temperature, Ge beam flux, and time of annealing. The growth of Ge on Si(100) is divided into different regimes according to the total coverage. In the low and moderate coverage (10 monolayers) regime, formation of pyramidal islands is a kinetically favored process. These pyramids can evolve into larger dome type islands by several kinetic pathways including coarsening and coalescence. By appropriate low temperature annealing, an ensemble of pyramids can reach a local equilibrium state where the islands can have a narrow size distribution and a locally ordered spatial distribution. This can be useful for growth of self-assembled quantum dot devices. At higher coverages, very large superdome-type islands could form and grow at the expense of the nearby small pyramids and domes. However, the superdome island formation can also be suppressed by using high Ge beam fluxes. The mechanisms of the evolution of the Ge islands and the transition of one type of islands to another type of islands in each growth regime are discussed. After I obtain an overall understanding of the growth and evolution of Ge nanoclusters on flat Si(100) surfaces, lateral alignment of Ge/Si(100) islands is explored using pre-patterned Si(100) substrates as the growth templates. The patterns are made by electron bean lithography and chlorine plasma etching. By minimizing the sizes of the patterns, laterally well-ordered arrays of Ge islands are achieved, and the mechanisms of the preferential nucleation of Ge islands at certain sites are examined. Next, another important issue of preserving the two-dimensional growth of Ge on silicon by intentionally introducing some impurities (surfactants) during growth to suppress the three-dimensional Ge island formation is investigated. In particular, arsenic as a surfactant is studied. The role of arsenic in MBE of Ge on Si(100) is proposed to be both associated with reduction of Ge adatom surface diffusion and chemically decorating the surface atomic steps to increase the reactivity of the steps with the Ge adatoms. Finally, I present studies of MBE of group III-nitride materials. The bulk strain of InGaN is first calculated using a simplified valence force field method. A phase diagram of InGaN is obtained for an overview of the thermodynamic properties of these materials. MBE experiments of GaN and InGaN thin films are then performed using both an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and ammonia as the nitrogen sources. Thick GaN films of good crystal qualities and smooth surfaces are obtained by introducing a small amount of indium as a surfactant. In<sub>x</sub>Ga<sub>1−x</sub>N films with different indium fraction x are also achieved by balancing the major growth parameters such as the substrate temperature and In/Ga flux ratio. The mechanisms of the film growth and evolution are discussed.

      • Designing and Securing Discovery Services for EPCglobal Network in Supply Chains

        Liu, Bing The Pennsylvania State University ProQuest Dissert 2015 해외박사(DDOD)

        RANK : 231983

        Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging, global scale, Internet-based information service architecture enabled by the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and sensors technologies for information sharing and corresponding service discoveries. The EPCglobal network is considered as a sub-project under the IoT umbrella, which was created to develop a universal identification system and an open architecture to provide interoperability in a complex multi-vendor scenario. This universal identification system is based on the allocation of a unique ID---Electronic Product Code (EPC)---to every item. The EPC key is a globally unique identifier that is carried by the RFID tag. As a result, the EPCglobal network is an architecture proposed for enabling the sharing of information about the individually identifiable objects among organizations. As such, the life history of each individual object is shared and linked to an object through the unique EPC key. Since a huge volume of data is involved, a suitable service oriented architecture (SOA), which is called EPCglobal Discovery Service (EPCDS), is needed for locating both the key and additional information associated with it. Although several EPCDS models have been introduced by existing studies, most of them are in the very early development stages and cannot fulfill the design requirements, especially in advanced services, network performance, and security aspects. This dissertation introduces an advanced EPCDS model, which centers around three main tasks. First, we discuss the architecture of EPCglobal network and the needs for advanced discovery services. We examine the detailed EPCDS design requirements that are classified into three categories, functionality and service, network performance, and security and privacy. We select several typical EPCDS models that are proposed in other studies for detailed discussion, and then summarize and analyze current EPCDS models against the design requirements. The conclusion points out how to take advantage of current EPCDS designs to eliminate the gaps for further exploration. Next, according to the design requirements and the assessment, we propose an advanced EPCDS design. The enhanced EPCDS network is based on a peer-to-peer infrastructure and a consistent hashing method, adopted for the EPC key assignment function. It enhances the functionalities and services of the system, especially core functions such as publishing and lookup services. Our model can fulfill all the design requirements. In particular, compared to other models, the design is a highly distributed network, which is able to provide both basic and advanced services, as well as superior networking capability, such as reliability, scalability, extensibility, etc. It could mitigate some of the aforementioned shortcomings without completely abandoning the established standard. Finally, we investigate security threats and vulnerabilities for the RFID-enabled EPCglobal network in detail. We categorize the security issues into several categories, and discuss how to resolve them. To address the challenges posed by complex and dynamic EPC objects and events, we propose a relationship-based federated access control model for EPC Discovery Service, which can be tightly integrated with the proposed EPCDS infrastructure, to fulfill all the security and privacy design requirements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies and examines in detail the causes and impacts of key publishing security threats and interdependent security issues in an EPCDS context.

