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대학교육비는 매년 가파르게 상승하여 연간 등록금 천만원 시대에 이르게 되었다. 2007년 현재 우리나라 4년제 사립대학의 연평균 등록금은 689만원에 달해 월평균 가계수입의 2배 이상을 차지하고 있다. 또한 매년 대학등록금의 인상폭은 가계소득의 증가율보다 훨씬 높은 수준으로 증가하고 있으며 물가상승률의 2~3배에 달하고 있다. 이러한 현상은 우리나라 가계가 대학교육비로 인하여 가계재무의 압박을 받고 있음을 시사하고 있다. 즉, 과중한 대학교육비는 교육비 이외의 다른 가계소비지출의 위축, 가계저축의 위축, 혹은 가계부채를 증가시키는 원인이 될 수 있다. 또한 과도한 대학교육비의 부담은 대학생 자녀를 가진 부모의 은퇴 후 노후자금 마련에도 어려움을 주어 가계경제에 연쇄적으로 부정적인 영향을 끼칠 수 있다. 이러한 상황에도 불구하고 실제 대학교육비가 우리나라 가계재무에 어느 정도의 영향을 끼치는가를 분석한 연구는 거의 없는 실정이다. 본 연구의 목적은 대학생 자녀를 가진 가계를 대상으로 대학교육비 지출 실태 및 대학교육비가 가계재무에 끼치는 영향을 살펴보는 것이다. 본 연구의 결과는 가계의 대학교육비 부담을 효과적으로 사회가 공유할 수 있는 실질적인 방안을 모색하고, 대학교육비로 인한 가계재무 부담을 해소하기 위한 다양한 정책적 제언을 이끌어 내는데 기초 자료로 이용될 수 있을 것이다. 본 연구를 위한 자료는 한국노동연구원의「한국노동패널」8차 자료(2005년 조사, 2007년 데이터 출시)를 이용하였으며, 대학생 자녀가 있다고 답한 770가계만을 대상으로 하되 그 중에서 대학교육비 지출 내역이 있는 563가계를 최종 조사대상 가계로 선정하였다. 자료의 분석은 SPSS 12.0 for Windows와 SAS 9.1 통계 패키지를 이용하였으며, 전체 조사대상가계의 사회인구학적 특성과 재무적 특성을 살펴보기 위해 빈도분석과 백분율, 평균, 표준편차를 이용하였다. 또한 전반적인 대학교육비 지출 실태 및 소득수준과 대학유형에 따른 대학교육비 지출 실태를 분석하기 위해 평균과 표준편차를 이용하였으며 집단간 차이를 분석하기 위해 t-test와 F-test(Duncan 사후검증)를 실시하였다. 대학교육비가 가계재무에 끼치는 영향을 분석하기 위해서는 회귀분석 및 Heckman의 2단계 추정모델(Heckman's two-step estimation)을 이용하여 1단계 Probit 분석, 2단계 회귀분석을 실시하였다. 본 연구의 주요결과와 이에 기초한 결론을 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 조사대상가계의 대학교육비는 연 1,109만원으로 나타났으며, 이 중 등록금은 연 617만원(55.6%), 사교육비는 연 492만원(44.4%)으로 구성되어 있었다. 특히 대학교육비는 연가계소득(4,050만원)의 37.4%를 차지하고 있는 것으로 나타나, 대학교육으로 인한 우리나라 가계의 재무 부담이 매우 클 수 있음을 시사하고 있다. 실제 본 연구결과의 내용 중 가계 경제에 부담이 되는 지출 항목에 대한 복수 응답 조사결과 50.4%의 가구가 교육비에 대해 부담스럽다고 응답하였으며, 대학등록금에 대해 56.8%가 매우 부담, 27.7%가 약간 부담된다고 응답한 결과 등이 이를 뒷받침 해 주고 있다. 둘째, 가계의 소득수준을 상, 중, 하로 나누어 소득수준별 대학교육비, 그리고 대학교육비의 세부항목인 등록금과 사교육비 지출액을 살펴본 결과 소득수준이 높을수록 높은 경향을 보였다. 이러한 결과는 소득수준이 높은 가계일수록 필요로 하는 대학교육비, 특히 사교육비를 충분히 지출하고 있음을 시사하고 있다. 반면, 소득에서 교육비가 차지하는 비율은 소득수준이 낮을수록 높은 경향을 보여 소득수준이 낮을수록 대학교육비로 인한 높은 재정적 부담을 반영하고 있으며, 특히 소득수준 하집단의 경우 교육비 지출이 소득의 75.0%로 이 중 등록금이 45.2%, 사교육비가 29.7%를 각각 구성하고 있었다. 또한 교육비를 포함한 소비지출액이 소득의 166.1% 수준을 보여 대학교육으로 인한 재정부담 정도가 매우 심각함을 나타내고 있었다. 셋째, 대학유형을 국립과 사립으로 구분하여 대학교육비 지출 실태를 살펴본 결과 국립대 연 798만원, 사립대 연 1,168만원으로 나타나 사립대가 국립대에 비해 약 1.5배 정도의 비용을 더 지출하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 자녀가 사립대에 재학 중인 가계의 소득수준(연 4,145만원)이 국립대에 재학 중인 가계의 소득수준(연 3,552만원)보다 높은 것으로 나타났으며 이는 소득이 높은 가계의 경우 그렇지 않은 가계에 비해 상대적으로 자녀의 대학 진학 결정시 높은 등록금이 제한 요인이 되지 않음을 시사하고 있었다. 넷째, 대학교육비를 구성하고 있는 등록금과 사교육비가 가계의 소비지출액에 어떠한 영향을 끼치는가를 살펴본 결과, 매우 유의한 부정적 영향을 끼치고 있는 것으로 나타나 등록금과 사교육비의 수준이 높을수록 소비지출액은 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 대학교육을 위한 소비지출은 다른 가계의 소비지출을 위축시키는 결과를 가져옴이 밝혀졌으며, 이는 자녀의 대학교육비 지출이 부모의 은퇴준비 역시 위축시킬 수 있음을 간접적으로 시사하고 있다. 다섯째, 대학교육비를 구성하고 있는 등록금과 사교육비가 소득대비소비지출(교육비제외)비율에 어떠한 영향을 끼치는가를 살펴본 결과, 등록금은 유의한 영향을 끼치지 않았지만 사교육비가 부정적인 영향, 즉 사교육비의 수준이 높을수록 교육비를 제외한 가계의 소비지출액이 소득에서 차지하는 비율이 낮아지는 것으로 나타났다. 여섯째, 대학교육비를 구성하고 있는 등록금과 사교육비가 가계의 저축에 어떠한 영향을 끼치는가를 살펴본 결과, 통계적으로 유의한 결과는 나타나지 않았다. 다만 대학유형이 유의한 영향을 끼치고 있었으며, 즉, 사립대학 자녀가계에 비해 국립대학 자녀가계가 저축을 더 많이 하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 등록금의 경제적 부담정도가 낮을수록 저축을 더 많이 하고 있는 것으로 해석할 수 있으며, 대학교육비로 인한 직접적인 영향보다 심리적 부담감이 가계저축에 영향을 끼치고 있음을 시사하고 있다. 마지막으로, 등록금과 사교육비는 가계부채에 유의한 영향을 끼치는 것으로 나타나지 않았다. 이는 조사대상가계의 재무적 특성 중 부채의 원인을 질문한 결과 20.4%가 교육비라고 응답하여 대학교육비가 가계부채에 영향을 끼칠 것이라고 예상한 바와 다른 결과로 해석된다. 이상의 결론을 바탕으로 한 제언은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 대학생 자녀 가계의 가구주 연령이 40~50대가 대부분이며, 은퇴준비에 초점을 맞추어야 하는 시기라는 점을 고려할 때 과중한 대학교육비는 부모의 은퇴준비에 커다란 걸림돌로 작용하고 있음이 분명하다. 이는 정부정책 측면에서 미국을 비롯한 유럽의 대학교육비 지원시스템에 관심을 가지고, 현재 정부의 재정보증 프로그램의 수정 및 보완이 이루어져야 할 것임을 시사한다. 둘째, 사립대학 등록금 수준은 국립대학에 비해 매우 높은 수준이며 이러한 문제점을 해소하기 위하여 대학등록금 자율화정책의 수정 및 보완이 필요하다고 판단된다. 셋째, 대학교육비가 가계재무에 끼치는 영향은 직접적인 영향보다는 소득을 통한 영향이 큰 것으로 나타나, 소득이 충분한 집단은 대학교육비의 부담이 커도 괜찮지만 소득이 낮은 집단은 대학교육비에 대한 부담률이 매우 높은 것으로 나타났다. 하지만 교육비 특히 국립대학의 교육서비스는 공공재의 성격을 갖는다는 차원에서 소득에 의해 교육받을 수 있는 기회를 박탈당하지 않도록 해야 한다. 특히, 저소득층을 대상으로 한 대학교육비 지원시스템의 활성화가 요구된다. 소득에 따른 교육의 차별화를 해소하기 위해 장학제도, 기부문화, 정부지원 등 다양한 방안이 강구되어야 할 것이다. 아울러 저소득층의 경우, 등록금은 물론 사교육비 지출 역시 가계재무에 부담으로 작용하는 것으로 나타났으며, 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해 대학생 자녀가 스스로 사교육비를 충당할 수 있도록 대학생의 의식을 바꾸어 보는 것이 필요하다. 또한 대학생들이 방학동안 할 수 있는 아르바이트, 인턴십 등을 정부 차원에서 체계적으로 개발할 필요가 있다. 이러한 정책은 저소득층의 대학교육비의 부담을 감소시키고 나아가 취업에도 도움이 되는 일석이조의 효과를 누릴 수 있을 것이다. 