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This study aims to gain an integrated perspective on perceptions by learners and instructors toward feedback methods in translation studies training provided at graduate schools of translation and interpreting, and to explore their application in translation training. To realize these goals, the study presents the following research questions. (1) What feedback methods do teachers at graduate schools of translation and interpreting provide during translation classes? (2) What factors have an impact on how instructors provide feedback methods during translation classes at graduate schools of translation and interpreting? (3) How do learners react to different methods of feedback provided during translation classes in the BA direction at graduate schools of translation and interpreting? (4) How do learners’ personality types affect their acceptance of positive/negative feedback provided by the instructor during translation classes in the BA direction at graduate schools of translation and interpreting? (5) What common factors and differences exist between instructors and learners’ perceptions regarding the feedback methods being provided? The participants of this study were 30 instructors of translation courses at Korean graduate schools of translation and interpretation, and 28 first-year students of translation courses in the BA direction at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Graduate School of Interpretation and Translation (HUFS GSIT). In the area of feedback methods provided by instructors, general tendencies were identified through analysis of written feedback, further supplemented by conducting in-depth interviews. In the area of learner reactions, more of a focus was placed on qualitative research in the area of learner reactions as well, to thoroughly examine a wide range of views on the part of learners. Instructor feedback was analyzed using written feedback data and transcripts of in-depth interviews, and learner reactions were analyzed using questionnaires and transcripts of in-depth interviews. In particular, learner reactions were examined in depth through qualitative analysis of learners’ reactions to the five feedback methods used in the study design, conducted on data accumulated from three semesters extending from the 1st semester of 2018 to the 1st semester of 2019. Towards this, students were provided feedback in the form of direct feedback, process-oriented feedback, mid-term assessment feedback, one-on-one conferences, and positive feedback systematically incorporated into the course and provided over each semester. Learners’ reactions were carefully analyzed using various tools, including two in-depth interviews conducted over the course of the semester, questionnaires, and class journals. In particular, the issue of whether learners showed a difference in their reactions to positive/negative feedback according to their personality types was investigated by classifying the students into four categories based on their responses to MBTI questionnaires, after which the characteristics of each personality type and their reactions to feedback were examined. The analysis results of the study are as follows. First, in the survey of feedback methods provided by instructors of translation courses at graduate schools of translation and interpretation, nine out of the 30 study participants mostly provided negative feedback while two instructors mostly provided positive feedback. This feedback took the form of direct feedback in the case of 12 instructors and indirect feedback for three instructors. The remaining 15 instructors were shown to be providing a combination of direct and indirect feedback. Feedback was either provided through computers (17) or in handwriting (11), while two of the instructors surveyed were not providing feedback in any written form. Next, in the survey of oral feedback, 18 out of the 30 instructors in the study replied they did not engage in one-on-one conferences with their students while 12 instructors replied they did. As for the length of feedback provided, 13 of the instructors replied they provided a small amount of feedback, eight a moderate amount, and seven a large amount of feedback, while the two instructors not providing written feedback were excluded. Finally, when asked about any particular forms of feedback they provided, four common characteristics were reported by a number of the instructors, namely, “I try to provide feedback in a positive manner,” “I provide indirect feedback,” “I do not provide written feedback at all or keep it to a minimum,” and “I provide a summary evaluation.” Second, according to the analysis of factors affecting feedback methods provided by instructors of translation courses at graduate schools of translation and interpretation, both instructor- and subject-oriented factors were shown to have an impact, with the results indicating that subject-oriented factors have a larger effect on differences in providing feedback than instructor-oriented factors. Instructor-oriented factors identified as affecting feedback methods included the native language of the instructor and teaching experience, while subject-oriented factors which had an impact on feedback methods were text genre, language direction, etc. For instance, many instructors replied they provided direct feedback when the class engaged an informational text from the A to B language, while many instructors provided feedback indirectly when treating an expressional text from the B to A direction. Third, according to the analysis of reactions to instructors’ feedback methods by learners during BA-direction translation courses at graduate schools of translation and interpretation, very high levels of preference were discovered for direct feedback, process-oriented feedback, and mid-term assessment feedback. Also, when analyzing the opinions of learners in regard to the five feedback methods designed into the study, the most prevalent opinion by students was that, in the case of direct feedback, alternative solutions should be provided together with the reason why a portion had been marked an error (17 out of 27 students). 14 out of 27 learners (excluding one subject who did not respond) replied that positive feedback was very influential in improving their translation competence, while 12 responded that it had some influence. The remaining respondent did not think it had that much of an impact. Fourth, when analyzing the impact of learner personality factors on their acceptance of positive/negative feedback, a difference was confirmed in reactions to positive/negative feedback by personality type. Of the 28 graduate students majoring in Korean-Japanese translation studies, 14 were classified as having an IF-type personality, showing a preference for correction rather than praise, and wishing for concrete feedback in the case of both praise and correction. On the other hand, EF-type learners showed a preference for praise over correction, and placed importance on evaluation (the evaluator). IT-type learners showed a high level of acceptance when praised on their work, as this promoted trust in the instructor, leading to a preference for interactive forms of feedback, while ET-type learners showed a particularly high preference for praise, somewhat contrary to previous studies on T-type personalities. Fifth, some common factors and differences were discovered between instructors and learners in regard to feedback methods. When comparing and analyzing perceptions by instructors and learners, both shared the perception that positive feedback and mid-term feedback were necessary, but somewhat different perceptions in regard to concrete written feedback and the need for one-on-one conferences. Based on the above analysis results, the following conclusions can be reached. First, learners recognize the benefits of indirect feedback but prefer direct forms of feedback. Second, interactive feedback is necessary between instructors and learners. Third, learners have a high level of acceptance for mid-term assessment feedback and process-oriented feedback. Fourth, learners show different reactions to positive/negative feedback according to their personality type. The study is somewhat limited in terms of the number of participants examined, but is significant in that it takes an integrated perspective to explore instructor and learner perceptions at the master’s level, an area hitherto neglected, thus providing implications for future studies in the areas of feedback studies and translation pedagogy.
