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박정훈 ( Jung Hun Park ), 성주현 ( Joo Hyun Sung ), 심창선 ( Chang Sun Sim ), 이찬부 ( Chan Boo Lee ), 박상진 ( Sang Jin Park ), 이지호 ( Ji Ho Lee ), 이충렬 ( Choong Ryeol Lee ) 한국산업보건학회 (구 한국산업위생학회) 2015 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.25 No.3
Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between physical factors, working conditions and occupational injuries among Korean workers. Methods: We used data from the 2nd Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010. A total of 7,114 workers over 15 years of age were selected from among 10,019 Korean workers. The participants were interviewed using questionnaires. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations among physical factors, working conditions and occupational injuries. Results: After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds ratio of injuries through physical factors such as vibration (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.037, 95% CI 2.30-7.09), noise (aOR 4.562, 95% CI 2.64-7.89), high temperature (aOR 3.262, 95% CI 1.86-5.73), and low temperature (aOR 3.358, 95% CI 1.76-6.41) were greater in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. The odds ratios of occupational injury(aOR 5.272, 95% CI 3.19-8.7 for very high speed work, aOR 3.303, 95% CI 1.95-5.60 for tight deadlines, and aOR 3.641, 95% CI 1.72-7.70 for not enough time to work) increased with increased work demands. Conclusions: In this study, physical factors such as vibration, noise, and high and low temperatures were significantly correlated with occupational injuries according to the increase in exposure intensity(p for trend <0.001). Also, working conditions such as high-speed work, tight deadlines and insufficient time to work showed significant associations with occupational injuries(p for trend<0.001).
Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on decontamination of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) as common pathogens. Methods: This experiment was carried out in a chamber (0.64m<sup>3</sup>) designed by the authors. The plasma was continuously generated by a non-thermal DBD plasma generator (Model TB-300, Shinyoung Air tech, Korea). Suspensions of S. aureus and E. coli of 0.5 McFarland standard (1.5 x10<sup>8</sup>CFU/mL) were prepared using a Densi-Check photometer (bio Merieux, France). The suspensions were diluted1:1000 in sterile PBS solutions (approximately10<sup>4-5</sup>CFU/mL) and inoculated on tryptic soy agar (TSA) in Petri dishes. The Petri dishes (80mm internal diameter) were exposed to the non -thermal DBD plasma in the chamber. Results: The results showed that 95% of S. aureus colonies were killed after a six-hour exposure to the DBD plasma. In the case of E. coli, it took two hours to kill 100% of the colonies. The gram-negative E. coli had a greater reduction than the gram-positive S. aureus. This difference may be due to the structure of their cell membranes. The thickness of gram-positive bacteria is greater than that of gram-negative bacteria. The S. aureus is more resistant to DBD plasma exposures than is E. coli. It should be noted that average concentrations of ozone, a byproduct of the DBD plasma generator, were monitored throughout the experiment and the results were well below the criteria, 50 ppb, recommended by the Korean Ministry of the Environment. Thus, non-thermal DBD plasma is deemed safe for use in hospital and public facilities. Conclusions: There was evidence that non-thermal DBD plasma can effectively kill S. aureus and E. coli. The results indicate that DBD plasma technology can greatly contribute to the control of infections in hospitals and other public and private facilities.
Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the status of hazard communication regarding dental materials among dental hygienists in the Daegu Metropolitan City and the North Gyeongsang-do Province area. Materials: A total of 310 dental hygienists were surveyed using self-administered questionnaires to investigate the status of hazard communication on dental materials and information needs. We collected instructions for use and material safety data sheets(MSDSs) for 67 dental materials frequently used at dental hospitals located in the Daegu Metropolitan City and the North Gyeongsang-do Province area. Results: The questionnaire surveys showed that only 11% of the 310 dental hygienists had knowledge of MSDS and 46.8% of respondents never read instructions for use before using materials. Just 7.4% of dental hygienists have undergone training on hazard information for dental materials. In particular, dental hygienists working at dental clinics had significantly lower response rates on knowledge of MSDS(p<0.001), reading of instructions for use(p=0.042) and training on the hazard information of dental materials(p=0.004) than those in dental hospitals or general hospitals. The essential information most desired by dental hygienists was hazard identification(82.3%) followed by first-aid measures(53.9%), handling and storage(51%), disposal considerations (49%) and toxicological information(47.1%). All dental materials were on foreign products which came from Japan(59.7%), the USA(26.9%) and Liechtenstein(13.7%). In terms of usage, 56.7% of dental materials were prosthetic, followed by conservation(31.3%), orthodontics(9%), and prevention(3%). We found that dental hygienists had accessed MSDSs for only five dental products among the 67 dental materials. The instructions for the use of the 67 dental materials provided hazard identification(64.2%), first-aid measures(83.6%), handling and storage(97%), disposal considerations(20.9%) and toxicological information(26.9%). Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the hazard communication system for dental hygienists working at dental clinics should be improved.