넷째, 대학교육비의 부담이 경감 된다면 일반 가계의 삶의 질이 실질적으로 향상될 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 자녀교육에 대한 경제적 부담을 감소시켜 간접적으로는 출산율 저하를 방지하는 역할을 할 것으로 기대된다. With surging university tuition fees, it is assumed that Korean households with college students may suffer from the heavy burden of expenditures on university education. The purpose of this study was to find what are the expenditures on university education and how the expenditures on university education affects household finance, that is, total household expenditure, savings, and debts respectively. The data were drawn from the 8th Korean Labor & Income Panel Study conducted by the Korean Labor Institute, and the frequency, percentage, average, t-test, F-test (Duncan's multiple range test), OLS, and Heckman's two-step estimation were utilized by SAS 9.1 and SPSS 12.0 statistical packages for Windows. The main results of this study were as follows: First, it was found that annual university tuition fees averaged 6,170,000 won, annual personal spending including allowance, private education fees, cost of living etc, 4,920,000 won, and the total annual expenditures for university education 11,090,000 won. The amount of expenditures for university education comprised 37.4% of annual household income (40,500,000 won). These results reflected the extent of the financial burden on households with university students. Second, the households have been grouped by their annual income levels as high, middle and low income groups. It was found that the higher the household income level, the more spent on university education, whereas the higher the household income level, the lower the household expenditure-to-university education ratio. These results imply that the high income household group could have more and more varied educational opportunities than their counterparts. Third, the type of university affected the household expenditures for university education, as a result of different tuition fees. That is, total annual expenditure for university education was 7,980,000 won for public university, and 11,680,000 won for private university (1.5 times that of public university). Fourth, it was found that tuition fees and the cost of private education for university students had a negative impact on household expenditures, not including university education. This result implies that university education may negatively influence parents' financial retirement plans. Fifth, it was found that the cost of private education for university students had a negative impact on the ratio of household expenditures (not including university education) to household income. Sixth, it did not appear that the expenditures on university education affected household savings. However, the households with public university students had more savings than those of their counterparts. This result implies that the lower financial burden of tuition fees, the more savings, and that psychological financial strain from tuition fees might affect household savings. Seventh, it was not found that the expenditures on university education affected household debt. However, the finding that 20.4% of households answered that they had debts because of children's education still implies that the cost of university education causes household debt. Based on these conclusions, some suggestions were as follows: First, parents with university students are generally aged between 40 and 50 (middle age), and the middle-aged should consider their retirement financial plans seriously. Thus, the university education expenditure could be a big stumbling block for parents' financial retirement plans. Government policymakers should consider and benchmark school (university) loan plans (systems) after universities in America or Europe. Second, given that private university tuition fees are much higher than those of national university, government policymakers should consider modifying the current university tuition systems to reduce the possibility of surging private university tuition fees. Third, household income might be the most important factor influencing university education expenditures. This means poor households may have disadvantages resulting from lack of university education, and this kind of situation may repeat over the generations. To eliminate such social problems, government policymakers should consider educational support systems for low-income households, such as scholarships, donations, a special government support system, etc. Also, university children from low income households should try to solve their financial problems by themselves through part-time jobs and internships. Fourth, it is expected that lower university education expenditures might relieve the household financial burden with children’s education and furthermore, improve quality of life and the low birth rate.