During the Korean War, Korean and American interpreters and translators carried out their duties with a great deal of responsibility for communication. However, their stories have yet to receive attention not only from military historians, but also from the field of translator studies. This study therefore seeks to analyze the roles and identities of military interpreters from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The discursive conceptions about identity are interrelated with the use of language. When identity is seen as a process of construction through social interaction, language plays a vital role in constructing identities. It is for this reason that this study focuses on the linguistic features that reflect identities in discourse, especially through the language mediations of interpreters and translators. The act of interpreting and translating political and ideological terms is likely to have a decisive effect on the construction of collective identities. This study explores the roles of military interpreters, who must take a clear position on the ideological issues arising from conflict situations. There are three research questions related to the roles and identities of military interpreters. (1) Why did Korean society need so many interpreters after being liberated from the Japanese occupation? By understanding the historical context, it is possible to determine the roles of military interpreters, who emerged as a powerful group in Korean society. (2) What were the roles of military interpreters during the Korean war? As the war progressed, the US military suffered from an acute shortage of linguistic mediators. In light of those circumstances, this study aims to explain how they worked as messengers to remove language barriers. (3) How were collective identities constructed in the Panmunjom negotiations mediated by interpreters and translators? This study seeks to determine how military interpreters contributed to the construction of collective identities. Before delving into the analysis, it is first necessary to introduce the theoretical framework of this study, which consists of three factors. First, adopting CDA is useful to analyze discourse in terms of identifying the roles and identities of military interpreters. The analytical methods proposed by van Leeuwen and van Dijk provide insight into the understanding of the roles of language mediators. In addition, their linguistic features in discourse can be linked to the construction of identities from the perspective of CDA. Second, the Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) strategy is used to collect and classify large amounts of data. The initial process in organizing data is to code it such that it can be easily categorized. The QDA method provides methodological ways of trimming down the data collected from news reports, memoirs and the minutes of the Korean armistice talks. Third, corpus data from two crucial minutes of the Korean armistice talks can support the results generated through QDA. By using WordSmith Tools, the corpus can provide data on “interpreters” and “translation” in the form of a concordance and word lists. This study consists of three levels for the purpose of contextual analysis. It starts at the macro-level (i.e., analyzing historical documents), which is useful in understanding the causes of the increasing demands placed on military interpreters. Coding data from news reports can be useful to find out what exactly they did and how they were treated as a valuable human resource. Then, it moves on to the meso-level of analyzing social and situational contexts. This level is twofold. The first layer is to focus on the memoirs of the military interpreters because their experience in the linguistic profession provides clues about their missions and roles as a bridge between the Korean and American militaries. The second layer is to focus on the Korean armistice negotiation. Considering the importance of the armistice talks, the language skills of the interpreters are likely to have affected the outcome of the negotiations. Under these circumstances, the linguistic experts may play a vital role for doing their duties as a soldier. Finally, the micro-level focuses on an analysis of the translated text. By adopting the CDA framework into the text, this study aims to explain the interrelation between language and identity. The approach to social actors, as proposed by van Leeuwen, provides an analytical framework through which to examine social representation. The approach to social cognition proposed by van Dijk gives us insight into understanding the discursive legitimation of exercising power. As a result, this study reaches the following conclusions. First, the analysis of news reports reveals that the group of Korean military interpreters and translators had social influence due to the language ability after the establishment of the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK). The US military government occupied the Korean peninsula after its liberation from Japanese colonial rule. As there is a language barrier between the US army and the Koreans, the USAMGIK was thoroughly reliant on the services of Korean military interpreters in conducting its administrative duties. But the US army faced a lack of qualified interpreters because many Koreans couldn’t speak English. That is why the group of military interpreters and translators treated as valuable human resources. As the U.S. military interpreters influenced the public through this administrative work, they enjoyed a high social status. Second, the analysis of the memoirs of the military interpreters who served in the Korean and US armies provides a lens for understanding their role in the Korean war. They acted as a bridge between the ROK and US forces in the course of conducting their missions. According to the memoirs of the military interpreters, they translated documents for military education while simultaneously making interpretations for American commanders. This also proves their acumen as military interpreters. Third, analyzing the minutes of the Korean armistice talks shows that the military interpreters involved in the talks were mediators, watchers, and editors. The mediator role included not only cultural, but also linguistic mediation to explain the differences between Korean and English. Another role of the military interpreters was to check and correct the interpretations of the enemy interpreters. The military interpreters were not only translating the armistice agreement; they also edited the translated agreement and gave their feedback on the translation. Furthermore, this study analyzed their roles from the perspective from CDA proposed by van Leeuwen. The approach to legitimation of authority can help to illustrate how they conducted their roles by using their authorities such as expert authority, personal authority, and custom authority. Fourth, CDA, as proposed by van Leeuwen and van Dijk, aided this study’s efforts to explain the roles and identities of military interpreters in the Panmunjom negotiations. van Leeuwen explained the way of representing social actors in discourse. This study investigated how the participants of the negotiations could be represented in the translated discourse. During the negotiation, U.N. interpreters intervened to correct interpretation of the Communist interpreter. From the perspective of CDA, this study explained the intervention as the act of constructing collective identities by using the various ways of representing social actors. By analyzing the minutes of the Korean armistice talks, this study revealed that the military interpreters used the act of interpretation and translation to construct collective identities by representing social actors as the polarized groups of “foe or friend”. While the theoretical framework of social actors provides a way of analyzing the collective identities, Sociocognitive approach, as proposed by van Dijk, contributed to the discourse analysis for explaining the interrelation between ideology and translation. van Dijk suggested discursive strategies that legitimate social power and dominance. In case of the talks for the translation of the draft armistice, both U.S. and Communist delegations used a discursive strategy of legitimation and justification to persuade or influence the other party. The analysis of the strategy reveals that the act of translating words could be used for delivering ideological ideas by adopting the strategy of legitimation and justification for their translation. More importantly, the military interpreters in the Korean armistice talks are likely to play a crucial role by suggesting translation of terms. In addition, the collective identities of the interpreters could affect the process of translation to deliver their ideological position.
