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풍공학분야에 특화된 학술지인 한국풍공학회지에서 발간된 논문에 대해 토픽모델링 기법 중 잠재의미분석(LSA)와 잠재디리크레할당(LDA)을 적용하여 연구주제 추출의 적합성을 비교 평가하였다. 토픽간의 유사도를 평가하기 위해 문서토픽행렬을 이용한 상관분석법을 제안하였으며, 이를 적용하여 문서단어행렬의 특성벡터로부터 토픽을 추출하는 LSA 대비 단어의 결합확률을 이용하는LDA가 토픽 구성단어를 2배 이상 사용하여 보다 독립적인 토픽을 추출하였다는 평가결과를 얻었다. 학술지의 연구주제를 종합하면‘building', ‘bridge'를 ‘연구대상'으로 ‘wind speed', ‘wind load', ‘vibration control'을 ‘연구목적'으로 ‘wind tunnel test', ‘numericalmethod'의 ‘연구방법'을 사용하였다. 향후 토픽모델링은 연구주제를 ‘연구대상', ‘연구목적', ‘연구방법'의 구조적인 결합으로 정의하여단어의 사용특성을 반영하는 방식으로 개선되어야 할 것으로 사료된다. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the suitability of topic modeling techniques such as Latent Semantic Analysis(LSA) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) by applying to the research subject extraction of the Journal of the Wind EngineeringInstitute of Korea. In order to evaluate the similarity between classified topics, a method of correlation analysis using a documenttopic-matrix was proposed. LDA, which uses the probability of combinations of specific words, employed more than twice as manywords to compose a topic than LSA, which extracts topics from the feature vectors of the document-word-matrix. As a result, thetopics extracted by LDA were more independent than those extracted by LSA. In summarizing the research subjects of the journal,‘building' and ‘bridge' were taken as the ‘research objective' and investigated to determine ‘wind speed', ‘wind load', and ‘vibrationcontrol', which constitute the ‘research purpose', while ‘wind tunnel test' or ‘numerical method' were used as the ‘research method'. It is concluded that topic modeling should be improved in a way that reflects the use of words by defining the research subject as astructural combination of ‘research subject', ‘research purpose' and ‘research method'.
In this paper, the airflow around an ideal thin plate (hereafter referred to as ITP) with various ratios of central slot is simulated by using the finite-difference-method (FDM)-based Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian descriptions for the rigid oscillating body. The numerical procedure employs the second-order projection scheme to decouple the governing equations, and the multigrid algorithm with three levels to improve the computational efficiency in evaluating of the pressure equation. The present CFD method is validated through comparing the computed flutter derivatives of the ITP without slot to Theodorsen analytical solutions. Then, the unsteady aerodynamics of the ITP with and without central slot is investigated. It is found that even a smaller ratio of central slot of the ITP has notable effects on pressure distributions of the downstream section, and the pressure distributions on the downstream section will further be significantly affected by the slot ratio and the reduced wind speeds. Continuous increase of with the increase of central slot may be the key feature of the slotted ITP. Finally, flutter analyses based on the flutter derivatives of the slotted ITP are performed, and moreover, flutter instabilities of a scaled sectional model of a twin-deck bridge with various ratios of deck slot are investigated. The results confirm that the central slot is effective to improve bridge flutter stabilities, and that the flutter critical wind speeds increase with the increase of slot ratio.
A meteorological model, RAMS, and a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, FLUENT are combined as a one-way off-line nested modeling system, namely, RAMS/FLUENT system. The system is experimentally applied in the wind simulation over a complex terrain, with which numerical simulations of wind field over Foyeding weather station located in the northwest mountainous area of Beijing metropolis are performed. The results show that the method of combining a meteorological model and a CFD model as a modeling system is reasonable. In RAMS/FLUENT system, more realistic boundary conditions are provided for FLUENT rather than idealized vertical wind profiles, and the finite volume method (FVM) of FLUENT ensures the capability of the modeling system on describing complex terrain in the simulation. Thus, RAMS/FLUENT can provide fine-scale realistic wind data over complex terrains.
A three-dimensional flow simulation was performed to investigate the wind flow around wind-power generation facilities on mountainous area of complex terrain. A digital map of eastern mountainous area of Korea including a wind farm was used to model actual complex terrain. Rotating wind turbines in the wind farm were also modeled in the computational domain with detailed geometry of blade by using the frozen rotor method. Wind direction and speed to be used as a boundary condition were taken from local meteorological reports. The numerical results showed not only details of flow distribution in the wind farm but also the variation in the performance of the wind turbines due to the installed location of the turbines on complex terrain. The wake effect of the upstream turbine on the performance of the downstream one was also examined. The methodology presented in this study may be used in selecting future wind farm site and wind turbine locations in the selected site for possible maximum power generation.
