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      • KCI등재

        확정성과 영어한정사의 결합제약

        김두식 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1988 현대영미어문학 Vol.5 No.-

        The purpose of the present study is to define English determiners in terms of definiteness, to divide them into three classes, and to propose three combinational restrictions on them between the three classes. It is here claimed that English determiners should be classified in terms of (in) definiteness as well as their distribution in pronominal modification. The basic meaning of definiteness, proper to the definite determiners, consists of LOCATION and INCLUSIVENESS, as is claimed in Hawkins (1978). It means that the definite determiners are used to "locate" the referent of the definite NP within one (set) of the objects properly pragmatically defined and refer "inclusively" to the totality of the objects. On the other hand, the core meaning of indefiniteness is in contrast with definiteness in having EXCLUSIVENESS property. It means that the indefinite determiners are used to refer "exclusively" to not-all, i.e. there are claimed to exist other objects excluded from the reference of an indefinite NP. According to (in)definiteness and their modificational distribution, the determiners are classified into Class Ⅰ, Class Ⅱ, and Class Ⅲ. On the basis of their ability to precede or follow Class Ⅱ, the most central of the determiners, Class Ⅰ is termed Predeterminer Class, such as all, both, half and the like and Class Ⅲ is termed postdeterminer Class, such as two, first, many, (a) few, such, (an)other, etc. Class Ⅱ is divided into Class Ⅱ-1, such as the, my, this and so forth, Class Ⅱ-2, such as some, most, every, each, (n)either, which and so on. The three combinational restrictions proposed in this study are as follows: Restriction Ⅰ: The combinational order of English determiners should be the one like (Class Ⅰ-Class Ⅱ-Class Ⅲ) but the determiners in Class Ⅰ should be combined with those in Class Ⅱ-1. Restriction Ⅱ: The determiners in the same class, except for Class Ⅲ, should not be combined one another. Restriction Ⅲ: The combination in the order like (Class Ⅱ-2 or Ⅲ-Class Ⅱ-1) is impossible by violating Restriction Ⅰ & Ⅱ, but is possible by inserting of between the former class and the latter one.

      • KCI등재

        초등학교에서의 영어 어휘지도에 관한 연구

        임상봉 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1996 현대영미어문학 Vol.13 No.-

        With the advent of the age of internalization, early English education is becoming our major concern. In order to live in the world, we must name it. Names are essential for the construction of reality for without a name it is difficult to accept the existence of an object, an event, a feeling. Naming is the means whereby we attempt to order and structure the chaos and flux of existence which would otherwise be an undifferentiated mass. Therefore, the teaching of vocabulary and grammar has always been a central aspect of foreign language teaching. For centuries, in fact the only activity of language classrooms was the study of grammar and vocabulary. After all, words are basic building blocks of language; in fact, survival level communication can take place quite intelligibly when people simply string words together- without any grammatical rules applying at all. However, it is curious to reflect that so little importance has given to vocabulary in modern language teaching. Both the behaviorist / structural model and the functional / communicative model have, in their different ways, consistently underplayed it. Pride of place has been given to structure or functions. And yet, as any learner of a foreign language knows only too well, words are essential, and the lack of them leads to feelings of insecurity. The purpose of this research is to present a new vocabulary teaching method using the vocabulary which is used in elementary school for the effective vocabulary teaching. To this end I have discussed the aim of early English education, the importance of vocabulary in language learning, the selection of vocabulary and a variety of vocabulary teaching methods. Specific vocabulary teaching methods for nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs are presented. And I also discussed what is the most effective way to teach vocabulary. "It is now recognized that students learn language more effectively if they use it in a meaningful context. Researchers agree that grammar and vocabulary should not be taught as a separate units. The emphasis is placed on "doing"; it is by communicating that we learn to communicate. Communication requires more than just a knowledge of structures; it requires the ability to receive and transmit messages. When considered from this perspective, language becomes a means of communication, not an end in itself. Most commonly, the purpose of foreign language study is to be able to communicate fluently with the native speakers of the target language. For this purpose, foreign language learning should be focused on creating linguistically sensible and socially accepted discourse rather than just avoiding spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. In this paper, I came to realize that the best way to help students to learn vocabulary is to learn vocabulary in the context. The best internalization of vocabulary comes from encounters with words within the context of surrounding discourse. Rather than isolating words, attend to vocabulary within a communicative framework in which items appear. Students will then associate new words with a meaningful context to which they apply.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        英語의 轉移强勢에 관한 考察 : 記述構造主義를 中心으로