19세기 대외적 정세 불안을 타개하고자 한·중·일 삼국이 선택한 것은 부국강병책이었다. 부국강병을 이루기 위해서는 한편으로는 서양의 과학과 기술을 받아들여 군사력을 강화시켜야했고, 다른 한편으로는 서양 제국과의 평등한 협상을 위해 외교력을 강화시켜야했다. 특히 외교력 강화를 위해서 가장 먼저 요구되었던 것은 서양 제국들과의 의사소통 능력이었다. 아편전쟁 패배 후 체결된 대부분의 통상조약은 일방적으로 동양에게 불리한 불평등 조약이었기 때문이다. 물리적 힘의 열세로 처음부터 불리한 입장이었다는 점도 있지만 협상 상대국의 언어를 이해하고 그들과의 의사소통이 이뤄지지 않았다는 점도 이 같은 불평등 조약 체결의 원인이었다. 이에 삼국 정부는 통번역 교육제도를 설립하여 적극적인 인재 양성에 나섰다. 19세기 통번역 교육제도의 교육과정을 살펴보면 현대 통번역 교육제도와 유사한 면이 많이 잇다. 비록 전반적인 교육 수준은 높지 않았지만 학교라는 제도에 맞게 학칙을 제정하여 이에 따라 운영이 이루어졌다는 점, 언어별 통번역 교육이 체계적으로 이뤄졌다는 점, 외국인 교원을 보유하고 이들을 교육에 적극 활용했다는 점, 학생들을 수준별로 나누어 교육했다는 점을 유사점으로 꼽을 수 있다. 반면 다른 점은 오늘날 통번역 교육제도에서는 교육만을 전담하는 측면이 강한데 비해 19세기 통번역 교육제도에서는 활발한 번역, 저술, 출판 활동이 뒷받침되었다는 점을 들 수 있다. 또한 외국어가 아닌 일반 교과가 포함되었다는 점도 현대교육제도와는 다른 점이다. 전통적 교육 제도에서는 통치체제 근간이 되는 관리 양성이 주요 목적이었으나 19세기 등장한 한·중·일 통번역 교육제도는 관리 양성은 물론 사회 전반에 걸쳐 새로운 인재를 양성하고 보급하는데 큰 역할을 했다. 특히 외교분야에서 전문 인력을 배출했다는 점은 주목할 만한 점이다. 두번째는 교육 분야에 큰 기여를 했다. 일본의 가이세이조, 중국의 동문관, 한국의 관립외국어학교는 그 자체가 근대학교의 원형인 것은 물론 이들이 번역한 교재와 사전은 언어학을 비롯한 근대 교육에 큰 밑거름이 되었다. 뿐만 아니라 이들 제도는 변화를 거듭해 현대의 대학교로 이어지고 있다. 일본의 가이세이조는 현재의 동경대학, 중국의 동문관은 오늘날 북경대학의 전신이다. 이는 일본의 식민지배로 인해 관립외국어학교를 폐쇄할 수 밖에 없었던 한국과 큰 차이점이라고 할 수 있다. 마지막으로 꼽을 수 있는 점은 언론에 미친 영향이다. 삼국의 통번역 제도는 서양서적을 번역하고 이를 출판하는 것은 물론 신문과 잡지 등을 발행하는 일에도 적극적이었다. 금속 활자판을 도입하여 대량 인쇄를 시작한 점, 이렇게해서 발간된 신문과 잡지가 최초 근대 신문 및 최초 근대 잡지라는 점은 각국 언론사에 큰 의미를 지닌다. 이처럼 19세기 통번역 교육제도는 여러 분야에서 큰 영향을 미쳤고 결과적으로 근대 사회로 나아가는데 큰 기여를 했다. 19세기 통번역 교육제도가 다양한 역할을 할 수 있었던 것은 국가의 적극적인 지원때문이었다. 이는 현재의 대외 상황이 본질적으로 19세기와 달라지지 않았다는 점과 정치, 외교, 교역, 교육 등 사회 제분야에서 여전히 통번역사들이 중요한 역할을 하고 있다는 점에서 시사하는 바가 크다.