The government is increasing its investment in R&D by over 10% annually and part of the increase is for the innovation of non-metropolitan areas. The reason for the financial investment expansion of R&D for non-metropolitan areas is that such areas will play a major role in the nation's future economic growth. The investment expansion aims to help communities in the areas lay the foundations for their own independent economic growth. The growth of their strategic industries will be the groundwork for the nation's sustainable economic growth. However, there has rarely been investment that is appropriate for the areas' specialized industries or mid- and long-term industry development strategies. Despite the massive amount of the financial investment, diversified investment by top-down arbitrary budget sharing is decreasing the investment efficiency in the areas' IT sector and thus harms their balanced development. Meanwhile, the IT sector of Chungbuk province is an exception: a growing number of start-up companies are entering the province. The sector has indirectly contributed to the area's growth by increasing its income except in the case of recessions. However, it has not been successful in bringing employment stabilization, a direct effect of IT industries to the growth of their areas. Also, it is heavily dependent on the government's R&D investment for its competitiveness. With such investment being focused on the metropolitan area, it is not making a significant contribution to the growth of Chungbuk. This study looks into the core strategic industries and R&D projects of Chungbuk. In the process, it aims to maximize the result of the R&D projects and provide plans for the continuous growth of the province's industries.
In the last 1979, our country reorganized primary-level college, junior school, high-level junior school and nursery school and promoted them into an integrated junior college, unifying all the short-term/high-level of educational institutes as one, on the basis of the number of 78,455 students for admission in 127 colleges. Since that time, colleges have grown rapidly in quality as well as in quantity, and currently, the number of colleges totals 158 in our nation, and among them, national colleges are 6, public one is 8, private one is 144, and the number of undergraduates amounts to 853,089. In Chungbuk district, there are 6 colleges in all, 1 national college, 1 public college and 4 private colleges. A total of undergraduates number 29,095. Colleges have shouldered the responsibility of producing and providing able vocational personnels, who are the backbone for industry. and along with this, they have met the demand faithfully for the overall national economy called reeducation, and the cultivation of personnels for professionalization, specialization required for national economic development and enhancement of technology. As a result, the professional technicians who have been produced from colleges have all become the spearheads of Korea economy. But with the changes erupted in all fields of industry, colleges have been under the pressure of being changed. The first thing to do to surmount this difficulty is to cultivate the capacity to cope swiftly with the changes in all the industrial sectors and to secure the financial stability necessary for the high level of education. As of 2005, the 90% of colleges in our country are private ones, which are exposed vulnerable to finance. It is the status quo that the tuition fee per capita in private colleges is no more than half of that in national colleges. If colleges are to carry out their original purpose to produce professionals, the subsidy by government is urgently needed. But in 1994, the educational authority introduced the "The principle of criteria for the establishment of school," on the basis of free economy market principle and granted its establishment if the requirement was to be met, which brought about the sharp increase in the number of colleges. Thus, at the critical moment of 2002, the adverse phenomenon happened that the number of third grade high school students fell short of the admission quantum of colleges, which led to the deterioration of finance of colleges. The decrease of the number of students in local private colleges depending heavily on students' tuition fee links directly to the aggravation of finance in colleges. The biggest problem derived from the insufficiency of educational finance is that the low rate of securing professor increases the number of student which a professor should take charge of, the experimental equipment becomes superannuated, or out of date, and students can't take the proper technical education required for industrial field, while lowering students' competitiveness. In Chungbuk district, there are a total of 6 colleges of Geukdong information college, Daewon science college, Juseong college, Cheongju science college, Chungbuk science college, Chungcheong college. Among them, Cheongju science college is a national one, Chungbuk science college is a public one, and the rest of colleges like Geukdong information college, Daewon science college, Juseong college, and Chungcheong college are private ones. As of 2005, the number of students for admission in Chungbuk district accounts for the 2.5 % of total students in our country, and only compared with private colleges, it comes to 2.8%. It is found out that financial structure of private colleges in Chungbuk district is standardized as being composed of both the revenue system which depends on the student burdened money and transferred donation, and of the expenditure system, whose priority is chiefly given to labor cost, management & operation, study and students. Making a comparison of private colleges in our country with those of neighboring Japan, which relies heavily on the system and actual affairs of private colleges, Japanese private colleges account for 87.5%, and government subsidy amounts to about 50%, and budget distribution almost nears the equalitarianism. On the other hand, our government adopts the competitive budget distribution system, and government subsidy to colleges is merely about 0.86% as of 2005. The private