        李一雨 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1983 현대영미어문학 Vol.1 No.-

        After having studied the various methods on shifting stress, I drew the following conclusions : 1.Stress function in English is to clarifly the meaning, decide the sound vague around vowels, and suprasegmental phoneme, which has the important phonemic function causes the meaning distinction of the same spelling, is generally classified into four. 2.While the the stress patterns of words and phrases are comparatively fixed, those of sentences are complex stress patterns in relation to the syntax. Also words or phrases have consistent rules according to the surface structure of the word formation and word order. Although each word is stressed when uttered alone, each individual word will not necessarily carry a strong stress in a sentence stress. There are fore stress, end stress and even stress in word itself as the general rule of word stress. The general rule of the phrase stress has a stress pattern of four stress /´^`ˇ/ levels according to grammatical pattern. 3.Sentence stress differs from phrase stress. According to the principle of sense stress, major stress must be put on the content words in the sentence, function words generally hale minor stress while primary stress comes near or at the end word of the sentence There happen to be many aspects of shifting stress of emphatic stress, and contrastive stress as well as rhythmical stress according to the sentence surface rhythm or the mind attitudes of speakers. This paper could present the minium sentence stress rules in these different kinds of stresses.

      • KCI등재

        언어의 보편성에 관하여 : 영어와 한국어의 공소화를 중심으로

        임상봉 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1995 현대영미어문학 Vol.12 No.-

        This paper aims to critically study the deletion of a verb, a so-called gapping phenomena, right node raising and to reveal the language universals in two types of languages; Korean and English on the basis of Heavy NP Shift and VP deletion. Elliptical constructions are both challenging and fascinating, for among the many aspects of language that provide insights into its formal structures and properties, those which involve missing elements play a central role. It may seem rather surprising that the several analyses of gapping within generative grammar in the last decade have not succeedded in formulating a coherent rule of deletion for this apparently simple phenomena. Gapping is the name given to the process of deleting internal constituents in one conjunction of a conjoined sentence under identity with constituents in the other conjunct. A number of attempts have been made to analyse the gapping phenomena. What all these accounts of gapping have in common is that they are demonstrably inadequate and fail to provide a principled solution for the problems posed by gapped sentences. It is interesting to find that a similar phenomena in Korean, with a minimal difference in the position where verb deletion occurs. Unlike in English, the verb is deleted in the first conjunct of gapping structures in Korean. Still, Korean gapping constructions are similar to English gapping in that the remnants and their correspondents carry a heavy focus. But this phenomenon has bean treated either gapping (Ross(1967) ) or right node raising (Mailing(1972)). This paper tries to argue for an analysis which views them as one phenomenon and give an analysis for gapping in English and Korean, based on Jayaseelan (1990). What I would like to do is to develop Jayaseelan(1990). He argues that sapping is a heavy HP shift of the focused NP followed by VP deletion. In the course of discussion, I have found parallelism between English and Korean sapping phenomena, right node raising. I have adopted a HNPS+VP deletion analysis for the English gapping constructions. As there is no procedure like HNPS in Korean, I propose s-structure focus movement analysis followed by PF deletion for the Korean gapping constructions. To conclude, despite many differences between English and Korean gapping constructions, I have argued that they are basically the same phenomena in that focused phrases are required to move out of VP using the mechanism available in each type of language. And I also found that the differences between them have been caused by the other parametric differences. As a result, this paper reaffirmed there is language universals in the two languages: Korean and English.

