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The Tradition of Chongshin Theology goes back to that of the Old Princeton Theology, taught by Princeton Seminary professors during 1812-1929, in which year the seminary was reorganized. Princeton maintained its Old School theological heritage to the very eve of its reorganization. Unlike other seminaries that repudiated their historic orthodox position after a long decline from within, Princeton’s fall was largely precipitated by powerful forces from without the institution. Princeton Seminary remained basically an Old School institution within a broadening church until its reorganization in 1929. Pyungyang Theological Seminary, which was the predecessor of Chongshin Theological Seminary, was established in Pyungyang in 1901 by the four Presbyterian mission boards, and the Prebyterian Theological Quarterly, which has been the magazine representing the seminary, was first published in 1918. Dr. Samuel A. Moffett from the Northern Presbyterian Church was President of the seminary. But Dr. W. D. Reynolds and Dr. Hyung Nong Park were key figures in the area of Systematic Theology during the nascent times of the magazine. Reynolds, who was a professor of the seminary and a missionary from the Southern Presbyterian Church, contributed 57 articles to the Presbyterian Theological Quarterly through 1918 to 1937. Dr. Hyung Nong Park contributed 70 articles, beginning from 1928 and carrying on to 1940, and from the time when the PTQ began to be republished by Prebyterian General Assembly Theological Seminary (Also called Chongshin Theological Seminary) in Seoul in 1954, he contributed 64 articles to the magazine until 1971, and in that year he left the seminary and died in 1978. The Tradition of Chongshin Theology 55 The theological heritage of the Presbyterian Church in Korea is Puritan Reformed Presbyterianism. It is a Presbyterianism that adds the Calvinistic Reformed theology of the European Continent to a British-American Puritan character. From the beginning of our Church and Seminary, We have cherished the historical Reformed, orthodox Calvinistic, and Puritan Presbyterian theology through the teachings and literary works of the professors of Chongshin Theological Seminary and devoted pastors of our Church.
The Presbyterian churches in America were divided in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The reason for the divisions lay in the theological controversy that occurred between liberalism and fundamentalism. The problem was not simply thelogical, but had multiple reasons. Consequently, in this thesis, the social, political, and cultural backgrounds, along with the theological context, are studied and analyzed. Examples include the development of evolutionary theories in Europe and America, the intellectual changes within rationalism, enlightenment, and deism, and the Great Awakening in America and its relation to Walter Raushenbush’s Social Gospel movement. The scientific and intellectual changes deeply affected the American Presbyterian Church’s liberal society. Furthermore, Germany’s modern theology played a large role in the theological liberalization of American Presbyterian Churches. This is a key example of how theology scholars, such as Friedrick Shuleiemacher and Adolf von Harnack, affected American churches with their modern liberalism ideals. The blending of Yale’s liberalism, Harvard’s unitarianism, and theology of Anglican Churches into the Presbyterian church system created opportunities for theological liberalism. Stemming from these changes, professor Charles A. Briggs of the Union Theological Seminary denied the traditional biblical views and attacked traditional conservative theologies. The development of this controversy was started by pastor Harry Emerson Fosdick in 1922. Fosdick attacked fundamentalism and declared his position for theological liberalism. This trend also sparked debate and controversy within Princeton Theological Seminary. Within Princeton, Ross Stevenson, a A Study on the Theological Liberalization of the Presbyterian Church in America 99 man who favored church association over theological orthodoxy, was named dean, and a debate between modernism and fundamentalism started. The long faught battle between the two ended in favor of modernism. J. Gresham Machen, a man against this change, left and founded the Westminster Theological Seminary near Philadelphia in 1929 with other conservative activists. As a result, Princeton Seminary developed an ever more liberal atmosphere for its education.
J. P. Gabler’s proposal is a good example of scholarship which attempted to work for the church in engaging with the issues of his own era. He was influenced by neologians such as J. Semler, but at the same time he was concerned with ecclesiastical goal of which influence can be attributed to his conservative predecessors like G. T. Zacharia. Gabler’s proposal, unlike the wide-spread understanding of it as being historial-critical oriented, was set to defend the usefulness of Scripture for dogmatic theology, and unfortunately was heavily attacked by Immanuel Kant’s separation of theology from philosophy which lead biblical scholarship into the way of purely historicalcritical investigations of the text. Therefore, in one sense, Gabler can be called the father of biblical theology when considering that his distinction between the two eventually was of help for the establishment of biblical theology as an independent area of theological studies. In another sense, to Gabler is also possible to attribute a different name, defender of dogmatic theology. Gabler wanted to maintain both of these aspects, but the history of criticism did not allow him to do so. His ecclesiastical concern was abandoned by scholarship and only his influence on the historical-critical aspect remains remembered. This sheds significant light upon what reformed scholars need to pursue in the current situation. In spite of the fact that biblical theology and dogmatic theology are now two different areas in theology, they constitute one theological entity and are ultimately interconnected and dependent upon each other. To take a good care of our ecclesiastical concerns in the Korean context today, biblical theologians should delve into not only particular subject matters of biblical theology per se but also the universal, theological questions that the current contexts ask us to answer. Then biblical theology and dogmatic theology will be able to function in proper and fruitful directions.