colleges in our district, whose distribution ratio is 67%, and its dependency ratio on students' tuition fee is 70%, have produced the able technicians for industry under the poor educational condition. Moreover, because of the adoption of differentiated distribution system by competition, some colleges' educational environments are getting worse and worse, Thus, given the circumstances that colleges in our country have sustainingly played a major role in cultivating professionals, reeducating the older generation and contributing to the development of local industry, it is advised to share the due educational finance for competitive students in private colleges, as in the Japanese example(in case of private short-term college, the 50% of budget is subsidized by government). The problem in financial structure of private college in Chungbuk district is, firstly, the ineffective management stemmed from the untransparency of financial structure, on account of the extravagant financial management, and closure of its system. Second is the vocational high school students' deviation, and the meager creation of demand due to the weak linkage with industrial sectors. Third is the poorness of supporting system owing to the lack of social donation system, the beneficiary oriented allotment system, and the meagerness of corporation transferred money. As the way of expanding the educational finance in private colleges in Chungbuk districts, first thing to do is restructuring, and enhancement of financial capability through strengthening the transparency of information on finance. If the finance in college is to heighten the effectiveness, colleges firstly have to manage the organization without redundancy, making the effective use of resources fully. For this, the organization has to be slimed, flat, and unnecessary activities and overlapping sectors also have to be redressed so that it can achieve high effectiveness with low cost. Secondly, the cultivation of qualified professionals through differentiation, the creation of demand through reeducation of general publics, and the creation of demand through strengthening the cooperation and collaboration with industry should also be made. Along with the linkage to the differentiated local industry. college have to make an alliance with vocational high school and municipal governing body. And through that relationship, colleges have to select the able personnels and give them a prior education required for industrial fields, with the provision of one step system which enables college graduates to be immediately put into the industrial fields without any reeducation. Thus, colleges can have to enjoy the effect of synergy which enhances the competitiveness for local communities as well as colleges through the expansion of opportunity for college graduates to be employed in the local industry. Thirdly, for the development of colleges, government should prepare the plan for the expansion of subsidy, make an effort to expand the corporation transferred money, and, on the society part, it has to strengthen the subsidizing system for college, though various channels and ways by cultivating the matured donation culture. The critical situation which private colleges in Chungbuk district face is held responsible for the insufficient finance as colleges in other districts do. In spite of anticipating the financial pressure ahead, due to the decrease of the number of students, most colleges can't prepare for any steps for it. According to Sungkyungwan University, which invited Samsung corporation, a world super and top class corporation, "The corporation transferred money(711 billion won), which is the largest amount among colleges in our country, could basically make it possible to set a goal and promote it," it says. The colleges in Chungbuk district must prepare for the corner stone to enhance the quality of college education, by learning the lesson from Sungkyungwan University. The current situation colleges in Chungbuk face is described as a crisis. But as year goes by, it is apprehended that more and more aggravated situation will be unfolded than now. So all the members in private colleges in Chungbuk district should exactly be aware of the present situation and heighten the financial capability through effective management, along with the self-rescue effort. And, with the creation of demand through the differentiated education to meet the original purpose of colleges, the vocational high school-college-industry -municipality(including educational office) jointly have to select the programs for job seeking and cultivating professionals, and educate them. Colleges have to make the WIN-WIN strategy which enables the undergraduate at once to go to colleges and to get a job, and also corporation to secure the tailored personnels as well. Lastly, for the development of colleges, government, college corporations, communities and their members in all should collect their wisdom and strengthen the system of subsidy through diverse channels and ways by arranging the subsidiary plan. On the ground of these, the private colleges in Chungbuk district should make a continuous effort to improve the educational condition, by making known the importance of colleges to general publics, while by letting them perceive the propriety of expansion of educational finance.