The propose of this research are first to examine the aspect of Korea-Latin American cooperation and second to offer interpretation learning elements interpreters should learn to efficiently interpret Korean Spanish in pharmaceutical and public health area. This study does an experiment in which interpretation learners are led to learn interpretation learning elements an d will examine how the learning of those elements affect real interpretation. This study expects that interpretation learning elements will be used in interpretation education to cultivate professional interpreters. In recent years, Korean-Spanish interpretation demand in the pharmaceutical and public health area for those from Latin america has continuously increased. But, the number of interpereters in this area has not increased sufficiently to cover the demand. In 2009, the Korean government chose medical business as one of the New Growth Engine Industries, and revised the medical law, leading to increased interests in medical interpretation. In addition, in 2016, the government newly adopted the Medical Interpretation Capacity Test. But, mainly due to the small market of medical interpretation between Korean and Spanish, there have not been sufficient researches in this area. So, this research started with the view that it would be meaningful to do research on interpretation between Korean and Spanish on the pharmaceutical and public health area considering the increasing demand of cooperation in the area between Korea and Latin America. Accordingly, this research intends to study Korean-Spanish interpretation learning elements in the pharmaceutical and public health area focusing specifically on the countries belonging to the Pacific Alliance (Mexico, Peru, Chile, and Columbia), a Latin American trade bloc. To fulfill the research aims, this research first classified various kinds of cooperation between Korea and the Pacific alliance countries into six domains and examined the aspects of this cooperation. By analyzing the aspect of cooperation between Korea and four countries of Pacific Alliance, the findings of this study will serve as basic sources for professional interpreters between Korean and Spanish. Meanwhile, to figure out what interpretation learning elements are important in real interpretation, this research did the surveys. First, it was conducted to professional interpreters majoring pharmaceutical and public health in all languages including Spanish(1). Second, in-depth interview was conducted to a single Korean-Spanish interpreter with abundant experiences in the pharmaceutical and public health area. Through such surveys, this research tried to examine seven interpretation learning elements, and summarized each element with examples through interpretation materials in the Korean-Spanish pharmaceutical and public health. Subsequently, this research did the second survey(2) to Korean-Spanish interpreters with abundant experiences in the pharmaceutical and public health area, and examined the followings: the rank order in importance of those interpretation learning elements, difficulty of texts, sufficiency of interpretation records, the time when records are delivered to interpreter, importance of English, and use of PPT, etc. Then, those interpretation learning elements suggested through the research were applied to experiment participants to examine how those elements affect interpretation results. Experiment participants were the students in the Korean-Spanish Department of the Graduate School of Interpretation and Translation, the only one in Korea. And, between the first and second interpretation experiments, this research did education on seven interpretation learning elements in the pharmaceutical and public health area to participants, and examined the effect of the education through quantitative and qualitative analyses, and compared the results also with the results of the survey(2) to professional interpreters. As described above, this research suggested interpretation learning elements in the pharmaceutical and public health area which contain a wide range of difficult to help Korean-Spanish interpreters to do the job effectively. Given that researches in the pharmaceutical and public health area not only for Spanish but also for other language are very rare, it is hoped that this research will stimulate the development of this kind of research. And, it is expected that this research will contribute to cultivation of professional Korean-Spanish interpreters and their capacity as interpreters. Then, given the small number of patients using Spanish in Korean hospitals, and slow development of related researches, this research will serve to development and expansion of researches on Korean-Spanish interpretation not only in the medical area, but in the pharmaceutical and public health area, which will narrow the gap between this kind of research on Spanish and corresponding researches on other languages.