조정흠 ( Jungheum Jo ), 박준식 ( Jun-sik Park ), 김성연 ( Sung-yeon Kim ), 권명희 ( Myung Hee Kwon ), 김기연 ( Ki Youn Kim ), 최정학 ( Jeong-hak Choi ), 서성철 ( Sungchul Seo ) 한국산업보건학회 (구 한국산업위생학회) 2016 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.26 No.3
Objectives: We aimed to compare the sampling performance of different flow-based impactor samplers for collecting fungal spores and bacteria and to explore the association of the level of bioaerosols with activity patterns of occupants in daycare center settings. Methods: For comparison of sampling performance, two different flow-based samplers (greater than 100 L/min or not) were selected; a low flow-based sampler (one-stage Andersen sampler) and two high flow-based samplers (DUO SAS SUPER 360 sampler, BUCK bio-culture sampler). We collected airborne mold and bacteria in 30 daycare centers with various levels of contaminated air. Three repeat samplings per each sampler were performed. Mold and bacteria were grown for 96 hours at 25±1℃ and 48 hours at 35±1℃, respectively. The Andersen and SAS samplers were used for investigating the association between the level of bioaerosols and the activity patterns of occupants in daycares. Particular matters 10(PM10), temperature, and relative humidity were monitored as well. Samplings were carried out with one-hour interval from 9 to 5 O'clock. For statistical comparisons, Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test, and multiple regression analysis were carried out. Results: The airborne level of molds by the low flow-based sampler were significantly higher than that of high flow-based samplers (indoor, P=0.037; outdoor, P=0.041). However, no statistical difference was observed in the airborne level of bacteria by each sampler. Also the level of bioaerosols varied by the time, particularly with different activity patterns in daycare centers. The higher level of mold and bacteria were observed in play time in indoor. Similarly, the concentrations of PM10 were significantly associated with the level of bioaerosols (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the flow rate of sampler, rather than total air volume, could be able to affect the results of sampling. Also, the level of airborne mold and bacteria vary behavior patterns of occupants in indoor of daycare settings. Therefore, different samplers with other flow rate may be selected for mold or bacteria sampling, and activity patterns should be considered for bioaerosol sampling as well.
Objectives: The major objectives of this study are to review the requirements for the advancement of occupational safety and health administrative organization and to propose measures to establish an Occupational Safety and Health Executive. Methods: The problems of occupational safety and health administrative organization in korea were examined empirically and cases of occupational safety and health administrative organizations in developed countries were investigated (United Kingdom, United States, Germany, and Japan). A plan for establishing an Occupational Safety and Health Executive was proposed over the short and medium term. Results: An occupational safety and health administration is characterized by a professional and technical nature, and even more so in modern society. Therefore the greatest value required by an occupational safety and health administrative organization is expertise. In addition, administrative values it requires include efficiency, specificity, independence, and activity. The Korean occupational safety and health administrative organization has a number of problems in terms of these values. The most appropriate way to realize these values is to establish an Occupational Safety and Health Executive. It is desirable to establish such an Occupational Safety and Health Executive in a phased manner taking into consideration its relationship with Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency(KOSHA), including KOSHA`s functional adjustment Conclusions: In order to solve the deep-seated problems in occupational safety and health administrative organization and to advance occupational safety and health administration in Korea, it is necessary to establish an Occupational Safety and Health Executive as a foundation for achieving an advanced industrial safety and health administration.
Objectives: The object of this paper is to analyze difference of general and occupational characters, risk exposure and ill health symptom depending on the special type of employment. Methods: 50,007 participants from Fourth Korean Working Condition Survey conducted in 2014 was analyzed. Cross-tabulation analysis was conducted for deriving difference in general and occupational characters, mulitvariate logistic regression analysis was conducted after controlling general and occupational characters for deriving difference in risk exposure and ill health symptom depending on the special type of employment. Results: In the special type of employment, female, ages of 50, education levels of high school, monthly income of 2,000-3,000 thousand won, job types of sales person, enterprises of less than 100 workers, working duration of 2-10 years and long working hours worker's proportion was higher than general employment. Physical(OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.94) and ergonomic (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.42-0.55) risk exposure was lower, psychological(OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.54-2.04) risk exposure was higher than general employment, and there was no significant difference between the special type of employment and general employment in chemical/biological risk exposure(OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.20) and ill health symptom(OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.09). Conclusions: This article offers the analysing difference between the special type of employment and general employment using huge size cross sectional data represent Korean employees.
Objectives: Despite recent efforts to prevent suffocation disasters, a number of confined space accidents still happen and each year deaths continue to occur. There have been insufficient studies on the dangers of various potential disaster sites, such as manholes, septic tanks, reactors, and other tanks according to type, characteristics, task-specific disasters, equipment specific disasters, etc. The purpose of this study was to analyze recent suffocation disasters based on place and properties. Methods: In this study, we analyzed confined space accident cases from 2005 to 2015 in Korea and grouped them by type, size, monthly occurrence, continuous service period, accident location, person-specific group, age, employment, structural work and subcontracting work. We studied examples of accidents developed in other countries. Results: (1) We reviewed confined-space accident statistics, compared legal standards and analyzed cases of suffocation accidents in the United States and Japan. (2) Using a case study report from the Korea Occupational Safety & Health Agency, we specified confined-space accident statistics based on place, person-specific group, age, employment, structural work and subcontracting work. As a result we generated some precautions about confined-space accidents for the prevention of such accidents. Conclusions: Conclusions: Statistical analysis of recent suffocation disaster cases was performed to establish improvement measures, compare practices from developed countries, and develop precautionary measures accordingly. In this study, we presented the causes of disaster that occur in a confined space and proposed related preventive measures.
