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        Internal Structure and Pigment Granules in Colored Alpaca Fibers

        Wang Huimin,Liu Xin,Wang Xungai The Korean Fiber Society 2005 Fibers and polymers Vol.6 No.3

        Alpaca fibers have some distinct properties such as softness and warmth, which have not been fully understood in combination with the fiber internal structures. In the present investigation, the internal structures of alpaca fibers have been closely examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM), especially in the longitudinal direction. The results showed that numerous pigment granules reside loosely inside pockets in brown and dark-brown alpaca fibers. These pigment granules were mainly distributed inside the cortical cells, the medullation regions as well as underneath the cuticles. Their size in the brown alpaca fibers was smaller and more uniformly round than in the dark-brown fibers. These granules in colored alpaca fibers loosen the bundle of cortical cells, providing many crannies in the fibers which may contribute to the superior flexibility, warmth and softness of the fibers. Moreover, there are no heavy metal elements found in the granules. The mordant hydrogen peroxide bleaching employed could eliminate the pigment granules and create many nano-volumes for further dyeing of fibers into more attractive colors.


        Green Composites. I. Physical Properties of Ramie Fibers for Environment-friendly Green Composites

        Nam Sung-Hyun,Netravali Anil N. The Korean Fiber Society 2006 Fibers and polymers Vol.7 No.4

        The surface topography, tensile properties, and thermal properties of ramie fibers were investigated as reinforcement for fully biodegradable and environmental-friendly 'green' composites. SEM micrographs of a longitudinal and cross sectional view of a single ramie fiber showed a fibrillar structure and rough surface with irregular cross-section, which is considered to provide good interfacial adhesion with polymer resin in composites. An average tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain of ramie fibers were measured to be 627 MPa, 31.8 GPa, and 2.7 %, respectively. The specific tensile properties of the ramie fiber calculated per unit density were found to be comparable to those of E-glass fibers. Ramie fibers exhibited good thermal stability after aging up to $160^{\circ}C$ with no decrease in tensile strength or Young's modulus. However, at temperatures higher than $160^{\circ}C$ the tensile strength decreased significantly and its fracture behavior was also affected. The moisture content of the ramie fiber was 9.9 %. These properties make ramie fibers suitable as reinforcement for 'green' composites. Also, the green composites can be fabricated at temperatures up to $160^{\circ}C$ without reducing the fiber properties.


        Effects of In Vitro Degradation on the Weight Loss and Tensile Properties of PLA/LPCL/HPCL Blend Fibers

        Yoon Cheol Soo,Ji Dong Sun The Korean Fiber Society 2005 Fibers and polymers Vol.6 No.1

        PLA/LPCL/HPCL blend fibers composed of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), low molecular weight poly ($\varepsilon$-caprolactone) (LPCL), and high molecular weight poly ($\varepsilon$-caprolactone) (HPCL) were prepared by melt blending and spinning for bioab­sorbable filament sutures. The effects of blending time and blend composition on the X-ray diffraction patterns and tensile properties of PLA/LPCL/HPCL blend fibers were characterized by WAXD and UTM. In addition, the effect of in vitro degra­dation on the weight loss and tensile properties of the blend fibers hydrolyzed during immersion in a phosphate buffer solu­tion at pH 7.4 and 37$^{\circ}C$ for 1-8 weeks was investigated. The peak intensities of PLA/LPCL/HPCL blend fibers in X-ray diffraction patterns decreased with an increase of blending time and LPCL contents in the blend fibers. The weight loss of PLA/LPCL/HPCL blend fibers increased with an increase of blending time, LPCL contents, and hydrolysis time while the tensile strength and modulus of the blend fibers decreased. The tensile strength and modulus of the blend fibers were also found to be increased with an increase of HPCL contents in the blend fibers. The optimum conditions to prepare PLA/LPCL/HPCL blend fibers for bioabsorbable sutures are LPCL contents of $5 wt\%, HPCL contents of $35 wt\%, and blending time of 30 min. The strength retention of the PLA/LPCL/HPCL blend fiber prepared under optimum conditions was about $93.5\% even at hydrolysis time of 2 weeks.


