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류형원 ( Hyung Won Ryu ), 안주현 ( Ju Hyeon An ), 원효준 ( Hyo Jun Won ), 서수경 ( Soo-kyung Seo ), 김두영 ( Doo-young Kim ), 구창섭 ( Chang-sub Ku ), 오세량 ( Sei-ryang Oh ) 한국응용생명화학회(구 한국농화학회) 2016 Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry (J. Appl. Vol.59 No.4
반하(Pinellia ternata Breitenbach)는 천남성과(Araceae)의 약용식물로 동아시아 일대가 원산지이며, 유럽과 북아메리카 일부지역에도 널리 분포하고 있는 식물이다. 반하의 괴경(tuber)은 약재로 사용되어 구토, 염증, 외상을 치료하는 목적으로 사용되고 있다. 보고된 약리학적 작용으로는 항경련, 항종양, 살충, 세포독성 등이 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 반하는 약리학적으로 유용한 약용식물로 잘 알려져 있음에도 불구하고, 원산지를 판별할 수 있는 신뢰성이 있고 표준화된 방법이 없는 실정이다. 이를 위한 한국산과 중국산 반하를 판별할 수 있는 유의적인 화합물을 탐색하기 위해 UPLC-PDA와 QTof-MS에 기반을 둔 대사체 표지법을 이용하였다. 한국산으로부터 원산지 판별 화합물로 예상되는 화합물을 반복적인 역상 칼럼크로마토그래피에 기반을 둔 활성유도 분획법을 통해 분리하였다. 그리고, NMR과 MS를 포함한 물리화학적, 분광학적 정보의 결과를 토대로 - gingerol이라는 화합물의 구조를 동정하였다. -gingerol은 원산지를 판별할 수 있는 능력과 melanin 생합성 저해 활성을 지닌 기능성 화장품 소재로서 가치가 있다고 판단되어짐에 따라 유효성분 원산지 판별 화합물로 Fingerprint법에 의해 선정되었다. 더욱이, 한국산과 중국산 반하 유래 -gingerol의 함량 비교를 위해, 유효성이 검증된 분석법을 이용하여 이에 대한 검량곡선을 작성하여 그 함량을 비교하였다. 이것은 한국산 반하판별을 위한 화합물 선정과 성공적인 유효성 검증을 다룬 최초의 보고이다. Pinellia ternata Breitenbach, the natural medicinal plant of the Araceae family, is a perennial plant originated from the East Asia, but also widely distributed in Europe and North America. Its tuber is used as traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases such as vomiting, inflammation, and traumatic injury. Pharmacological studies revealed that P. ternata possesses anticonvulsant, anti-tumor, insecticidal, and cytotoxic activities. Despite being well-known as the useful medicinal plant, there is no reliable, standardized method for origin discrimination. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector and quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry based metaboliteprofiling was applied to explore significant metabolite for origin discrimination between Korean and Chinese P. ternata. One compound was isolated from Korean P. ternata using repeated ODS column chromatography by bioactivity guided fractionation, and determined as -gingerol according to the results of spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance and MS. This compound was selected as cosmeceutical biomarker by fingerprints, and it was associated to melanin inhibitory effect determining its origin authenticity. Furthermore, the calibration curve of biomarker was prepared using validated method for the comparison of content between Korean and Chinese P. ternata. This is the report to address the selection and successful validation of the discriminant metabolite for confirmation of Korean P. ternata.