The American Presbyterian Church had upheld the authority of the Westminster Confession of Faith as the confessional standard until it faced a serious challenge of revision in the nineteenth-century. This challenge came from the motives of modern theological ideas and the rational worldview of that time. This study aims to manifest the theological motives of the revision of the Westminster Confession by analyzing Charles A. Briggs’ arguments which is based on the theological liberalism concerning some doctrines in the Confession. The response and results of the Briggs’ demand for revision will be reviewed from the perspective of reformed theology. The purpose of this examination is to evaluate the theological motives of those who called for revision of the Westminster Confession. It will be argued that although the confessional standards can be changed and revised in diverse historical situations, the Reformed Church cannot make a sound development with the beneficial heritage of the Reformed tradition without a careful and biblical consideration of the purpose of revision.
Over the past three decades various Asian theologies based on religiouspolitical- cultural pluralism, especially theologies developed by Asian theologians sponsored by the World Council of Churches ecumenical movement, have received much attention. Though Asia’s theological course has, so far, been dominated by Western theology, current developments in Asian theology challenge all theologians, Western and non-Western alike, to pay close attention to it. In comparison to liberal Asian theology, evangelical theology in Asia seems, if evaluated superficially, to lack noteworthy development. But a closer look shows that it is in Asia that the churches of the world evangelical movement have been growing and that evangelical theology has been flourishing there. In this article I examine the background, tasks, trends, and future direction of Asian evangelical theology from the perspective of church history. After presenting the background and trends apparent in contemporary Asian theologies more broadly, I look specifically at evangelical theology in Asia. I find that theological discussions among Asian evangelical theologians of subjects such as missiology, systematic theology, Christian ethics, and church history are at times intertwined with each other, which presents challenges to the historian as well as the systematician. Evangelical identity, even at the level of bedrock principles in Asia, has been faced with serious challenges. The hallmarks of historic Christianity such as the authority of the Bible and the uniqueness of Christianity, therefore, should continue to serve as crucial signposts in deciding Asian evangelical theology’s path in the future. Keywords: Asian church, Asian Christianity, Asian evangelical theology, Evangelicalism in Asia, Asian contextual theology, Liberal Asian theology
Karl Rahner(1904-1984) is said to be the representative theologian of Roman Catholicism in our tine, providing the theological basis for the Second Vatican Council(1962-65). He is credited with the merit of having completely modernized traditional Roman Catholic theology. Rahner reduced the Creator God to being itself and Christ to the union of the self-transcendence of a human being and the communication of the divine being, though he was a mere man. Jesus is called to be the absolute savior because of the union of the self-transcendence of man and the self-communication of God. We will survey his theology presented in his book "the Foundations of Christian Faith." Rahner is a voluminous writer, who spreads his theology over various volumes. But he presented his theology in summarized form in the above mentioned book.
Since Martin Luther, the Protestant Church has recognized the importance of “articlus iustificationis” to the church’s theological integrity. The following article critically reviews the doctrine of justification as developed through Christian history. A discussion of justification requires a discussion of righteousness. To a secular concept that had legal and moral nuances, Augustine developed the theological interpretation of righteousness by drawing upon Paul’s letters to the Romans and the Galatians. These were also the primary texts for the Paul-Augustine tradition of justification. Scholars of the New Perspective on Paul claim that righ teousness and justification are not so central to Pauline theology. According to them, Luther’s emphasis on righteousness and justification was a reaction to the Catholic Church and distort Paul’s actual priorities. I would disagree with these New Perspectives; Luther’s efforts were to reclaim what had already been central to the Paul-Augustine tradition. Augustine’s contemporary Pelagius argued that man could be justified apart from the grace of God. Augustine refuted Pelagius, asserting that justification was by faith alone. Although initially condemned by the medieval church, Pelagius’ teachings would reappear in various forms. Luther tried to reclaim the Paul-Augustine tradition of grace, asserting “sola gratias” (man cannot be justified for himself, but only through the grace of God). The Council of Trent was eager to condemn Luther’s teachings, but in doing so, they articulated a doctrine of justification that was unfaithful to the Paul-Augustine tradition of justification by faith alone. Reformers and Jansenism, a reform movement within the Catholic Church, criticized the Tridentine Council for this, but the Council remained the Catholic Church’s position for centuries. Unlike the strict and exclusive nature of the Council of Trent, the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) aimed to develop more positive, open relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. About forty years later, the council produced the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (JDDJ). According to some conservative Protestant theologians, the JDDJ betrays evangelicalism. At the least, we must critically review JDDJ under the standards put forth by the Paul-Augustine tradition of justification. Keywords: Justification, Augustine, Pelagius, Paul, Luther
This paper makes criticism of Barth’s theology in three parts. First, we have seen that Barth thinks the person and work of Christ in terms of recognition of revelations or revelatory events. Barth replaces substantial facts and relations with actuality and possibility of perception and defines being and attributes according to how one receives them. Second, Barth rejects the person of Christ. Barth attributes personality to the Godhead of the Trinity only. Consequently, such doctrines as the Trinity, hypostatic union, the communication of attributes through one person, and the historicity of humiliation and exaltation, are stated ideally only. Third, we have seen that, though Barth may seem to argue for the analogy of faith, he, in fact, does it epistemologically but in reality, presupposes the analogy of being. Barth sees that the righteousness of the redemption by Jesus Christ does not lie in the price that He paid for, but in the participating communication and union. That is the reason why we cannot employ the doctrine of imputed righteousness in his theology. Although Barth may say he presupposes Trinitarianism and Christology, but does it only epistemologically but in reality, he is always vague. Considering all these various aspects, we can see that Barth rejects orthodox Trinitarianism and Christology in reality, throughout his premises, processes, and conclusions.