      • Using isotopes to analyze soil erosion and deposition for the Bull Creek watershed in Oklahoma

        Liu, Bing Oklahoma State University 2014 해외박사(DDOD)

        RANK : 231983

        Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem worldwide. Extensive research has been conducted identifying and quantifying erosion processes, measuring soil erosion, and evaluating the effectiveness of soil conservation practices. Accurately predicting soil erosion in space and time continues to be a challenge, and detailed spatial erosion data at field and watershed scales are needed to validate, calibrate, and improve erosion models. The Cs-137 and fingerprinting methods have been used to estimate soil erosion and sediment sources in many studies, but uncertainties exist in both methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these two methods and compare predictions with the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. The study area for this research was the Bull Creek watershed, located in west central Oklahoma. The Cs-137 method predicted reasonable long-term average soil erosion and deposition rates and integrated spatial and temporal changes in erosion/deposition. Compared to WEPP, the Cs-137 method needed less information and only required a one-time sampling. The fingerprinting method provided useful information about the sediment source contributions and performed best with two sources. For the Bull Creek study area, the mixing model predicted the source contribution with the lowest model errors; however, the results were not significantly different. The new Discriminate Function Analysis method may be a better method since it avoids spurious numerical solutions. When using the Cs-137 and the fingerprinting methods, sample collection and the proper application of particle size correction factors were critical. When there were two source types, the fingerprinting method and WEPP watershed model predicted similar source contributions. However, with three source types their predictions diverged. In addition, WEPP predicted significantly less sediment yield from the rangeland compared to the fingerprinting method. Combining erosion models with the fingerprinting method provides a more detailed evaluation of erosion predictions, which may result in improved land management recommendations and decisions.

      • 중국의 두 자녀 정책결정과정에 대한 연구 : 다중흐름모형을 중심으로

        류빙 전남대학교 2017 국내석사

        RANK : 231967

        본 연구는 J. W. Kingdon의 다중흐름모형을 바탕에 두고 중국의 두 자녀 정책결정과정 분석했다. 본 연구는 중국의 두 자녀 정책은 어떻게 채택되었나? 두 자녀 정책의 결정과정의 주요 요인은 무엇인가?라는 연구문제를 고찰함을 목적으로 한다. 이를 위해 인구정책에 관련된 다양한 자료를 분석했다. 중국은 세계에서 가장 강력한 산아제한정책을 시행해 왔는데, 정부는 개혁개방 이후 실시한 ‘한 자녀 정책’을 40여년 만에 폐지하였다. 한 자녀 정책으로 인한 출산율 감소는 중국 경제발전의 근간을 제공한 중요한 사회적 변화였다. 그러나 최근에는 대체 수준 이하의 낮은 출산율로 인해 인구 구조의 고령화와 생산가능인구의 감소 등에 대한 경고가 계속되어 왔다. 이에 대응하여 중국 정부는 두 자녀 정책으로 전환하게 된다. 다중흐름모형에 따르면 정책의제 설정은 문제의 흐름, 정책의 흐름, 정치의 흐름의 3가지 흐름이 서로 독립적으로 흐르고 있다가 어떠한 계기에 의해 각 흐름들이 결합되어 이루어진다. 따라서 다중흐름 모형에서는 다양한 흐름들이 결합되는데 이러한 상태를 정책의 창이 열렸다고 지칭한다. 중국의 두 자녀 정책결정과정에서는, 첫째, 문제흐름은 낮은 출산수준 문제, 인구 구조문제의 심화, 가정 구조 불안정 등 요인으로 구성된다. 둘째, 2004년부터 정책혁신가가 지속적으로 대안을 제기하고 정책흐름을 구성했다. 셋째, 국가적 분위기, 집권 이념의 전환, 주도기과의 교체에 따라 정치흐름도 나타났다. 문제흐름·정책흐름·정치흐름 중 정치흐름은 다른 흐름에 비해 상대적으로 큰 비중을 차지하며, 정책혁신가의 정책추진에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 정책혁신가들은 중국공산당 중앙위원회 회의의 논점에 따라 대응하며 대안을 논의했고, 한 자녀 정책의 폐지에 따르는 쟁점을 논의하였다. 중앙위원회 회의는 정책 논의와 연구를 위한 촉진제 역할을 수행하였고, 정책의 창으로서 작용하였다.