한약재의 불법 유통을 방지하기 위해 신속 정확한 원산지 판별방법 개발이 필요함에 따라 TDU-GC/MS를 이용하여 한국품종당귀와 외국품종 당귀를 판별함과 동시에 한국품종 당귀의 재배지가 한국인지를 판별할 수 있는 기법을 연구하였다. 당귀추출물을 열탈착 시킨 후 냉각응축시스템에서 응축시켜 일시에 GC/MS로 분석한 결과 국산 품종 당귀(참당귀)는 TIC의 RT 26.9-27.2에서 coumarin 유도체인 decursin과 decursinol peak가 확인되었다. 중국 품종 당귀(중당귀)의 경우 RT 17.2 부근에서 ligustilide의 peak가 검출되었다. 국산 품종 참당귀 원산지에 따른 휘발성분의 차이를 알아보기 위하여 twister로 흡착하여 TDU-GC/MS로 m/z 40-400 amu 범위에서 mass spectrum을 측정하였다. 참당귀의 국내 및 중국 재배 시료 TIC는 전반적으로 같은 경향을 냈으나 TIC를 부분 scan한 결과 RT 15.4-16.1에서 국내 및 중국 재배의 peak pattern 차이를 확인할 수 있었다. Peak A (RT 15.54)과 B (RT 16.05)의 비율은 국내 재배는 0.0-0.2, 중국 재배의 경우 0.5-2.8으로서 TDU-GC/MS의 TIC peak pattern 비교를 통한 원산지 판별 가능성을 확인하였다. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and accurate method of variety discrimination and geographical discrimination origin of Korean angelica (Korean variety, Angelica gigas Nakai) by using TDU-GC/MS. Two peaks of decursin and decursinol, which are coumarin derivatives were identified in the range of Total Ion Chromatogram (TIC) RT 26.9-27.2 of the Korean angelica by GC/MS analysis at the time of condensation in a refrigerated condensation system after thermal desorption of sample extracts. In case of Chinese angelica (Chinese variety), ligustilide peak was detected at the RT 17.2. In order to investigate the difference of volatile components according to the geographical origin of Korean variety, the mass spectra were measured by TDU-GC/MS at the range of m/z 40-400 amu. The TIC of domestic cultivation and Chinese cultivation of the Korean variety, Angelica gigas Nakai showed the same tendency as a whole. However, in partial scans of TIC, two peaks detected at 15.54 and 16.05 of RT showed different peak patterns between Korean angelica (Korean variety) cultivated in Korea and in China. The ratio of Peak A (RT 15.54) and B (RT 16.05) was 0.0- 0.2 for domestic cultivation and 0.5-2.8 for Chinese cultivation, confirming the possibility of discriminating origin by comparing the TIC peak pattern of TDU-GC/MS.
이은호 ( Eun-ho Lee ), 이승열 ( Seung-yeol Lee ), 정희영 ( Hee-young Jung ), 강인규 ( In-kyu Kang ), 안동현 ( Dong-hyun Ahn ), 조영제 ( Young-je Cho ) 한국응용생명화학회(구 한국농화학회) 2020 Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry (J. Appl. Vol.63 No.1
본 연구에서는 한국에서 육종한 신육성품종 그린볼 사과 껍질추출물(GBE)이 피부 광노화 인자조절에 대한 억제효과를 확인하였다. 피부에서 광노화 인자 조절에 대한 억제 효과를 확인하기 위해 CCD986sk fibrobalst cell에 UVB로 광노화를 유도시킨 후 세포에 GBE를 처리하였다. 광노화 인자 조절 효과를 측정한 결과 GBE가 COL1A2, MMP-1, MMP-9, TIMP-1 단백질 발현량에서 UVB에 의해 자극된 MMP-1, MMP-9 단백질 합성을 억제하였으며, COL1A2, TIMP-1 단백질의 경우 발현량이 유의적으로 증가하는 것을 확인하였다. Photoaging-related factors인 COL1A2, MMP-1, MMP-9, HAS2, TGF-β, TIMP-1의 mRNA 발현량을 측정한 결과 GBE에 의해 MMP-1, MMP-9 단백질 발현을 효과적으로 억제하였으며, MMPs와 type procollagen 발현에 관여하는 조절인자인 TIMP-1과 TGF-β의 발현량이 증가함에 따라 COL1A2의 생성량이 증가하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 피부를 구성하는 구조 단백질 중 하나인 hyaluronic acid 생성에 관여하는 HAS2의 발현량 증가도 확인하였다. 따라서 GBE는 광노화의 인자 억제 조절에 대한 우수한 효능을 가졌으며, 피부 노화를 예방하는 기능성 소재로서 활용이 가능할 것으로 판단되었다. In this study, extracts from the Green ball apple peel (GBE) and the newly bred green ball apple from Korea showed inhibition effects on photo-aging factor regulation associated with skin aging. To investigate the inhibition effect on photo-aging factor regulation in skin, GBE was treated with UVB to induce photo-aging related factors in CCD986sk fibroblast cells. Photoaging factor regulation effects showed that GBE inhibited UVBstimulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 protein synthesis in collagen type I alpha 2 chain (COL1A2), MMP-1, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 protein expression. The expression of COL1A2 and TIMP-1 protein was significantly increased. The mRNA expression levels of COL1A2, MMP-1, MMP-9, hyaluronan synthase (HAS)2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and TIMP-1 were decreased by GBE. The expression of TIMP-1 and TGF-β, which are regulators involved in matrix metalloproteinase and type I procollagen expression, was found to increase with increasing expression of COL1A2. The expression of HAS2, which is involved in the production of hyaluronic acid, one of the structural proteins constituting the skin, was also confirmed. Therefore, GBE showed excellent efficacy against photo-aging factor regulation and could be used as functional material to prevent and treat skin aging.