This article is a study on Comenius' greatest work, Pampaedia. Comenius, a theologian dedicated to education, had introduced the basic understandings of the educational fundamental principle in the fourth book of his seven volume, 'De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica,' which he calles 'Pampaedia.' Located as the fourth book of his seven volume series, it is evident that Pampaedia is the central and most important part of the series. Through Pampaeida, Comenius was able to express his educational method in-depth, informing how deeply Comenius had dealt with the subject of mankind's education in relation to theology. In this study, an investigation of Comenius' intentions and accomplishments of Pampaedia, along with his methodology of education was examined. "All humans born of this world must learn and know of all things in this world through thorough exhaustion." A statement from Pampaedia, Comenius expresses his basic idea of his work. Three latin words are evident in this statement that explains his main concepts for Pampaedia: Omnes (All humans), Omnia (All things) and Omnino (Through thorough exhaustion). Biblically supported, these three concepts are presented with practical constructs for education which are 'Theories regarding the Pampaedia school,' 'Theories regarding Pampaedia education,' Teachers of Pampaedia,' and 'Theories on correct teaching.' Comenius' educational purpose is to restore mankind's basic human existence present in creation. Pampaeida is, therefore, applicable for all types of people and every generation of society. Through seven steps, which he divides in Pampaedia, Comenius attempts to cover all of mankind in his educational method. To properly understand the concept behind these steps, or actually of the whole Pampaedia, a notion of Pan sophia must be grasped. Pansophia refers not only to our rationality, but rather the interconnection between faith, rationality and emotions. Thus, a comparison of Descartes and Comenius was done in this study in order to bring light to Comenius' notion that rationality is incomplete without God. For man to restore rationality, according to Comenius, he must be in the light of Jesus Christ. Therefore, sacrifice of Jesus and the grace of salvation is focused as a crucial subject in Pampaedia. Not only is Comenius' work Pampaedia defined, this article examines the necessity of and the possibility of Pampaedia. If Comenius were to express the necessity of Pampaedia in one phrase, it is the work of care for the perfection of man. Through God's hidden purpose and of the self-importance to man, Comenius brings mankind to acquire the knowledge and wisdom of all things of the created world. As stated above, the necessity and all other aspects of Pampaedia is only possible through Christ. Thus, Comenius believed that the starting point of Pampaedia is Christian baptism. With Scriptural evidence of Matthew 28:19, baptism is not only an act or sign of Christian education, it is the starting point and the means of Pampaedia. Briefly explained above, this article points out and examines the foundational principle of education suggested by Pampaedia. The three concepts of 'omnes,' 'omnia' and 'omnino,' coming from the statement "All humans born of this world must learn and know of all things in this world through thorough exhaustion," are the fundamental and foundational principle that bring together the methodology of Pampaedia. An investigation of the intention and methodology of Comenius' pampaedia was examined in this article. Through restoration of God's image and being thoroughly obedient to the will of God, Pampaedia of Comenius rehabilitates humanity and brings sound Christian education to the whole of mankind. Through this study, an appropriate understanding of Pampaedia is attempted for the effective use in modern ministry and missions. In shaping God's people, the proper form of education is needed in both overseas and home missions. This hope and dream is an expectation of the method of Comenius' Pampaedia.
This article purports to perform a literary, hermeneutical analysis of Proverbs 10. In the first half of Proverbs 10, two sets of contrast are obviously made: one between wisdom and folly and the other between righteousness and wickedness. Then these two sets are placed in a close relationship in vv. 6-12. Though they are juxtaposed, they are not understood as conceptually interrelated. Then, v. 21 connects righteousness with foolishness, trying to intermix the two sets of contrast. This is where the mention of YHWH begins to contribute in v. 22, with theological nuance that sheds light on the literary flow. Finally, v. 27 mentions the fear of YHWH and v. 31 connects wisdom with righteousness, suggesting a possibility that the readers of Proverbs 10 should look at the two sets of contrast from one, same perspective, which is to be theological. When viewed from the perspective of Proverbs 1-9, the fear of YHWH leads to wisdom, and thereby the wisdom leads to righteousness. Explained by the idea of Proverbs 10, righteousness proves the genuineness of wisdom. As Proverbs 1-9 avows that possession of wisdom will result in production of righteousness, Proverbs 10 in return posits that practice of righteousness will result in approval of wisdom in everyday life situations.