The assessment of wind-induced motion plays an important role in the development and design of the majority of today's structures that push the limits of engineering knowledge. A vital part of the design is the prediction of wind-induced tall building motion and the assessment of its effects on occupant comfort. Little of the research that has led to the development of the various international standards for occupant comfort criteria have considered the effects of the low-frequency motion on task performance and interference with building occupants' daily activities. It has only recently become more widely recognized that it is no longer reasonable to assume that the level of motion that a tall building undergoes in a windstorm will fall below an occupants' level of perception and little is known about how this motion perception could also impact on task performance. Experimental research was conducted to evaluate the performance of individuals engaged in a manual tracking task while subjected to low level vibration in the frequency range of 0.125 Hz-0.50 Hz. The investigations were carried out under narrowband random vibration with accelerations ranging from 2 milli-g to 30 milli-g (where 1 milli-g = 0.0098 m/s^2) and included a control condition. The frequencies and accelerations simulated are representative of the level of motion expected to occur in a tall building (heights in the range of 100 m -350 m) once every few months to once every few years. Performance of the test subjects with and without vibration was determined for 15 separate test conditions and evaluated in terms of time taken to complete a task and accuracy per trial. Overall, the performance under the vibration conditions did not vary significantly from that of the control condition, nor was there a statistically significant degradation or improvement trend in performance ability as a function of increasing frequency or acceleration.
Excessive wind-induced motion in tall buildings can cause discomfort, affect health, and disrupt the daily activities of the occupants of a building. Dynamic vibration absorbers such as the tuned mass dampers (TMDs) can be used to reduce the wind-induced motion below a specified tolerable serviceability limit state (SLS) criterion. This study investigates whether the same probability of not exceeding specified wind-induced motion levels can be achieved by torsionally sensitive structures without/with linear/nonlinear TMDs subjected to partially correlated wind forces, if they are designed to just meet the same SLS criterion. For the analyses, different structures and the uncertainty in the response,wind load and perception of motion is considered. Numerical results indicate that for structures that are designed or retrofitted without or with optimum linear TMDs and satisfying the same SLS criterion, their probability of exceeding the considered criterion is very consistent, if the inherent correlation between the wind forces is considered in design. However, this consistency deteriorates if nonlinear TMDs are employed. Furthermore, if the correlation is ignored in the design, in many cases a slightly unconservative design, as compared to the designed by considering correlation, is achieved.
Lock-in and drag amplification phenomena are studied for a flexible cantilever using a simplified fluid-structure interaction approach. Instead of solving the 3D domain, a simplified setup is devised, in which 2D flow problems are solved on a number of planes parallel to the wind direction and transversal to the structure. On such planes, the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved to estimate the fluid action at different positions of the line-like structure. The fluid flow on each plane is coupled with the structural deformation at the corresponding position, affecting the dynamic behaviour of the system. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach is used to take in account the deformation of the domain, and a fractional-step scheme is used to solve the fluid field. The stabilization of incompressibility and convection is achieved through orthogonal quasi-static subscales, an approach that is believed to provide a first step towards turbulence modelling. In order to model the structural problem, a special one-dimensional element for thin walled cross-section beam is implemented. The standard secondorder Bossak method is used for the time integration of the structural problem.
In this paper, the method of introducing additional source/sink terms in the turbulence and momentum transport equations was applied to appropriately model the effect of the tree canopy. At first, the new additional source term for the turbulence frequency ω equation in the SST k-ω model was proposed through theoretical analogy. Then the new source/sink term model for the SST k-ω model was numerically verified. At last, the proposed source term model was adopted in the wind environment optimal design of the twin high-rise buildings of CABR (China Academy of Building Research). Based on the numerical simulations, the technical measure to ameliorate the wind environment was proposed. Using the new inflow boundary conditions developed in the previous studies, it was concluded that the theoretically reasonable source term model of the SST k-ω model was applicable for modeling the tree canopy flow and accurate numerical results are obtained.
This paper presents statistical analysis results of wind speed and atmospheric turbulence data measured from more than 30 anemometers installed at 15 different height levels on 325 m high Beijing Meteorological Tower and is primarily intended to provide useful information on boundary layer wind characteristics for wind-resistant design of tall buildings and high-rise structures. Profiles of mean wind speed are presented based on the field measurements and are compared with empirical models' predictions. Relevant parameters of atmospheric boundary layer at urban terrain are determined from the measured wind speed profiles. Furthermore, wind velocity data in longitudinal, lateral and vertical directions, which were recorded from an ultrasonic anemometer during windstorms, are analyzed and discussed. Atmospheric turbulence information such as turbulence intensity, gust factor, turbulence integral length scale and power spectral densities of the three-dimensional fluctuating wind velocity are presented and used to evaluate the adequacy of existing theoretical and empirical models. The objective of this study is to investigate the profiles of mean wind speed and atmospheric turbulence characteristics over a typical urban area.
High-resolution wind data were acquired from a 100-m high offshore tower during the passage of Typhoon Hagupit in September, 2008. The meteorological tower was equipped with an ultrasonic anemometer and a number of cup anemometers at heights between 10 and 100 m. Wind characteristics of the strong typhoon, such as mean wind speed and wind direction, turbulence intensity, turbulence integral length scale, gust factor and power spectra of wind velocity, vertical profiles of mean wind speed were investigated in detail based on the wind data recorded during the strong typhoon. The measured results revealed that the wind characteristics in different stages during the typhoon varied remarkably. Through comparison with non-typhoon wind measurements, the phenomena of enhanced levels of turbulence intensity, gust factors, turbulence integral length scale and spectral magnitudes in typhoon boundary layer were observed. The monitored data and analysis results are expected to be useful for the wind-resistant design of offshore structures and buildings on seashores in typhoon-prone regions.