        Surface Morphologies and Internal Fine Structures of Bast Fibers

        Wang H. M.,Wang X. The Korean Fiber Society 2005 Fibers and polymers Vol.6 No.1

        Fiber surface morphologies and associated internal structures are closely related to its properties. Unlike other fibers including cotton, bast fibers possess transverse nodes and fissures in cross-sectional and longitudinal directions. Their morphologies and associated internal structures were anatomically examined under the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the morphologies of the nodes and the fissures of bast fibers varied depending on the construction of the inner fibril cellular layers. The transverse nodes and fissures were formed by the folding and spiralling of the cellular layers during plant growth. The dimensions of nodes and fissures were determined by the dislocations of the cellular layers. There were also many longitudinal fissures in bast fibers. Some deep longitudinal fissures even opened the fiber lumen for a short way along the fiber. In addition, the lumen channel of the bast fibers could be disturbed or disrupted by the nodes and the spi­rals of the internal cellular layers. The existence of the transverse nodes and fissures in the bast fibers could degrade the fiber mechanical properties, whereas the longitudinal fissures may contribute to the very rapid moisture absorption and desorption.


        Dry-jet Wet Spinning of Polyhydroxyamide Fibers

        Park, Seung-Koo,Cho, Seo-Hyun,Farris, Richard-John The Korean Fiber Society 2000 Fibers and polymers Vol.1 No.2

        A high molecular weight polyhydroxyamide (PHA) solution in N, N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) was prepared from 3, 3'-dihydroxybenzidine and isophthalic chloride (IPC), which was used for spinning PHA fiber. Before spinning, the diffusion property of DMAc into various coagulants was examined. The fiber was well formed in coagulants such as water/ethanol with a composition of 5/5, ethanol, and ethanol/isopropanol with a composition of 7/3 and 5/5. However, the PHA fiber spun in the water/ethanol mixture contained voids. After the fiber spun in ethanol was annealed at over $350^{\circ}C$, the ultimate stress and initial modulus of the fiber increased from 75.5 MPa and 3.22 GPa to 369 MPa and 29.5 GPa, respectively. These properties of the PHA fiber spun by the dry spinning method were also enhanced, attaining 154 MPa and 5.56 Gpa, respectivel.


        Preparation of Carbon Fiber from Heavy Oil Residue through Bromination

        Park, Young-Ok,Yang, Kap-Seung The Korean Fiber Society 2001 Fibers and polymers Vol.2 No.4

        A pitch precursor for a general purpose carbon fiber was prepared by condensation of pyrolized fuel oil (petroleum residual oil) with bromine under nitrogen blowing. such a condensation raised the softening point of the pitch from 4$0^{\circ}C$ to $265^{\circ}$ with a yield of 43%. The pitch precurosr showed an enhanced aromaticity and enlarged molecular size, which led to a reduction in molecular mobility and optical isotropy. The precursor was spun into fibers of $20\mu\textrm{m}$ diameter at a take-up speed of 700m/min. The fiber was stepwise stabilized in air and carbonized in Ar gas to obtain an isotropic carbon fiber. The carbon fiber exhibited tensile strengths of 500-800 ㎫though the fiber was formed via a crude method. The electric conductivity of the carbon fiber was relatively high, 2.2$\times$$10^2$S/cm, sufficient to be used as electrode materials.


