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          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Analysis of crown size and morphology, and gingival shape in the maxillary anterior dentition in Korean young adults

            Song,,Jae-Won,Leesungbok,,Richard,Park,,Su-Jung,Chang,,Se,Hun,Ahn,,Su-Jin,Lee,,Suk-Won The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2017 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.9 No.4

            PURPOSE. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the dimensions of clinical crowns and to classify the crown and the gingival type in the anterior teeth in Korean young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Casts were obtained from 50 subjects ranging in age from 24 to 32. Measurements of length and width were made on the casts using a pair of digital calipers on the entire dentition. Crown thickness and papilla height were also measured and MDW/CL (mesiodistal width to clinical length) and CW/CL (cervical width to clinical length) ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth were calculated. The K-clustering method was used for CW/CL to classify the anterior tooth shape into three groups (tapered, ovoid, and square), and one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's post-hoc comparison were used to evaluate statistical significance between the groups. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed between tooth shape and papillary height (PH) to demonstrate the correlation between tooth shape and gingival morphological characteristics. RESULTS. The average length of the maxillary central incisors was 9.89 mm; the mesio-distal width was 8.54 mm; and the ratio of width/length was 0.86 in Korean young adults. The average bucco-palatal thickness of the central incisor was 3.14 mm at the incisal 1/3 aspect. Ovoid type was the most common tooth shape (48%), followed by square type (29%) and taper type (23%) in the central incisors of Korean young adults. Tooth shape and gingival type were correlated with each other. CONCLUSION. New reference data were established for tooth size in Korean young adults and the data show several patterns of tooth shape and gingival type. Clinicians should diagnose and treat based on these characteristics for better results in the Korean population.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Analysis of dimensions and shapes of maxillary and mandibular dental arch in Korean young adults

            Park,,Su-Jung,Leesungbok,,Richard,Song,,Jae-Won,Chang,,Se,Hun,Lee,,Suk-Won,Ahn,,Su-Jin The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2017 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.9 No.5

            PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to investigate dental arch dimensions and to classify arch shape in Korean young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The sample included 50 Koreans with age ranging from 24 to 32 years. Maxillary and mandibular casts were fabricated using irreversible hydrocolloid and type III dental stones. Incisor-canine distance, $incisor-1^{st}$ molar distance, $incisor-2^{nd}$ molar distance, intercanine distance, $inter-1^{st}$ molar distance, and $inter-2^{nd}$ molar distance in both the maxillary and mandibular arch were measured using a three-dimensional measuring device. The dental arch was classified into three groups using five ratios from the measured values by the K-means clustering method. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS. Arch lengths (IM2D, $incisal-2^{nd}$ molar distance) were 44.13 mm in the maxilla and 40.40 mm in the mandible. Arch widths (M2W, inter $2^{nd}$ molar width) were 64.12 mm in the maxilla and 56.37 mm in the mandible. Distribution of the dental arch form was mostly ovoid shape (maxilla 52% and mandible 56%), followed by the V-shape and the U-shape. The arch width for the U-shape was broader than for the other forms. CONCLUSION. This study establishes new reference data for dental arch dimensions for young Korean adults. The most common arch form is the ovoid type in the maxilla and mandible of Koreans. Clinicians should be aware of these references and classify arch type before and during their dental treatment for effective and harmonized results in Koreans.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population

            Oh,,Yeon-Ah,Yang,,Hong-So,Park,,Sang-Won,Lim,,Hyun-Pil,Yun,,Kwi-Dug,Park,,Chan The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2017 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.9 No.2

            PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. RESULTS. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. CONCLUSION. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Relationship between tooth loss and carotid intima-media thickness in Korean adults

            Chin,,Ui-Jung,Ji,,Suk,Lee,,Su-Young,Ryu,,Jae-Jun,Lee,,Jung-Bok,Shin,,Chol,Shin,,Sang-Wan The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2010 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.2 No.4

            PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tooth loss and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The subjects were part of a cohort study conducted in Ansan city by the Korea University medical school as part of the Korean Genome project. 749 subjects over than 40 years old were evaluated. After taking panoramic radiography, the amount of tooth loss was calculated. The intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed by using ultrasonography at the common carotid artery. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis were also evaluated. The relationship between tooth loss and the IMT was evaluated using ANOVA with Scheffe's multiple comparison method in univariate analysis. Multiple regression analysis was also performed to determine the significance between the IMT and tooth loss. RESULTS. With age, tooth loss increased, but there was no significant increase in other traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Univariate analysis revealed the IMT to be positively related with the amount of tooth loss. Regression analysis of the IMT in the anterior and posterior tooth loss revealed that only the posterior tooth loss was significantly related with the IMT at all sites of the common carotid artery (right far wall, P = .015; left far wall, P = .008; right near wall, P < .001; left near wall, P = .001). CONCLUSION. This study verified the positive relationship between the increased tooth loss at the posterior area and the accumulation of atheroma in arteries.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Risk assessment for clinical attachment loss of periodontal tissue in Korean adults