A study on how to ensure simultaneity in Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation : Syntactic linearity techniques and causative sentences Since the establishment of diplomatic ties between Korea and China in 1992, bilateral exchange and cooperation have increased in diverse areas. Accordingly, the demand for Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation has grown rapidly and a large number of professional interpreters are actively working in this field. There are also many future interpreters who have taken up interpretation and translation as their major at graduate schools and are being trained to become professional simultaneous interpreters. However, most of these students experience a number of difficulties as they have to carry out the tasks of listening, speaking and remembering at the same time during the simultaneous interpretation process, in which there is little time gap between the presentation of source text and that of target text. This is especially true in the case of simultaneous interpretation between Korean and Chinese, which have different word order systems - SOV vs. SVO - and disparate information arrangement structures in terms of adnominal phrases and keywords. As interpreters cannot foresee the verbs and keywords that come later in order in Korean sentences, they are more likely to have pauses, omissions and errors in interpretation. To deal with these problems, and to promote the 'simultaneity' of Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation by minimizing the time gap between the presentations of source text and target text, the researcher examined the possibility of the application of five simultaneous interpretation techniques based on a syntactic linearity strategy composed of segmentation, repetition, anticipation, simplification and conversion as well as the formation of causative sentences. In addition, tests were undertaken to explore the potential of these techniques in enhancing simultaneity in Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation and the effect of simultaneous interpretation class. In relation to this, the researcher posited in Chapter 1 that the syntactic linearity techniques and formation of causative sentences can be useful for simultaneous interpretation and showed the results of a survey on the awareness of 15 Chinese native language editors/translators related to causative sentences as a way to illustrate their effectivity. In Chapter 2, analysis was made on factors aggravating the difficulties of Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation with a focus on the cognitive burden resulting from multitasking and linguistic typological differences between the two languages. In addition, examples showing the difficulty of ensuring simultaneity in Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation were presented. In Chapter 3, the possibility of applying the syntactic linearity strategy, which is accepted as the 'golden rule' that promotes simultaneity in English-Chinese simultaneous interpretation in China, to Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation was explored. Chapter 4 was devoted to the analysis of the possibility of applying causative sentences to complement the five interpretation techniques. First, concerning the classification of causative types, Talmy (1976) proposed that sentences containing the meanings representing cause and effect can be regarded as causative sentences, and these semantic causative types have been adopted for this study. Next, to examine the awareness of future interpreters on the classification of causative sentences in Korean texts in Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation, a test was carried out on students enrolled at the Advanced Interpretation and Translation Program in the Graduate School of International Studies, Chung Ang University. Then, two Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation tests were held on the same subjects. The test results confirmed, first, that the subjects had a broader classification of causative sentences than usual in the awareness test postulating Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation. Second, in the simultaneous interpretation tests, the researcher discovered among the subjects an active tendency to change, from the Korean source text, not only causative sentences containing causative markers but also those containing the meanings representing cause and effect into causative sentences in Chinese. Third, when causative target text was formed in Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation, the subjects tended to apply 'anticipation' on the following clause beforehand. In other words, when they anticipated that the preceding clause was the cause of the following clause not yet spoken, they formed causative sentences more actively. In addition, techniques such as segmentation, simplification, repetition and conversion were used. Fourth, in the case of sentences with excessively long adnominal phrases and several embedded clauses, students were still seen to have difficulties in changing them into Chinese target text. In the interviews made after the tests, most of the subjects said that their spontaneity and contextualization in Korean-Chinese simultaneous interpretation improved, and answered that the degree of the improvement was about 20 to 30%. Some subjects even likened these techniques to 'an oasis in the desert' or 'an exit in a locked room.' With regard to the future prospect of their application, most interviewees said that they would try to master the techniques through repetitive training, and many said that they would use sight translation specifically to train themselves. Based on these analysis results, the following future tasks are suggested: classification and application in classes of Korean sentences containing causative attributes; integrated education of repetitive training of simultaneous interpretation techniques based on syntactic linearity and formation of causative sentences; classification of predictive markers for the following clauses; and systematic education on linguistic typological features of Korean and Chinese.
The number of undergraduate interpreting courses offered for the past fifteen years has increased due to rising interest in interpretation and translation in Korea and mounting demand on practice-oriented undergraduate classes. A variety of research on how to adapt undergraduate education objectives, establish related curricula, develop pedagogic methods, design syllables, and survey learners' perceptions reflect such situations. Assessment is essential to learners in providing feedback on "where is the margin for improvement" as well as feedforward on "what is required to achieve improvement," as it is to professors in offering methods to check if they have fulfilled the intended educative goals and opportunities to readjust syllables thereby. However, most of the precedent researches have limited discussions on undergraduate interpreting performance assessment, and very few are nevertheless focusing on Korean-English majors. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how professors in non-English majors are assessing undergraduate learners whose foreign language learning period and proficiency level are not comparable with English-major students. We will then narrow down our research focus to situations that the Korean-French interpreting department faces and explore whether graduate schools' assessment criteria can be applied as-is to undergraduate learners or how we can modify those criteria to fit undergraduate students if necessary. This study conducted in-depth interviews with ten undergraduate professors from Japanese, Chinese, French, Spanish, German, Russian, Arabic majors. Also, six professors from the Korean-French department at the graduate school of interpretation and translation assessed and compared interpreting performance results between undergraduate and graduate students for the same source text. They were asked to determine the ranking, respectively, and provide detailed descriptions of students' performances. We carried out interviews with them after the assessment ended. The results were as follows: First, professors teaching undergraduate students tend to distribute source texts beforehand due to students' lack of proficiency or intended linguistic improvement through more preparations. For test materials, they also used texts that were previously shared. Second, most undergraduate professors tend to provide holistic assessment in the class since it was hard to definitize criteria, and demoralization caused by public feedback was most concerned. They showed no marked preference as to which assessment, holistic or analytic, they want to provide in a test. However, the number of analytic assessment cases where they take off points for every incorrect part against pre-set criteria tended to increase. Third, professors applied 2~5 simplified criteria in an undergraduate class such as language transfer (i.e., foreign language to native language), public speaking, voice, eye contact, and native language fluency. Fidelity was found to be narrowly applied because test materials had already been shared throughout the semester. Still, some professors answered that faithful interpreting should be most prioritized despite undergraduate circumstances beyond control, indicating that relative weight for fidelity should be carefully reconsidered in the undergraduate context. Fourth, a "holistic but almost analytic" assessment is applied at graduate schools of interpretation and translation. It is hard to tell either approach is preferred, but relatively detailed criteria (up to 15) are observed. In contrast to undergraduate context, professors at graduate schools are on common ground in that fidelity is the most critical standard. Fifth, undergraduate learners demonstrated substantially the same low proficiency, suggesting that it seemed almost pointless to adopt relative evaluation based on rigid standards. Most of them were pointed out a lack of fidelity, natural language transfer, enthusiasm, appropriate note-taking, proper tone, and tension control. Fidelity was chosen as the weakest point, and target language fluency, speed, terminology, and smoothness were pointed out next. Unlike fidelity, the above four error types are also committed by graduate learners. Indeed, undergraduate learners tend to commit errors more frequently. Sixth, it seems unnecessary to modify graduate schools' assessment approaches to fit them for undergraduate conditions but still required to adjust the severity and the number of assessment criteria. The precedent research suggests a variety of different assessment criteria for undergraduate learners, but this study insists that we should lessen the application's rigidness as well as simplify complicated standards. More weight should be placed on language transfer, public speaking, and fidelity, rather than delivery, fluency, completeness, and register. Our interview results indicate that fidelity should still be prioritized even with its minor role in the undergraduate context. Undergraduate interpreting classes aim to raise understanding of interpretation and translation and to sharpen one's foreign language proficiency, which predisposes teachers to be blind to the importance of fidelity. Such practice should be put into the equation, and it is necessary to gradually incorporate fidelity in the undergraduate context, in parallel with the current education purpose of enhancing foreign language proficiency. This study conducted in-depth interviews with a limited number of professors. Thus it is hard to generalize the results. Situations varied depending on majors, professors' educational backgrounds (i.e., whether they have earned the degree of interpretation and translation), and work experiences. In the meantime, situations the Korean-French major is facing differ from what other majors are encountering. Nevertheless, this study is expected to trigger wide-ranging discussions on undergraduate interpreting assessments that have been limited on the table. In particular, the study's significance lies in that we attempted to investigate actual situations faced by non-English majors; compare the performance results between undergraduate and graduate learners for the same source text and analyze how both groups are different; propose what should be pursued in undergraduate interpreting assessment based on the comparison results.
This study begins from trying to identify the cause of the phenomenon of same proper names in Korean being transcribed and translated into various terms in Russian text. A careful review of current Russian transcription and translation strategies of Korean proper names showed the absence of consistent standardized guideline on Russian transcription and translation strategy of Korean proper names is one of the key causes for the different transcriptions and translations. The purpose of this study is to take a deeper look into the Russian transcription and translation of Korean proper names, analyze the problems that arise in phonemic notation and translation strategies, and to propose a new guideline in standardizing Russian notation of Korean proper names and translation strategies. Translation of proper names requires delivering both their phonemic information and meaning in the target language. Chapter 2 of this paper reviews existing preceding research and found that there are limits to only discussing phonemic transcription of proper names from a phonetics perspective or only discussing translation strategies of proper names from a translation studies perspective. Therefore, the study takes a multidisciplinary approach from both phonetics and translation studies perspectives in discussing the phonemic transcription and translation strategy of proper names. Chapter 3 of this paper shares the sources of 17 Korean and Russian public organizations from which the paper gathered Russian transcriptions and translations of Korean proper names for the study and suggests a methodology for data analysis. The analysis applied for this study has three main parts. First, the study analyzes the status of Russian phonemic transcriptions of Korean proper names. Second, the study compares and analyzes phonetic data of native Korean speaker and Russian speaker using a speech analysis program called Praat as an analysis tool to suggest an alternative to phonemic notation. Third, the study categorizes proper names into 10 subcategories, applying a quantitative analysis to the various translations by type of translation strategy. Chapter 4 discusses the various causes for different phonemic transcriptions by reviewing different notations of Korean proper names. Main causes for different phonemic notations include the absence of a standardized Russian notational system for Korean proper names, the impact of Russian transcription practice of North Korean names, and the impact of Romanization. To this end, the paper conducts a phonetic data analysis on several existing controversial phonemes and suggests a Russian transcription of the Korean language based on the results of the analysis. Chapter 5 reviews the translation strategies of Korean proper names by the subcategories. The different types of translation strategies were found to be mainly; translation by sound of the proper name; sound borrowing of proper nouns and translating the meaning of common nouns; a blended transcription using English; and translating the meaning of the proper name. To reduce confusion caused by different translation strategies, this study suggests a simple consistent translation strategy appropriate to the different characteristics of each proper name subcategory.