This study will show differences on university students' career barrier, social support, career self-efficacy and preparation behavior based on the theory which considers both personal internal features and environmental features and help do practical preparation behavior by verifying whether there are differences of mediating effect of career self-efficacy, depending on gender, personal economic level, school type and current major accordance or discordance. Both career barrier, which is considered as factor discouraging career development, and social support, which is general resources gained from environment, are selected as environmental factors which impact on university students' preparation behavior. career self-efficacy, which influences choices in particular occupation and career, is selected as personal factor. The subjects of study are 1,197 undergraduate students including 18 colleges and universities in all over the country and research tools are questionnaires consisted of question about preparation behavior scales, career barrier scales, social support scales, career self-efficacy scales and their socio-demographic background. Data are analysed about descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, t-test, ANOVA, using SPSS 18.0 program, and Scheffe is performed as posteriori tests. Path analysis is proceeded for verification that university students' career barrier and social support influence career self-efficacy and preparation behavior, using Amos 18.0 program. In addition, multi-group analysis is performed for verification whether there are differences of mediating effect of career self-efficacy, depending on gender, economic level, school type and accordance between educational desired career and current major. In multi-group analysis, χ2 difference test is used to evaluate model, Bootstrapping is used to verify indirect effectiveness of level of statistical significance. The result of this study may be summarized as follows. In the first place, while Students are aware of career barrier highly when they are male students, freshmen, in poor home economic level, collegian, in discordance between current major and desired career, when there's no service experience related to career and job, and when they respond that they don't know what to do after graduation, social support, career self-efficacy, and preparation behavior appeared highly when they are male students, senior, in rich home economic level, university students, in accordance between current major and desired career, when there's experience related to career, when they are planning to transfer for special admission or to enter graduate school. Second, After considering that university students' career barrier and social support influence on career self-efficacy and preparation behavior, it is verified that career self-efficacy partial mediation that career barrier influences preparation behavior and social support influences preparation behavior. That is, social support and career barrier influence not only preparation behavior directly, but also career self-efficacy indirectly. career barrier and v that university student are aware of have positive or negative effect on preparation behavior and career self-efficacy function as Catalyst in these relationship. So it alleviates realized career barrier and accelerates social support. Therefore, We must seek for solutions to overcome career barrier and social support in various ways. Third, After verifying whether there are differences in effect between group, depending on gender, personal economic level, school type and current major accordance or discordance, it is verified that mediating effect of career self-efficacy has distinction depending on gender. While female students have heavier effect than male students in effect that career barrier has on career self-efficacy, it is showed that male students have heavier effect that social support has on preparation behavior. There are also difference in mediating effect of career self-efficacy, depending on economic level. The Group in poor economic level are aware that career barrier influences on preparation behavior more than the group in rich economic level. Judging from this, in university students' career barrier, social support and career self-efficacy, gender and economic level involvement can be effective for preparation behavior. As a results, The survey implies that college students’s career preparation behaviors and internal characteristics is link to comprehensive interaction based on social cognitive career theory. 본 연구는 대학생의 진로준비행동에 초점을 두고 사회인지진로이론에 근거하여 진로준비행동에 영향을 주는 환경적 요인과 개인 내적 인지요인의 경로를 밝혀, 진로지도와 진로연구에 보다 구체적인 정보를 제공하고자 하는 목적을 가지고 있다. 대학생의 진로준비행동에 영향을 주는 환경요인으로는 진로발달을 방해하는 요인으로 지각되는 진로장벽과 환경으로부터 얻을 수 있는 전반적인 자원인 사회적 지지를 설정하였고, 개인적인 요인으로는 특정 직업이나 진로 선택에 중요한 영향을 미치는 것으로 확인된 진로자기효능감을 선정하였다. 또한 선행연구에서 그 영향력이 밝혀진, 성, 가정의 경제수준, 대학유형과, 희망진로와 현재 전공의 일치 여부에 따라 각 변인들이 진로준비행동에 미치는 영향력에 차이가 있는지를 살펴보았다. 연구대상은 전국의 18개 전문대와 4년제 대학의 대학생 1,197명이며, 조사도구는 진로준비행동 척도, 진로장벽 척도, 사회적 지지 척도, 진로자기효능감 척도와 사회 인구학적 배경 질문 등으로 구성된 설문지이다. 자료분석은 SPSS 18.0 프로그램을 사용해 우선, 기술통계, 빈도분석, 요인분석, 신뢰도 분석, 상관분석, t-test, ANOVA와 사후검증으로 Scheffe를 실시하였으며, 대학생의 진로장벽과 사회적 지지가 진로자기효능감과 진로준비행동에 미치는 영향을 검증하기 위해 Amos 18.0 프로그램을 사용하여 경로분석을 진행하였다. 또한 진로자기효능감의 매개효과가 성별, 경제수준, 대학유형, 희망진로와 현재의 전공 일치여부에 따라 차이가 있는지 검증하기 위하여 다집단 분석을 실시하였다. 다집단 분석에서 모형을 평가하기 위해 χ2통계량을, 간접효과의 유의성 검증은 Bootstrapping을 이용하였다. 연구결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 남학생이, 1학년이, 가정경제가 어려운 경우, 전문대 재학생, 현재 전공이 희망 진로와 불일치한 경우, 진로 및 직업관련 서비스 경험이 없는 경우, 졸업 후 무엇을 해야 할지 잘 모른다고 응답한 경우가 진로장벽을 각각 높게 지각한 반면, 남학생이, 4학년이, 가정경제 수준이 좋은 경우, 4년제대 재학생, 전공이 희망 진로와 일치한 경우, 진로관련 다양한 서비스를 받은 경우, 졸업 후 편입이나 대학원 입학을 계획하고 있는 경우가 각각 사회적 지지, 진로자기효능감 및 진로준비행동이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 이와 같은 결과는 대학생들의 진로 지도시 일반적인 특성과 진로관련 특성을 고려한 차별화된 개입전략이 필요함을 시사한다. 둘째, 대학생의 진로장벽과 사회적 지지가 진로자기효능감과 진로준비행동에 미치는 영향은 어떠한지 살펴본 결과, 진로자기효능감이 부분매개 효과를 갖는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 사회적 지지와 진로장벽은 진로준비행동에 직접영향을 미칠 뿐만 아니라 진로자기효능감을 통해 간접적으로도 영향을 미치는 것으로 확인되었다. 즉, 지각된 진로장벽의 진로준비행동에 대한 부정적 영향과 또는 사회적 지지의 긍정적 영향이 확인되었고, 이들 관계에서 진로자기효능감이 촉매제 역할을 하여, 지각한 진로장벽의 효과는 완화시키고, 사회적 지지의 효과는 촉진시키는 역할을 하고 있는 것이다. 따라서 개인의 인지적 요소인 진로자기효능감을 강화할 수 있는 다양한 접근방법을 모색하여, 지각된 진로장벽은 극복 가능한 요인으로 재인식시켜고, 중요한 타인과의 사회적 관계를 증진시킬 수 있는 다양한 개입방법 개발이 필요하다. 셋째, 대학생의 성별, 경제수준, 학교유형 및 희망진로와 현재 전공의 일치 여부에 따른 집단 간 변인들의 영향은 차이가 있는지 검증한 결과, 진로자기효능감의 매개효과는 성별에 따라 차이가 있는 것으로 검증되었다. 진로장벽이 진로자기효능감에 미치는 영향은 여학생이 남학생 보다 큰 반면, 사회적 지지가 진로준비행동에 미치는 효과는 남학생이 여학생보다 큰 것으로 확인 되었다. 또한 경제수준에 따라 진로자기효능감의 매개효과에 차이가 있는데, 경제수준이 어려운 집단이 좋은 집단 보다 진로장벽이 진로준비행동에 미치는 영향을 크게 지각하는 것으로 확인되었다. 이는 대학생들의 진로장벽, 사회적 지지 및 진로자기효능감은 성과 경제수준을 고려한 개입이 결과적으로 진로준비행동으로 연결될 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 진로장벽을 높게 지각하고 있는 여학생과 가정 경제수준이 어려운 대학생 및 사회적 지지를 높게 인식하고 있는 남학생의 진로준비행동에 더욱 효과적일 수 있음을 알 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구 결과는 대학생의 진로준비행동은 개인 내적 특성과 환경적 특성과의 포괄적인 상호작용속에서 이해되어야 함을 보여 주고 있어, 이들의 진로준비행동을 예측하기 위해서는 사회인지진로이론에 근거하여 개입해야 함을 시사한다.