Studies were carried out to investigate the main fermentation microorganisms and their flora changes during Korean native soy-sauce fermentation. Korean native Maeju loaves collected from 5 Do's were separated into surface and inner parts. Four different soy-sauces-the surface part Maeju fermented soy-sauce, the inner part, the surface and inner part combined Maeju fermented soy-sauce, and the semi-Japanese type soy-sauce were fermented and the changes of fermentation microorganism flora and the various chemical components during the period of their fermentations were studied. Besides, 14 home-made soy-sauces collected from 14 different places all over Korea were examined in comparison with the laboratory soy-sauces and to determine the characteristics of Korean native soy-sauce. The results were as follows: 1. The main microorganisms in Korean native soy-sauce fermentation were determined as; Aerobic bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus Lactic acid bacteria: Pediococcus halophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides Yeasts: Torulopais datila, Saccharomycea rousii 2. Microflora changes during Korean native soy-sauce fermentation were as follows; Aerobic bacteria increased until the 2nd week of fermentation and then gradually decreased. The lactic acid bacteria increased until the 3rd week, after which decreased. When the lactic acid fermentation lowered the pH value to below the 5.4, yeasts were able to grow and participate the fermentation. As the production of organic acids amounted, to a certain height, the growth of all microorganisms lead to the period of decline or death at about the 2nd month of fermentation. After boiling of soy-sauce most microorganisms except a few of Bacillus sp. disappeared. Occosionally yeasts and lactic acid bacteria survived depending upon the composition of soy-sauce. 3. Changes of general chemical components influencing the microflora were investigated for the period of Korean native soy-sauce fermentation. Tetal acidity, salt concentration and total nitrogen were increasing steadily over the entire period of fermentation. pH values were dropping to a certain degree of about 4.5. Salt concentration and pH value seemed to be the important factors influencing the microflora. 4. The microflora were influenced by chemical components of soy-sauce. Aerobic bacteria were able to survive in all soy-sauce as they made spores. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhited at 23-26% of salt concentration and pH 4.8. Soy-sauce yeasts storied to grow only at pH below 5.4 and seemed to be inhibited at around 26% of salt concentration under pH 4.5-4.7. 5. The open kettle boiling of soy-sauce, the characteristic process of Korean native soy-sauce manufacturing, was effective to sterilize microorganisms, increase the salt concentration, and coagulate proteins. 6. The average viable cell counts of microorganism found in collected samples of home-made Korean native soy-sauces were; Aerobic bacteria: 53×10² cell/㎖ Lactic acid bacteria: 34 cell/㎖ Yeasts: 14 cell/㎖ The average values of chemical compositions of samples of home-made Korean native soy-sauce were; Salt concentration: 28.9% pH value: 4.79 Total acidity(lactic acid): 0.91g/100㎖ Total nitrogen: 1.09g/100㎖
Five samples of Korean native Maeju(fermented soy-bean mash) loaves which were collected each from Kyunggi, Chungchung, Kangwon, Cholla and Kyungsang-Do were examined for their fermenting microorganisms. The results of taxonomic and ecological studies of fermentation microorganisms in these Maeju loaves were as the fellows. (1) The fungus flora grew only is the outer layer of Maeju loaves. Miscellaneous molds, 3 species of Mucor, 2 species of Pericallium., one species each of Scopulariopsis and Aspergillus, were isolated. None of them seemed exclusively predominant to be able to designate as the ecologically significant. (2) The bacterial flora which consisted of two species, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus were distributed uniformly in th a entire Maeju loaves. The inner parts of Maeju loaves were especially inhabited solely by these bacterial flora. Probably the Korean native Maeju fermentation could be characterized by these bacterial flora. A Staphylococcus species was also isolated probably as a casual contaminant. (3) The yeasts, Rhodotorula flava and Torulopsis dattila, were isolated from Maeju loaves though their ecological significance was not clear. (4) The ecological aspects of fermentation microbes in the outer and inner parts of Maeju loaves were apparently different, consequently different fermentation processes might have occurred in these two parts and it brought quite different final outlooks in the final matured Maeju loaves. The outer part, rather rigid and dry, retained the light brown color of boiled soy-bean; whereas the inner part, soft and sticky, showed dark brown color indicating severe chemical changes. (5) The aflatoxin producing mold, Aspergillus oryzae was isolated from one sample among 5 of Maeju loaves. In addition to the low probability of isolability from Maeju loaves samples, since this mold grew only in the outer layer of Maeju loaves with such a low population density, about 10⁴/g, perhaps the aflatoxin problem in Korean native soysauce may not be critical.