A Conversation-Analytic Study of Medical Communication in Korea with Reference to Interactions between Korean Doctors, Interpreters, and Russian Patients Korea’s global healthcare market is expanding every year. As the number of overseas patients using Korean healthcare facilities grows, so does the importance of medical interpretation and related research. This study analyzes the act of medical interpretation carried out by medical interpreters in the process by which the interaction between patients from Russian-speaking nations and physicians unfold in Korea’s healthcare context. In so doing, the study aims to systematically detail this practice. Materials collected from university and specialized hospitals in Korea were narrowed down to 59 medical interpretation cases, which were subjected to conversation analysis (CA). Patients from Russian-speaking countries, as with other overseas patients seeking healthcare in Korea, have medical conditions and diseases different from those of patients who reside in Korea. The commercial profit-making goal of Korea’s healthcare environment influences the behavior of physicians, interpreters, and patients as well as each stage of the interpretation process. Interpreters assume their essential interpretation responsibilities while also serving as representatives or undertaking administrative work as medical coordinators. The conduct of Russian-language medical interpreters is organized in line with the goal of each phase of medical conversation. This is embodied by the ways in which interpreters’ actions are distinctively organized across different stages, through which they demonstrably orient to fulfilling the goal of each stage of medical conversation. For instance, in the opening stage, the medical interpreter recognizes that the communicative initiative rests with the physician while also demonstrating that s/he also has the right to manage the conversation. In the problem presentation stage, s/he assumes the patient's standpoint in conducting the interpretation but also demonstrates that s/he is in a different position (third party) from that of the patient while simultaneously focusing on moving the conversation forward. In the history-taking stage, s/he engages in three undertakings: eliciting information, violating the principle of optimization, and organizing the patient's statement. In the diagnosis stage, s/he uses various means to assume the physician's standpoint to get the patient to accept the diagnosis. In the treatment stage, s/he does his/her utmost in the patient's interest from the physician or patient's standpoint. In the closing stage, s/he also serves as coordinator or representative and his/her conduct varies according to the outcome of the patient visit. In terms of the stance that the participants take toward each other, the findings suggest that physicians who consult and treat overseas patients in Korea’s healthcare environment are well aware of overseas patients’ distinctive traits, needs, and preferences. They see overseas patients as consumers who have come to Korea to purchase medical services and adopt a consumer-oriented perspective to be as accommodating of patient demands as possible. Physicians bestow on interpreters the mandate to conduct medical interviews and allow interpreters to take patients’ medical history on their behalf. Patients from Russian-speaking nations who visit Korean healthcare facilities, on their part, regard interpreters as their spokespeople/representatives. They also anticipate a particular method of treatment and regard the treatment presented by physicians as a proposal they can accept or reject. It is shown that while physicians lead the opening of a medical conversation, its closing is determined by patients. Physician-patient interaction, which is very complex and paradoxical to begin with, is further complicated with interpreter involvement. The involvement also decreases the scope of direct physician-patient interaction. Physicians bestow on medical interpreters the mandate to take patients’ medical history when medical interpreters often lack expert medical knowledge. Physicians equate interpreters with patients while also demonstrating excessive dependence on interpreters. These perceptions and practices not only reduce patients’ communication opportunities or even deprive patients of such opportunities altogether but could also negatively impact patient health and medical services. This study can be a starting point for a wide array of related research, including the analysis of interaction among physicians, interpreters, and patients of other linguistic/cultural spheres. Language-specific studies would be required for generalizations for medical interpreters and patients of other linguistic/cultural spheres. It is hoped that this study will deepen the understanding and social awareness of medical interpretation and the work undertaken by medical interpreters in Korea while serving as the basis of medical interpreter training and education.
The Study on Strategies for Translating Terms of Address from Russian into Korean There are various types of terms of address in Russian, and nuance, intention, honorifics to the hearer depend on the forms and combinations of terms of address. In particular, various terms of address and their shifts in literature work as a literary device for expressing the relations between characters, psychological changes, and organic connection to the plot. Especially, play, consisting of scripted dialogue, has abundant terms of address in it than other literature forms, and there is a high possibility of mistranslation, as the relations between characters can only be identified through terms of address. Therefore, when a translator misunderstands or lacks understanding of the pragmatic meanings of terms of address, the relations between characters and the roles of characters can be shifted in the translated text. Even though the terms of address in Russian plays an important role, and it is difficult to translate them from Russian into Korean, there rarely have been studies on the comparison of terms of address between Russian and Korean or on how to translate terms of address from Russian into Korean. This study aims at comparing the terms of address between Russian and Korean at the sociolinguistic level, thereby laying the foundation for translating terms of address from Russian into Korean. In addition, the study intends to identify how terms of address are being translated from Russian into Korean, what kind of problems there are in translation strategies, and suggest how to solve these problems. For this, the paper introduced the system of terms of address in Russian and Korean, compared the principle of usage and semantics from the perspective of power and solidarity between the speaker and the hearer, and described alternation rules, co-occurrence rules, and switching, shift, and variation of terms of address. The study also conducted quantitative and qualitative analysis on Russian-Korean literary translation in order to identify how terms of address are being translated. The subject of analysis is nine Korean translations of The Cherry Orchard, which is the representative play of Anton Chekhov. The types of terms of address analyzed include name (N), kinship (K), and second-person pronoun (T/V), which are stylistic characteristics of Chekhov, and the study analyzed semantics by comparing discourses. The analysis result showed that the majority of translations used transliteration strategy for single name terms of address (N), and literal translation strategy for single kinship terms of address (K). In some cases, power and solidarity of terms of address in the source text shifted in the translated text due to these translation strategies. In the case of combination of name and second-person pronoun (N + T/V) and kinship and second-person pronoun (K + T/V), power and solidarity in the source text were maintained, lost, or distorted depending on the strategies chosen for the terms of address at the sentence level in the translated text such as terms of address, second-person pronouns, and final endings. The problems in translating terms of address from Russian into Korean were categorized into six types: 1) causing confusion of characters; 2) loss of function of terms of