As the appearance of energy problem as an important constrained factor of architecture design, the introduction of natural environmental control methods which consider a regional climatic factor has been progressed. As deriving environmental friendly elements of the traditional architecture, scientific and practical approach methods are required to apply to the contemporary architectural design. The objectives of this study are to classify the configuration of traditional domestic architecture in Chungbuk according to the types, to analyze the physical environment such as insolation, sunshine and airflow which are natural environmental friendly elements through the simulation by modelling them and to produce the effective data to design the environmental friendly architecture. The composition of the study is as follows. The first chapter described a background, purposes, range and methods of the study. The second chapter classified the subjects of traditional domestic architecture in Chungbuk and investigated the current status. The third chapter considered the characteristics of plot planning of the traditional domestic architecture in Chungbuk and made the standard model by classifying them. The forth chapter evaluated and summarized the environment friendly extent of the traditional domestic architecture by exploiting the assessment simulation program. The fifth chapter summed up the study and drew a conclusion. As above, analyzed study results through the simulation are as follows. (1) The configuration of traditional domestic architecture was categorized by modelling them according to the shape of Korean letter 'ㅁ‘, 'opened ㅁ’, ‘ㄷ’ and 'opened ㄷ'. (2) As a result of the analysis of solar radiation, relatively higher amounts were measured in 'opened ㄷ‘ type which has more open space and smaller amounts but even distribution of solar radiation was shown in 'opened ㅁ’ type. (3) The sunshine condition was analyzed at 9, 12 and 15 in summer and winter and it was shown that 'opened ㄷ‘ type had the highest amount of sunshine. (4) For the analysis of the airflow, 'opened ㄷ‘ type which has more open space showed the most stable flow. It is needed to take measures for the ventilation in 'opened ㅁ' type due to the most swirl. Henceforth, the environment friendly extent of the Korean traditional domestic architecture should be examined scientifically and the concrete data which can be combined with the factors of modern architecture design need to be organized systematically. It would be the research tasks in the future and I hope that this study can be the basis of those subjects.
Since motivated in large part by Michael Porter's "Competitive Advantage of Nations," cluster-based economic development has become an increasingly popular topic for both researchers and policy-makers. In line with this trend local governments as well as central government of Korea have strarted building industry clusters appropriate for their environmental settings. Chungbuk Province in particular, recently attempts to create environment to foster SW industry. However, this objective is hardly to be achieved unless systematic approach with strong intention is developed and introduced. This is not only because the infrastructure of SW industry in the region still remains at toddler stage but because Daeduk Valley with higher edge in terms of the SW industry ecology is located in the vicinity. This study thus aims to compare the growth portentials of SW industry of the two regions in terms of the critical factors such as localization, networking, embedded institutional thickness, collective learning, and innovative synergy for industry clustering. To achieve this goal an empirical study was conducted for the status quo of software industry in Chungbuk Province and Daeduk valley, and some implications were drawn.
HOLLAND Career Search Inventory on job type and career was tested and analyzed with 4th year(60) students of civil engineering department, Chungbuk National University. The results of HOLLAND aptitude test have a distribution of Realistic type (41%), Social(23%), Enterprising(13%), Conventional(12%), Investigative(6%) and Artistic(5%), and 41% of the students(Realistic type) are suitable for civil engineering. After the analysis up to second code, 70% of the students were categorized in three types(Realistic, Social, Investigative types), which are essential requirements for civil engineering. This group of students could follows in general career program. The results also show that 55% of the students in the civil engineering department have high career identity, 37% average, and 8% low in terms of career identity. And 88% of the total students were above average in career maturity. According to the survey for the career selection among the students in civil engineering department, 73% of the students answered that they are preparing for that with a plan, but 42%, 33%, and 18% of the students answered that they can't prepare well with the resume, self-introduction letter, and interview respectively, which are essential for their career. And 63% of the students answered that they will get a job even thought the job is not related to their major. 49% of the students realize the difficult situation in getting a job currently, and 81% of the students answered that their professors are doing an important role in their finding a job. But in reality, the students are finding the information about the job through the Internet(44%), from their seniors or minors(32%), and from their professors(10%), which shows that active career counselling from the university and professors is necessary. Although more comprehensive analysis is difficult to achieve due to the limited number of students, this study figures out a group of students who need career counselling, and can provide a core data to the department of civil engineering which enable the department to provide a specified career advice to the students based on their personality.