        Preparation and Characterization of Nanoscaled Poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers via Electrospinning

        Ding, Bin,Kim, Hak-Yong,Lee, Se-Chul,Lee, Douk-Rae,Choi, Kyung-Ju The Korean Fiber Society 2002 Fibers and polymers Vol.3 No.2

        Nanoscaled PVA fibers were prepared by electrospinning. This paper described the electrospinning process, the processing conditions fiber morphology, and some potential applications of the PVA nato-fibers. PVA fibers with various diameters (50-250 nm) were obtained by changing solution concentration, voltage and tip to collector distance (TCD). The major factor was the concentration of PVA solution which affected the fiber diameter evidently. Increasing the concentration, the fiber diameter was increased, and the amount of beads was reduced even to 0%. The fibers were found be efficiently crosslinked by glyoxal during the curing process. Phosphoric acid was used as a catalyst activator to reduce strength losses during crosslinking. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques were employed to characterize the morphology and crosslinking of PVA fibers. It was fecund that the primary factor which affected the crosslinking density was the content of chemical crosslinking agent.


        Frictional and Tensile Properties of Conducting Polymer Coated Wool and Alpaca Fibers

        Wang Lijing,Lin Tong,Wang Xungai,Kaynak Akif The Korean Fiber Society 2005 Fibers and polymers Vol.6 No.3

        Wool and alpaca fibers were coated with polypyrrole by vapor-phase polymerisation method. The changes in frictional and tensile properties of the single fibers upon coating with the conductive polymer are presented. Coating a thin layer of polypyrrole on the alpaca and wool fibers results in a significant reduction in the fiber coefficient of friction, as the conducting polymer layer smooths the protruding edges of the fiber scales. It also reduces the directional friction effect of the fibers. Depending on the type of fiber, the coating may slightly enhance the tensile properties of the coated fibers.

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        Study on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy/Hybrid-silica Composite

        Kim, Dongho,Chung, Ildoo,Kim, Guni THE KOREAN FIBER SOCIETY 2013 FIBERS AND POLYMERS Vol.14 No.12

        Recently, carbon fiber composites have been widely used as structural reinforcement materials of buildings, replacing reinforcing bars or concrete. And the increase in use of super fibers such as aramid and high strength PE, which is aimed at improving the reinforcement properties, has resulted in a demand for a resin system with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. In this research, a fiber-reinforced composite has been produced by using the super fibers such as carbon fiber or aramid fiber, reinforcement resin and the silica hybrid compound containing epoxy group. This study was carried out to confirm the effect of the silica hybrid on mechanical properties, heat resistance and adhesion strength of a fiber-reinforced epoxy composite, which was produced by blending silica or introducing silica hybrid through covalent bonds. And the silica hybrid containing epoxy group, which may be introduced to the structure of fiber-reinforced epoxy composite through covalent bonds caused by reaction with a hardener, has been used, so that the heat resistance and adhesion strength could be improved.


        Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Expansion Behavior of Pseudo-Unidirectional and 2-Directional Quasi-Carbon Fiber/Phenolic Composites

        Cho, Donghwan,Choi, Yusong,Park, Jong Kyoo,Lee, Jinyong,Yoon, Byung Il,Lim, Yun Soo The Korean Fiber Society 2004 Fibers and polymers Vol.5 No.1

        In the present paper, a variety of fiber reinforcements, for instance, stabilized OXI-PAN fibers, quasi-carbon fibers, commercial carbon fibers, and their woven fabric forms, have been utilized to fabricate pseudo-unidirectional (pseudo-UD) and 2-directional (2D) phenolic matrix composites using a compression molding method. Prior to fabricating quasi-carbon fiber/phenolic (QC/P) composites, stabilized OXI-PAN fibers and fabrics were heat-treated under low temperature carbonization processes to prepare quasi-carbon fibers and fabrics. The thermal conductivity and thermal expansion/contraction behavior of QC/P composites have been investigated and compared with those of carbon fiber/phenolic (C/P) and stabilized fiber/phenolic composites. Also, the chemical compositions of the fibers used have been characterized. The results suggest that use of proper quasi-carbonization process may control effectively not only the chemical compositions of resulting quasi-carbon fibers but also the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion behavior of quasi-carbon fibers/phenolic composites in the intermediate range between stabilized PAN fiber- and carbon fiber-reinforced phenolic composites.

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