address; 3) violation of usage norm of terms of address resulting in loss of semantics of power and solidarity; 4) loss of derived meaning of power and solidarity; 5) distortion of relations between characters; and 6) loss of literary function and effect of shifting of terms of address. The causes of these problems seem to be due to the following tendencies: 1) recognizing name terms of address (N) only as a proper noun; 2) considering only social roles of the speaker and the hearer when translating terms of address instead of accurately understanding the pragmatic meanings of terms of address; 3) recognizing the combination of first name and patronomic as honorifics, and the rest of name terms of address as plain terms; 4) recognizing V second-person pronoun as honorifics, and T second-person pronoun as plain terms. To solve these problems found in translating terms of address from Russian into Korean, the study tried to categorize translation strategies for terms of address. The paper provided the matrix of sociolinguistic alternation rules of name terms of address (N), kinship terms of address (K), and second-person pronoun address (T/V) in The Cherry Orchard, and suggested translation strategies for these terms of address focusing on honorifics at the sentence level. As a conclusion, the study provided strategy model for translating terms of address, and demonstrated that this model can solve the problems found in the existing translations. This study laid the foundation for further discussion and revitalization of studies on Russian-Korean translation of terms of address, as there are few studies on the comparison of terms of address between Russian and Korean. In addition to identifying the current status of translation of terms of address and describing the effect and limitation of translation strategies, the study also suggested strategies for translating terms of address from Russian into Korean by categorizing various translation strategies. The paper also expanded the scope of the study on terms of address from the word level into the honorifics level. This study aims at improving the quality of translation of terms of address through emphasizing the importance of terms of address in Russian-Korean literary translation training and suggesting the function and role of terms of address as a factor to be considered in literary translation evaluation and criticism. However, the size of the data and the number of types of terms address analyzed in this study are relatively small. Therefore, it would be necessary to increase the size of corpus for more elaborate study. At the same time, verification and revision of strategy model for translating terms of address from Russian into Korean and sociolinguistic alternation rule for Russian terms of address suggested in this paper would also be necessary.
As translation has increasingly been outsourced to translation service providers(TSPs), this thesis proposes a model of translation specification as a means to facilitate communication between translators and clients. Translation is a professional service that is labor intensive and low in capital, and above all, highly customized. This is all the more true for translation services delivered by TSPs, which cater to profusion of clients. As any knowledge workers, translators working on behalf of TSPs must communicate with clients to identity and understand their translation needs. However, since the translators and clients transact through TSPs, they tend not to communicate directly and such communications, even when possible, can curtail the time spent on translation. This requires TSPs to perform the role of service desk in the service decoupling scheme to ensure effective communication between the two parties and allow translators to dedicate themselves only to translation. To satisfy varying needs of clients by evading subjectivity in translation quality assessment, TSPs should attain ‘manufacturing quality’ by incorporating clients’ requirements in service specifications and measuring quality of their services based on the degree of such specifications are met. Efficient work processes should also be in place to achieve manufacturing quality, such as quality planning, quality assurance and quality control. However, previous studies on translation processes mainly deal with post-translation quality assurance or control processes, including review and revise. Literature on quality planning of translation remains relatively thin. Quality planning could be beefed up with the utilization of translation specifications that reflect the types of information translators need and are written as a text. Exchange of such translation specifications through TSPs should be established as a regular translation process to explicitly communicate a client’s requirements to translators. To help realize this, the thesis explored the following three research questions. Question 1 is “What information Korean government agencies wrote in their translation specifications to communicate their translation requirements?” A paradigm was identified by analyzing based on ground theory 87 translation specifications posted on the website of the Office of Procurement in Korea for the past three years: A client asks for a TSP to assign ‘human resources’ of certain qualifications for a proposed project; translate with due ‘terminology’, ‘style’, ‘way of delivering meaning’ as requested; have the translation to be proofread either by a native speaker of the target language or a professional in the subject area, or both, as required; have the translated document ‘edited’; have it checked for grammar or other rules in the target language. It turned out that the government agencies’ requirements not only covered the items of translation brief described in literature, but also dealt with preferred human resources and translation processes. Question 2 is ‘What do translation standards stipulate about the elements of translation specifications identified in Question 1?” To answer the question, translation standards of the European Union, the United States, Canada, China and the International Organization for Standardization were analyzed for the eight factors identified in Question 1. It was found that the translation standards regard translation specifications as or part of a translation contract, which serves as a basis of translation quality assessment. They emphasize clients to participate in translation services by asking them to provide terminologies and the information on source and target texts. Their descriptions of qualifications of human resources and the features that determine a text’s linguistic style are in greater detail than those in the translation specifications studied in Question 1. In terms of process, bilingual revise is viewed as an indispensable process, which is in stark contrast with the preference for monolingual proofreading by native speakers in Korea. The translation standards also recommend use of tools that assist translation such as translation software, style guides, editorial guides and formatting guides. Question 3 was ‘What is a model of translation specifications proposed for a Korean translation standard?’ A model was designed under the framework comprised of physical services, services by human resources and processes. All types of information identified in Question 1 were included in the model, thus expanding the scope of a translation specification from those described in translation literature. Contents were described in detail for each item of information in an effort to reflect the best practices stipulated in the translation standards analyzed in Question 2. However, when it comes to process of proofreading, the wide gap between the preferred way of proofreading in Korea and the practice prescribed in translation standards made it unavoidable to incorporate both in the model. Finally, the model was checked for its readability and complemented based on results of open-ended in-depth interviews. Going forward, field application of the translation specification proposed will help us determine whether current translation practices unique to Korea need either to be assimilated to those specified in translation standards, or to be recognized as processes that are well-suited for minority languages such as Korean.