            Rheu,,Gun-Bak,Ji,,Suk,Ryu,,Jae-Jun,Lee,,Jung-Bok,Shin,,Chol,Lee,,Jeong-Yol,Huh,,Jung-Bo,Shin,,Sang-Wan The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2011 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.3 No.1

            PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and extent of clinical attachment loss of periodontal tissue and to find out variables related to clinical attachment loss (CAL) in Korean adults older than 40 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Data were collected from 2,519 subjects who were part of a cohort study conducted in Ansan city by Korea University Medical School for Korean Genome project. Age, sex, smoking, drinking, fast glucose, blood pressure, obesity and total cholesterol levels were examined. The oral examination included probing pocket depth, gingival recession and CAL of Ramford's teeth. The severity of periodontitis was classified based on the mean value of CAL. The relationship between each risk factor and the severity of CAL was independently estimated using the chi-square test, the test or one-way ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance of each factor in the periodontal disease. RESULTS. The prevalences of clinical attachment between 1 and 3 mm, between 3 and < 5 mm, and ${\geq}$ 5 mm were 80.27%, 16.75% and < 1%, respectively. Although the univariate analysis showed age, gender, smoking, fasting glucose, blood pressure and total cholesterol levels were significantly related to the severity of CAL, multiple regression analysis indicated that age (P < .0001), gender (P < .0001) and smoking (P < .05) were only significantly related. CONCLUSION. Older age, male gender and smoking were significant risk factor for the increase of CAL, and these may be useful indicators of periodontitis high-risk groups.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Radiographic assessment of clinical root-crown ratios of permanent teeth in a healthy Korean population

            Yun,,Hee-Jung,Jeong,,Jin-Sun,Pang,,Nan-Sim,Kwon,,Il-Keun,Jung,,Bock-Young The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2014 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.6 No.3

            PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to determine the absolute value of the root/crown ratio (R/C ratio) using panoramic radiographs (PRGs) in a healthy Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In total, 99 patient radiographs (of 50 males and 49 females subjects; aged 16 to 24 years old) were examined, and 2,770 teeth were analyzed. Crown lengths and root lengths were measured with modified Lind's measurements using PACS tools by two examiners in two separate sessions two months apart. All data were analyzed using SPSS. The independent t-test was used to assess for gender differences, and the paired t-test was used to compare both arches with a significance level of P<.05. RESULTS. The mean R/C ratios varied from 1.29 to 1.89 (male: 1.28-1.84; females: 1.31-1.94). The highest R/C ratios were recorded for the mandibular canines (1.89), followed by the maxillary canines (1.79). The lowest R/C ratios were recorded for the maxillary second molars (1.31). In comparison with the maxillary teeth (1.29-1.78), the mandibular teeth yielded the higher R/C ratio (1.47-1.89), and this difference was significant in the females (P<.05). The difference between the genders was not statistically significant, except for the maxillary central incisors, mandibular canines and mandibular first premolars. CONCLUSION. These data may enhance the understanding of the clinical R/C ratio as a useful guideline for determining the status of teeth and the ethnic difference.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Mouthguard use in Korean Taekwondo athletes - awareness and attitude

            Lee,,Jung-Woo,Heo,,Chong-Kwan,Kim,,Sea-Joong,Kim,,Gyu-Tae,Lee,,Deok-Won The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2013 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.5 No.2

            PURPOSE. A survey was performed to identify the level of mouthguard use, awareness, wearability issues and attitude toward mouthguard among elite Korean Taewondo athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Survey questionnaires were given to 152 athletes participating in the Korea National Taekwondo team selection event for the 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games. Questionnaires consisted of three sections, mouthguard awareness, reasons for not wearing mouthguard and the last section to test the level of acceptance on current mouthguard and when the identified problems were resolved. For analyzing difference among response, ${\chi}^2$ test was used and significant level (${\alpha}$) was set up as 0.05. RESULTS. Responses in each of items showed significant difference (P<.001). Majority of response regarding each question: Majority of respondents believed that mouthguard were effective in preventing injuries (36.4%) but the result suggested that the provision of information on mouthguard to athletes was inadequate (44.0%) and the result showed that respondents were not greatly interested or concerned in relation to the mandatory mouthguard rule (31.6%). Although the responses on the level of comfort and wearability of mouthguard were negative (34.8%), athletes were positively willing to wear mouthguard if the problems rectified (51.2%). CONCLUSION. Considering the high level of willingness to wear mouthguard if the problems rectified, it is thought that together with efforts in providing more mouthguard information, the work of sports dentistry to research and improve mouthguard will be invaluable in promoting mouthguard to more athletes.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            3-dimensional reconstruction of mandibular canal at the interforaminal region using micro-computed tomography in Korean