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influential relationship of the volleyball participation of adolescents to their self-efficacy, collective efficacy and group cohesiveness. The subjects in this study were 250 students in the region of Seo-gu, Daejeon. After a survey was conducted, the valid answer sheets from 227 respondents were analyzed except for the data from 23 respondents that were incomplete, included unfaithful answers or seemed not to be reliable. The instruments used to gather data were four different questionnaires that respectively covered physical activity, self-efficacy, collective efficacy and group cohesiveness. The collected data were analyzed by a statistical package SPSS 22.0, and frequency analysis, independent- samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were carried out. The findings of the study were as follows: First, there were no significant differences among the adolescents who played volleyball in self-efficacy according to the grade of school, age, workout frequency and workout period, but significant differences were found according to workout hours in overall self-efficacy and confidence about physical self-expression that was one of the subfactors of self-efficacy. There were no differences in collective efficacy according to the grade of school and age, but significant differences were found according to workout frequency in ability factor, effort factor, preparation factor and unity factor. Workout hours made a difference to the ability factor, and there were significant differences according to workout period in the ability, effort and preparation factors. As for group cohesiveness, the grade of school made significant differences to group-task cohesiveness, and there were significant differences according to age in personal-task cohesiveness, personal-social cohesiveness, group-task cohesiveness and group-social cohesiveness. Significant differences were found according to exercise frequency in personal-task cohesiveness and personal-social cohesiveness. There were significant differences according to workout hours in personal-task cohesiveness, personal-social cohesiveness and group-task cohesiveness, and significant differences were found according to exercise period in personal-task cohesiveness and personal-social cohesiveness. Second, the correlation between the self-efficacy and collective efficacy of the adolescents who played volleyball was analyzed. As a result, there was a significant positive correlation between overall self-efficacy and collective efficacy, between perceived physical ability and collective efficacy and between confidence about physical self-expression and collective efficacy. Concerning the correlation between self-efficacy and group cohesiveness, there was a significant correlation between perceived physical ability and personal-task cohesiveness, between perceived physical ability and personal-social cohesiveness, between perceived physical ability and group-task cohesiveness, between perceived physical ability and group-social cohesiveness, between perceived physical ability and overall group cohesiveness, between confidence about physical self- expression and personal-social cohesiveness, between confidence about physical self-expression and group-task cohesiveness, between confidence about physical self-expression and overall group cohesiveness, between overall self-efficacy and personal-task cohesiveness, between overall self-efficacy and personal-social cohesiveness, between overall self- efficacy and group-task cohesiveness, between self-efficacy and group- social cohesiveness, and between overall self-efficacy and overall group cohesiveness. Third, regarding the impact of the self-efficacy of the teens on group cohesiveness, how self-efficacy affected the ability factor was analyzed, and that had a significant impact on perceived physical ability. And confidence about physical self-expression was significantly influential as well. As to the impact of self-efficacy on the effort factor, confidence about physical self-expression exerted a significant influence on that. Concerning the impact of self-efficacy on the endurance factor, perceived physical ability and confidence about physical self-expression exercised a significant influence on that. In relation to the influence of self-efficacy on the preparation factor, perceived physical ability and confidence about physical self-expression were significantly influential. As to the influence of self-efficacy on the unity factor, perceived physical ability and confidence about physical self-expression had a significant impact on that. As for the impact of self-efficacy on group-task cohesiveness, confidence about physical self-expression was significantly influential. In regard to the impact of self-efficacy on personal-task cohesiveness, perceived physical ability and confidence about physical self-expression exercised a significant influence on that. Concerning the impact of self- efficacy on personal-social cohesion, perceived physical ability and confidence about physical self-expression had a significant impact on that. The above-mentioned findings illustrated that the self-efficacy of the teens who played volleyball exerted a positive influence on their own collective efficacy and group cohesiveness. Specifically, perceived physical ability that was one of the self-efficacy subfactors affected collective efficacy and group cohesiveness in a significant way, which denotes that perceived physical ability has a close relationship with collective efficacy and group cohesiveness.