      • 중국 '쇼장방송秀场直播' 여성BJ들의 젠더화된 정동노동

        유빙 연세대학교 대학원 2020 국내석사

        RANK : 231967

        전 세계적인 디지털 산업의 확장으로 다양한 내용의 인터넷 개인방송이 등장하고 있다. 2015년 이후 중국에서는 많은 젊은 여성들이 인터넷 개인방송의 하나인 쇼장방송에 BJ로 진출하기 시작했다. ‘쇼장방송(秀场直播)’이란 뛰어난 외모의 여성 BJ가 노래를 부르거나 춤을 추는 등의 장기자랑을 하며 시청자와의 상호작용하는 방송을 말한다. 본 논문은 쇼장방송 여성 BJ의 일 경험을 분석하여, 여성들이 구체적으로 수행하는 친밀성 노동의 성격과 사회 문화적 맥락을 해석한다. 연구자 또한 게임방송과 쇼장방송의 경험을 갖고 있으며 이 때 얻은 경험과 인맥은 본 연구의 진행에 크게 도움이 되었다. 본 연구는 온라인 참여관찰과 심층면접 연구 방법을 사용하여, 자료를 수집하고 작성한 디지털 에스노그래피다. 기프트 이코노미(gift economy)는 쇼장방송 업계 전체를 지탱하는 자금원이다. 선물은 시청자가 BJ에게 하는 증여이면서도, 동시에 ‘구매’ 수단으로 사용된다. 여성BJ들은 선물을 받고 수입을 얻기 위해 정동노동(affective labor)과 체현기술(technologies of embodiment)을 수행하면서 남성 시청자들의 감정과 욕망을 구성하며, 선물을 받아낸다. 큰 돈을 선물하는 소위 따거들은 선물을 통해 자신의 재력을 과시함으로써 명성과 지위를 취득하려는 목적을 달성하며 여성BJ에게 결연하고 싶은 마음을 전한다. 선물을 통해 방 안의 남성들 사이에는 경쟁 상태가 형성되고 따거와 나머지들로 위계화되지만, 동시에 쾌락의 공유라는 남성 간의 연대감이 만들어진다. 여성BJ들은 남성 시청자의 선물 증여를 통해 수익을 올리지만, 이들은 때로 남성 시청자에게 동정심을 느끼고 가족처럼 그들의 일상을 챙기고 배려하게 되는 경우가 많다. 디지털 경제는 새로운 형태의 초과이윤을 획득하는 장소와 기회를 제공한다. 특별히 많은 여성들이 참여하고 있는 쇼장방송에서 이들은 젠더화된 정동노동을 통하여 경제적인 이익을 얻고 자기의 개인주의적인 열망을 실험해보고 추구하며 현실화시켜내고 있다. 중국에서 쇼장방송 BJ라는 직업은 노동시장에서 일자리를 얻기 어려운 여성들에게는 투자금과 전문적 기능이 필요 없이 빠르게 큰돈을 벌 수 있는 기회로 인식된다. 이러한 노동은 구체적으로는 관계적인 노동이며, 친밀성, 감정, 욕망 그리고 정동을 생산하는 노동이기도 하다. 이 노동의 또 간과할 수 없는 측면은 이것이 성애화된 형태의 수행성을 지속적으로 요청한다는 점이다. 부모 세대의 경험과 달리 사회주의권 안에서 평등을 누리면서 자란 소황제(小皇帝) 세대의 여성들은 자본주의 경제 활동에 참여하고 나름대로 자신의 자율성을 갖고 있다. 하지만 디지털 경제는 특정한 여성성을 끊임없이 주조하면서, 여성BJ들을 성애화한다. 이러한 남성중심적 구조에서 여성BJ들은 장기적인 생애 기획을 전망할 수 없는 소진상태가 되어 일을 그만두게 된다. 쇼장방송이라는 디지털 산업은 여성들에게 경제적 자본을 얻을 수 있는 장소를 제공했지만, 이러한 산업이 사실은 또 다른 성착취적 산업이라는 점은 분명하다. 실제로 디지털 플랫폼 경제는 정기적인 고용관계를 명확하게 보여주지 않으며 줄곧 개인주의와 개인들의 행위자성을 강조한다. 이로써 끊임없이 여성들이 자발적으로 젠더화된 체현기술을 발휘하면서 정동노동을 수행하게 만들어 쇼장방송의 이윤구조를 구축하고 수익을 올린다. 본 연구는 성별 구조가 명확한 이성애적 장 안에서 위치해 있는 쇼장방송의 여성 BJ들이 어떻게 전략적으로 섹슈얼리티를 자원화해서 가장 효과적인 정동노동을 수행하는지와 이러한 정동 노동의 노동으로서의 가치와 한계는 무엇인지를 논술했다. 본 연구는 전 세계적으로 확장하고 있는 쇼장방송의 사례를 통해 젠더와 디지털 문화가 결합하는 현장에서 새롭게 태동하는 정동노동의 젠더화과정을 분석한다. With the expansion of the global digital industry, various types of content in personal broadcasting have emerged. Since 2015, many young women have entered the broadcasting industry as Broadcast Jockeys (hereafter referred to as BJ). The 'Live Broadcasting Showroom (秀场直播)' is a show in which an attractive woman, the BJ, sings or dances and interacts with the viewers. This thesis analyzes the work experience of these women BJs and interprets in detail the nature of the intimacy labor as well as the social and cultural context in which they perform. The researcher also has experience in live game streaming and live shows that contributed to the progress of this research. Moreover, this thesis is a digital ethnography that has collected data using online participant observation and in-depth interview methods. The gift economy refers to the financial source that supports the live streaming industry. Gifts are given to the BJs as a form of support, and also as a form of 'purchase'. Women BJs construct the emotions and desires of the male viewers while performing affective labor and technologies of embodiment to receive gifts and earn income. The 'Dage (大哥)'(which is a Chinese slang in the live streaming industry that refers to an audience involved in the user contribution) acquire their reputation and status by showing off their wealth through a number of gifts that conveys the male viewers' desire to be acquainted with the women BJs. A competitive and hierarchical structure among the male viewers is formed through these gifts, but at the same time, a sense of solidarity among the men is created through sharing of their pleasure. Women BJs earn profits through the gift donations from the male viewers, but sometimes they feel sympathy for male viewers and take care of their daily lives as their families. The digital economy provides a place and opportunity to acquire a new form of excess profit. Many women participate in live broadcasting showrooms in order to gain economic benefits through gendered affective labor, experiments, pursuits, and realization of their individual aspirations. In China, the BJ profession is recognized as an opportunity to earn a lot of money quickly without the need for investment and professional training. This profession especially appeals to women who are having difficulty in securing a job in the labor market. The labors of BJs are not only specifically related labors, they also produce intimacy, emotion, and desire in the men, and there are continuous requests for sexualized forms of performance. Unlike the experience of the previous generation, the women of the 'Little Emperor (小皇帝)' generation who grew up enjoying equality in the socialist world, participated in capitalist economic activities and had their own autonomy, the women working in the digital economy industry face a different situation. The digital economy is constantly casting a certain type of femininity, one that sexualizes women BJs. In this male-centered structure, women BJs are in a state of exhaustion without certain long-term goals and eventually quit their jobs. Although the live broadcasting showroom industry provides economic support for women, it is apparent that this industry is another platform for sexual exploitation. In reality, this digital economy platform does not show a clear employee-employer relationship but rather emphasizes individualism and individual agency. As such, women BJs continue to perform gendered affective labor to establish a structure within the industry to earn a profit. This thesis discusses how the women BJs of live broadcasting showrooms are situated in a heterosexual field with a clear gender structure, perform the most effective affective labor by strategically utilizing their sexuality, and what the value and limitations of the affective labor are. Furthermore, this thesis analyzes the genderization process of affective labor that is new in a field where gender and digital culture are combined through the case of live broadcasting showrooms, which are expanding worldwide.