      • KCI등재

        국어에도 부가의문문이 있는가?

        장경기 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1985 현대영미어문학 Vol.3 No.-

        We assume that tag question is a language-universal phenomenon. So, in order to investigate tag question in Korean we first turn to the tag question in English which has been rather explicitly described in many respects. However, according to Ray Cattell (1973) and many other arguments, English tag question theory so far is not so satisfactory yet and also has a couple of thorny problems to be solved. In this paper we propose a new hypothesis for the task in terms of the notion of 'speaker's presupposition' and then provide several evidence seemingly to support our arguments. Next, we examine 성광수 (1980) and 전병쾌 (1984) respectively, two arguments on tag question in Korean. We argue that their theories both are in general much too English-oriented and these two grammarians almost directly relate terms and ideas of English tag question theory to the description of Korean tag question. Consequently, language- universality and language-particularity seem to be confused in their arguments. Alternatively, we show that tag question in Korean, like tag question in English, can be better described and more adequately explained by means of our hypothesis. We clarify to some extent language-universal characteristics and Korean-particular ones which are represented in Korean tag questions. Detailed empirical inquiry and concrete evidence are included in the paper.

      • KCI등재

        초등학생의 영어 말하기를 위한 가정에서 열린교육

        박춘기 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1996 현대영미어문학 Vol.14 No.-

        Open education at home(O.E.H.) can be one of the ways to learn English as a second language. It will be useful for the schoolchildren to practice speaking English as a second language at home. This paper deals with the roles of parents, their open minds for speaking, and some models and strategies of English speaking at home. Since there is every likelihood that the speech act of schoolchildren is closely related to their parents, it might be important that the children have ion opportunity to communicate their desire in English at home. At the beginning of streaking, they will speak some simple words: Mom, Dad, good morning, etc. And they will expand their sentences with more complex words and expressions. Finally, they may arrive at the highest level what it is called 'the embedded sentences' or 'acquisition stage'. That level is one of our goals to acquire English. Although the O.E.H. can be predicted that the schoolchildren will get a good result for speaking English, it may have limits such as mispronunciation, misunderstanding, or misusing about the culture and linguistic information between L1 and L2. So, it is necessary to get some data for the results of the experiment on the O.E.H. As for the experiement, however, this paper is in a position to leave it for the next study.

      • KCI등재

        영어와 한국어의 '요청'화행에 나타나는 사회언어학적 공손성

        고인수 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1995 현대영미어문학 Vol.12 No.-

        The present study aims to investigate the sociolinguistic realization patterns of requests in American English and Korean through the empirical data collection procedures. Especially, the study explores the sociolinguistic aspects of politeness in request realization patterns of English and Korean. On the sociolinguistic dimension of requests, Koreans are shown to be oriented towards the discernment aspect of linguistic politeness, while Americans reveal a relative prominence of volitional aspect over discernment in their request realization. Thus, Koreans are more prone to differentiate requestive expressions according to person than Americans. In cross-cultural pragmatics, the findings of this study can provide answers to the theory-finding gap in several current studies and also rive baseline data for interlanguage pragmatics between American English and Korean.