박옥현 ( Ok-hyun Park ), 이경석 ( Kyoung-seok Lee ), 민경우 ( Kyoung-woo Min ), 조광운 ( Gwang-woon Cho ), 윤관주 ( Kwan-ju Yoon ), 정원삼 ( Won-sam Jeong ), 조영관 ( Young-gwan Cho ), 김은선 ( Eun-sun Kim ), 양진석 ( Jin-seok Yang ) 한국산업보건학회 (구 한국산업위생학회) 2016 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.26 No.2
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the generating characteristics of VOCs and the exposure effect to chemicals among laundry workers and to identify the current status of occupational safety and health through health check-ups. Methods: During the six-month period from April to September 2015, this study quantitatively measured seven VOCs in ten laundries and carried out health examinations on 35 workers. Results: Comparing the monitoring results for the ten laundries, they were classified into three groups by ventilation system, dry-cleaning and size of shop. The average concentration of toluene, chlorobenzene, xylene, ethylbenzene, benzene, styrene and TCE were 23.9, 15.6, 5.5, 2.8, 0.9, 0.3 and 1.3 ㎍/m3, respectively. During dry-cleaning, VOC concentrations were 1.3-8.9 times higher than usual. On the other hand, at night the concentrations of toluene, chlorobenzene, xylene, ethylbenzene, benzene, styrene and TCE were 64.3, 41.5, 12.2, 6.3, 1.1, 1.2 and 6.6 ㎍/m3, respectively. The health checkup results for the 35 workers showed that 13 workers were diagnosed as normal, while 22 workers were diagnosed as requiring continuous monitoring or re-checkup of liver and hematogenous functions. Conclusions: Although the results of exposure evaluation to VOCs did not exceed reference value and items had a low correlation with health checkup items, it is necessary to improve indoor air quality due to VOC volatilization from clothes
Objectives: The characteristics of research workers are different from those working in the manufacturing industry. Furthermore, the reagents used change according to the research due to the characteristics of the laboratory, and the amounts used vary. In addition, since the working time changes almost every day, it is difficult to adjust the time according to exposure standards. There are also difficulties in setting standards as in the manufacturing industry since laboratory environments and the types of experiments performed are all different. For these reasons, the measurement of the working environment of research workers is not realistically carried out within the legal framework, there is a concern that the accuracy of measurement results may be degraded, and there are difficulties in securing data. The exposure evaluation based on an eight-hour time-weighted average used for measuring the working environment to be studied in this study may not be appropriate, but it was judged and consequently applied as the most suitable method among the recognized test methods. Methods: The investigation of the use of chemical substances in the research laboratory, which is the subject of this study, was conducted in the order of carrying out work environment measurement, sample analysis, and result analysis. In the case of the use of chemical substances, after organizing the substances to be measured in the working environment, the research workers were asked to write down the status, frequency, and period of use. Work environment measurement and sample analysis were conducted by a recognized test method, and the results were compared with the exposure standards (TWA: time weighted average value) for chemical substances and physical factors. Results: For the substances subject to work environment measurement, the department of chemical engineering was the most exposed, followed by the department of chemistry. This can lead to exposure to a variety of chemicals in departmental laboratories that primarily deal with chemicals, including acetone, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, sodium hydroxide, and normal hexane. Hydrogen chloride was measured higher than the average level of domestic work environment measurements. This can suggest that researchers in research activities should also be managed within the work environment measurement system. As a result of a comparison between the professional science and technology service industry and the education service industry, which are the most similar business types to university research laboratories among the domestic work environment measurements provided by the Korea Safety and Health Agency, acetone, dichloromethane, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, normal hexane, and hydrogen chloride are items that appear higher than the average level. This can also be expressed as a basis for supporting management within the work environment measurement system. Conclusions: In the case of research activity workers' work environment measurement and management, specific details can be presented as follows. When changing projects and research, work environment measurement is carried out, and work environment measurement targets and methods are determined by the measurement and analysis method determined by the Ministry of Employment and Labor. The measurement results and exposure standards apply exposure standards for chemical substances and physical factors by the Ministry of Employment and Labor. Implementation costs include safety management expenses and submission of improvement plans when exposure standards are exceeded. The results of this study were presented only for the measurement of the working environment among the minimum health management measures for research workers, but it is necessary to prepare a system to improve the level of safety and health.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing health-related quality of life in women workers using the dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES 2th). There were 955 subjects. Methods: A multiple regression model was used to study the factors influencing health-related quality of life of women workers. Results: A positive relationship was found between education (b=0.014, p=0.029) and health-related quality of life in women workers and non-osteoarthritis (b=0.037, p<0.001) and health-related quality of life in women workers. Conclusions: The results of this study show the importance of improving the working environment and preventing osteoarthritis in non-regular employment.