      • Finite element modeling of particle interactions in creeping flow of yield stress materials

        Liu, Benjamin Ted-Bing University of California, Berkeley 2002 해외박사(DDOD)

        RANK : 199215

        Finite element numerical simulation is used to investigate the interactions of particles in creeping flow of a yield stress material. A continuous approximation of the Bingham plastic constitutive equation, characterized by a regularization parameter, is used. A novel method of determining the location and shape of yield surfaces by examining trends in the scaled strain rate with regularization parameter is developed. This method is applied to flow past a single rigid sphere, two rigid spheres translating co-linearly, and flow past a single spherical bubble. The results for flow past a single rigid sphere show good agreement with results previously reported in the literature. The simulations for two rigid spheres falling in a line demonstrate the short-range interaction characteristic of yield stress materials. Moreover, the range of these interactions was found to be slightly greater than that which would be predicted by linear superposition. The drag force and yield surfaces were calculated for varying sphere separations. A characteristic reduction in drag (up to 30%) was observed at separations below 5.5 sphere radii; the yielded regions surrounding each sphere coalesced into a single yielded region in this regime. The shapes of the yield surfaces calculated for two rigid spheres approaching one another were qualitatively different from those calculated for two spheres falling in a line. The range of interaction was also found to be shorter than for two spheres falling in a line and a slight drag reduction was observed. Simulations of flow past a spherical bubble showed a drag reduction of 60%–70% compared to rigid sphere calculations. The yield surface calculated for the spherical bubble was found to be qualitatively similar in shape to the rigid sphere result, though the yielded region was significantly smaller. Calculations were performed to examine the effect of isotropic volume expansions on the ability of a bubble to rise. Rise enhancement due to isotropic expansion/contractions was observed, but showed only qualitative agreement with experimental results.

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