      • KCI등재

        對話交換體의 諸樣相과 記述模型에 關하여

        구자은 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1991 현대영미어문학 Vol.8 No.-

        Language is so highly an organized system composed of many structural properties that linguistics puts its basis on the assumption that human language at all levels is rule-governed. This is true also of conversation. Many studies on conversational analysis after the latter half of 1960's have tried to discover the rules for the production of coherent discourse and to describe the conversational structures they generate. The main purpose of this paper is not just to make a comprehensive study of conversational exchanges(E), but to develop strategies for recognizing them with a view to proving that conversation is highly organized and amenable to systematic analysis using traditional linguistic concepts such as sequentiality, hierarchy, optionality, recursion, and so on. In addition, further attention is directed toward studying single linear approach and multi-layered one to formalize E-structure systematically. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows : Using the concept of continuous classification, we can effectively classify and interpret each utterance in the light of the structural predictions, if any, set up by the preceding utterance. This method enables us to define elements of E-structure in terms of binary or cross-classifing combinations of predictability feature(± predicting / ± predicted) and place feature(±initial/±terminal), and to effectively describe the variety of exchange structures in conversation. The fellowing are all the E-structures generated to account for naturally occurring conversational data. a.[Inf(Fn)] [I R (Fn)] [I R/I R (Fn)] b.[I R/In R (Fn)] c.[Inf (Ir Rn)] [I R (Ir Rn)] [I R/I R (Ir Rn)] However, in order to take full accout of patterns of organization in conversation, and to predict the distribution of surace forms successfully, we must describe in detail even the differences between propositional informations in the same structure. Therefore, this study has contended that exchange structures be analyzed according to a multi-layered approach, which presupposes that the exchange is the unit concerned with negotiating the transmission of information. After developing 4 strategies to recognize E-structure in conversation concerning predictability, semantics, syntax, and phonology, this study has examined aspects of E-structure in 4 selected Korean dramas. As the result, conversational activities have been realised as the act of Solicit more frequently than that of Give. In short, this study has revealed that conversation commonly reckoned as chaotic and irregular is amenable to systematic description by analyzing the variety of conversational exchanges with the assistance of some notational conventions.

      • KCI등재

        Melville의 Pierre에 관한 小考

        조학래 한국영어영문학회 경남지부 1991 현대영미어문학 Vol.8 No.-

        Herman Melville carried out one of the impressive performances in the history of American letters when he crowded into only six years the writing and publishing of seven long narratives, beginning with Typee (1846) and ending with Pierre(1852). The ordeal of writing and revising the epical Moby Dick brought him to the verge of nervous and physical collapse ; he admitted as much. But he could not stop writing, and the frist draft of Pierre was begun and finished before Moby Dick could be printed and published. The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize 'Mythic Irony in the Manor World.' From the point of view of literary technique, Christian myth function in the work. In Pierre, it is used ironically, to mock human pride. For example, Pierre's notion that he is christ-like makes his bitterness toward his father monstrous ; Mrs. Glendinning's madonna-like beauty has the effect of an evil disguise ; the protecting angel Lucy has a major part In bringing about Pierre's downfall. Although the art theme is major only in Pierre, it is important in the evolution of the later novels. Fundamental to the question of moral responsibility is the question of what we can know. Melville's treatment of the latter problem is expressed through art, in Pierre, it is the artist who has revelation, not the saint. But Melville's idea of knowledge has a deeply religious cast. The intention of the truth-seeker is to discover ultimate truths ; his method is intuitive and mystical rather than scientific. Moreover, Melville's interpretation of the artist role is tinged with Calvinistic doubts, Pierre is both heroic and satanic. Heroic because he searches after ultimate truths. Satanic because he attempts as an artist, to escape his experience, to deny its subjective limitations and see the picture whole, like God. What Melville seem to express is that art, like other human activities, must confine itself to humanly appropriate goals. But Melville was not wholly committed to the theme of limitation. It is this ambivalence which makes Pierre and unbalanced book. The symbolism of the manor world is predominantly but not exclusively Christian. There are, for example, many Pierres in Melville's novel ; he is at various times Adam, Romeo, Phaeton, Hamlet, Pluto, Memmon, Christ, Ishmael, Manfred, Dantean Sinner, Satan, Zeus, Enceladus and, finally Cain. To assimilate these associations in a single figure suggests one of the major artistic difficulties of the novel. However, in the opening sections, there are two mystic references that are particularly important in relation to the preceding analysis ; for they are used in much the same way as the Christian myth ‥‥ to emphasize the disparity between Pierre's aspirations and his true capacity.

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