            Jeon,,Yong,Hyun,Lee,,Chul,Kwon,Kim,,Hee-Jung,Chung,,Jae-Heon,Kim,,Heung-Joong,Yu,,Sun-Kyoung The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2017 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.9 No.6

            PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to identify the complex course of the mandibular canal using 3D reconstruction of microCT images and to provide the diagram for clinicians to help them understand at the interforaminal region in Korean. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Twenty-six hemimandibles obtained from cadavers were examined using microCT, and the images were reconstructed. At both the midpoint of mental foramen and the tip of anterior loop, the bucco-lingual position, the height from the mandibular inferior border, the horizontal distance between two points, and position relative to tooth site on the mandibular canal were measured. The angle that the mental canal diverges from the mandibular canal was measured in posterior-superior and lateral-superior direction. RESULTS. The buccal distance from the mandibular canal was significantly much shorter than lingual distance at both the mental foramen and the tip of anterior loop. The mandibular canal at the tip of anterior loop was significantly located closer to buccal side and higher than at the mental foramen. And the mental canal most commonly diverged from the mandibular canal below the first premolar by approximately $50^{\circ}$ posterior-superior and $41^{\circ}$ lateral-superior direction, which had with a mean length of 5.19 mm in front of the mental foramen, and exited to the mental foramen below the second premolar. CONCLUSION. These results suggest that it could form a hazardous tetrahedron space at the interforaminal region, thus, the clinician need to pay attention to the width of a premolar tooth from the mental foramen during dental implant placement.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Long-term cumulative survival and mechanical complications of single-tooth Ankylos Implants: focus on the abutment neck fractures

            Shim,,Hye,Won,Yang,,Byoung-Eun The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2015 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.7 No.6

            PURPOSE. To evaluate the cumulative survival rate (CSR) and mechanical complications of single-tooth $Ankylos^{(R)}$ implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This was a retrospective clinical study that analyzed 450 single $Ankylos^{(R)}$ implants installed in 275 patients between December 2005 and December 2012. The main outcomes were survival results CSR and implant failure) and mechanical complications (screw loosening, fracture, and cumulative fracture rate [CFR]). The main outcomes were analyzed according to age, sex, implant length or diameter, bone graft, arch, and position. RESULTS. The 8-year CSR was 96.9%. Thirteen (2.9%) implants failed because of early osseointegration failure in 3, marginal bone loss in 6, and abutment fracture in 4. Screw loosening occurred in 10 implants (2.2%), and 10 abutment fractures occurred. All abutment fractures were located in the neck, and concurrent screw fractures were observed. The CSR and rate of screw loosening did not differ significantly according to factors. The CFR was higher in middle-aged patients (5.3% vs 0.0% in younger and older patients); for teeth in a molar position (5.8% vs 0.0% for premolar or 1.1% for anterior position); and for larger-diameter implants (4.5% for 4.5 mm and 6.7% for 5.5 mm diameter vs 0.5% for 3.5 mm diameter) (all P<.05). CONCLUSION. The $Ankylos^{(R)}$ implant is suitable for single-tooth restoration in Koreans. However, relatively frequent abutment fractures (2.2%) were observed and some fractures resulted in implant failures. Middle-aged patients, the molar position, and a large implant diameter were associated with a high incidence of abutment fracture.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Relationship of tooth mortality and implant treatment in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Korean adults

            Jung,,Hyun-Yub,Kim,,Yong-Gun,Jin,,Myoung-Uk,Cho,,Jin-Hyun,Lee,,Jae-Mok The Korean Academy of Prosthodonitics 2013 The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics Vol.5 No.1

            PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to to analyze the effect of Type 2 diabetes on tooth mortality, implant treatment and prosthetic status. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 275 Type 2 diabetics and 300 non-diabetics, aged 40-80 years were selected for analysis. The assessment of number of teeth, missing teeth, fixed prostheses (bridge pontics), implants using panoramic radiographs and dental records were carried out. RESULTS. Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients had a higher number of missing teeth (P<.05) and placed implants (P=.074), age (P<.05), male gender percentage (P=.042), smoker percentage (P<.05) than non-DM patients. In univariate analysis, the patients in older group showed significantly higher number of tooth loss rate at the first dental examination than the patients in younger group. Tooth loss rate of smokers did not show higher value than that of non-smokers. When multiple variables including DM, age, smoking, gender were considered together, diabetics and older group patients showed significantly higher tooth loss rate at the first dental examination than non-diabetics and younger group patients, respectively. Smokers and male group did not show a significant difference than nonsmokers and female group, respectively. CONCLUSION. Tooth mortality and implant treatment rate were significantly higher in the DM group as indicated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Old age groups showed significantly higher odds ratios and tooth loss rate. As diabetics showed the higher tooth loss rate than non-diabetics, diabetics also had more implant restorations than non-diabetics.

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