Safety is the most priority issue in nuclear industry. A steam generator tube provides a heat transfer area as a heat exchanger and acts as pressure retaining boundary in the reactor coolant system. For these reasons, a steam generator tube is regarded as an essential component of reactor pressure boundary. Thus, its integrity shall be maintained during the full range of normal operating conditions and applicable design basis accidents. Structural integrity performance criteria need to be developed to provide reasonable assurance that a steam generator tube will not burst during the normal or postulated accident conditions. According to the operating experience of Korean steam generators, outside diameter stress corrosion cracking is one of the dominant degradation mechanisms in the steam generator tubes. The structural parameter is defined explicitly in terms of geometrical variables, such as crack length and depth. However its calculation model for prediction of burst pressure is developed to assess mostly single flaws not to multiple flaws. If we consider just single-cracked tubes, short and deep flaws are not likely to threaten structural integrity of tubes. But if it has multiple-cracks, the interaction effect of multiple-cracks on the structural integrity should be considered. Because many flaws detected during in-service inspection take on the form of multiple cracks within the tube support plates. Some studies on the interaction effects for adjacent cracks have been carried out, however mainly it to the through-wall cracks not part-through-wall cracks. Most cracks existing in real steam generator tubing are not through-wall cracks but part through-wall cracks. Hence, integrity of part-through-wall crack is more practical issue than that of through-wall crack. In the present study, the interaction effects of multiple part-through-wall cracks on burst pressure have been investigated. The primary purpose of conducting the burst tests was to establish the validation basis for the burst pressure model that is used for tube integrity assessment in the field. In the burst test, two types of multiple part-through-wall cracks were considered: axially oriented two collinear or parallel part-through-wall cracks in straight sections of steam generator tubing. In order to evaluate interaction effects of multiple part-through-wall cracks, steam generator tube burst testing system was developed and a series of tests were conducted. The definition of tube burst is the gross structural failure of the tube wall. The condition typically corresponds to unstable opening displacement accompanied by ductile (plastic) tearing of the tube material. Electric discharge machining (EDM) axial notch testing was conducted. Basic form of the flaw is an axial outside diameter cracking. The geometric variables of test specimens (crack length and distance between two cracks) were systematically varied. In this study, to evaluate interaction effects of steam generator tubes containing two parallel or collinear axial part-through cracks using thermally-treated Alloy 690 tubular specimens, a series of burst tests were carried out. The results suggest that the maximum pressure increases almost linearly with increasing longitudinal distance between two collinear cracks. It was found that there is marginal interaction effect between two adjacent parallel cracks when the distance is within 10∼20 mm. However the effect disappears when the distance exceeds 20 mm and the cracks behave like two independent cracks. A coalescence criterion for steam generator tubes was developed by using the burst test results for collinear axial multiple cracks. It was also found that two parallel cracks were not merged during the burst. Burst pressure of a tube supported by the tube support plates can be higher than that for a free-span tube because failure behaviors could interfere with the support plate. Although noticeable interaction effect on burst pressure by the tube support plates was not observed, there was marginal interaction effect when the flaw depth is over 80% through-wall and the cracked tube is supported by wider (50.8 mm) support plate. In addition, based on the experimental burst testing results with axially oriented two collinear and parallel part-through-wall cracks, more detailed ductile failure prediction models were proposed for structural integrity assessment. 증기발생기는 가압경수로형 원전의 핵심 설비 중 하나이며, 증기발생기 전열관의 건전성은 원전 안전 운전과 직결된다. 증기발생기 관리 프로그램에서는 발전소의 정상운전 및 설계기준 사고 조건하에서도 전열관이 건전성을 유지하도록 요구하고 있으며 이를 위해서 전열관의 건전성을 입증하기 위한 성능기준을 제시하고 있다. 축 방향 균열은 국내 원전 증기발생기의 전열관을 손상시키는 가장 지배적인 열화기구 중 하나이다. 주기적인 가동중 검사에서 결함이 탐지되면 결함의 크기와 형상 정보를 바탕으로 전열관의 예상 파열압력을 평가하여 발전소에서 요구되는 성능기준 만족 여부를 평가하여야 한다. 그러나 현재 적용되고 있는 축 방향 균열에 대한 파열압력 예측 모델은 결함의 형태를 단순화시킨 단일 결함을 대상으로 하고 있으며 다중균열에 대해서는 세부적인 구조 건전성 평가식이 제시되지 않고 있다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 방전가공으로 다양한 형태의 축 방향 균열을 모사한 노치 시편을 대상으로 파열 실험을 수행하여 현재 적용되고 있는 축 방향 다중균열에 대한 파열압력 상관관계식의 개선 방안과 관지지판의 파열억제 효과를 분석하였다. 파열 실험 결과에 대한 타당성 기반 확보를 위하여 견본 시편에 대한 파열 실험을 수행하여 최적 가압율을 선정하여 적용하였다. 실험 결과에 따르면, 단일 관통균열은 결함의 길이가 길어질수록 낮은 압력에서 파열되며 부분관통 단일균열은 결함 길이가 짧고 깊이가 낮아질수록 파열 발생 시 소성변형 정도가 크고 높은 압력에서 파열되는 것으로 분석되었다. 동일한 크기의 다중균열이 존재하는 전열관에 내압을 증가시키면 어느 한쪽 결함에서만 성장이 발생되고 파열에 도달하였다. 직렬 다중균열은 파열이 진전되는 과정에서 인접 균열과의 합체가 될 수 있으나 병렬 다중균열은 결함의 크기나 위치에 무관하게 합체되지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 직렬 다중균열은 인접 균열과의 거리가 가까울 경우 단일균열 대비 실험오차 범위 내에서 파열 압력이 감소되나 일정거리 이상 떨어지면 단일균열과 같은 파열 거동을 하는 것으로 분석되었다. 병렬 다중균열은 인접 균열간 거리가 가까울 경우 단일균열 대비 파열압력이 미세하게 증가할 수 있으나 균열간 거리가 약 10∼20 mm 범위일 경우 단일균열 대비 파열 압력이 약 5∼8% 정도 감소되며 그 이상 멀어지면 파열압력 간섭효과가 사라지는 것으로 나타났다. 축 방향 균열이 관지지판 내에 존재하는 경우의 파열압력은 결함의 깊이와 결함이 접촉하고 있는 관지지판의 후면에 놓인 판의 넓이에 따라 단일균열 대비 최대 8% 정도 상승할 수 있으므로 구조 건전성 성능기준 산출시 이를 반영해야 된다. 증기발생기 전열관에 대한 주기적인 가동중 검사에 적용되고 있는 플러스 포인트 회전형 탐촉자의 다중균열 식별 성능을 확인하였다. 직렬 다중균열은 결함 간 거리가 1 mm까지 근접한 경우에도 개별 균열을 명확히 식별 가능하였으나 병렬 다중균열은 결함 간 거리가 적어도 4 mm 이상 되어야 식별 가능한 것으로 분석되었다. 직렬 다중균열은 근접해 있을 경우 단일균열에 비해 파열압력이 낮아질 수 있으나 직렬 균열에 대해서는 근접한 경우까지 개별 균열을 명확히 식별 가능하므로 검사기술의 성능이 직렬 다중균열의 구조 건전성 평가에 영향을 미치지 않는다. 또한 병렬 다중균열에 대해서는 균열간 거리가 4 mm보다 가까울 경우 개별 균열을 식별하지 못하는 한계가 있으나 이 경우의 파열압력은 단일균열 대비 소폭 증가하는 것으로 나타났으므로 이 경우 또한 전열관의 구조 건전성에 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 분석되었다. 단일균열과 다중균열의 파열거동 관찰 결과를 바탕으로 축 방향 다중균열이 존재하는 증기발생기 전열관의 세부적인 구조 건전성 평가 방안을 제시하였으며 본 연구 결과는 주기적인 가동중 검사에서 발견되는 다중균열에 대한 건전성 평가에 중요한 자료가 될 것으로 판단된다.
A disaster can be defined in many ways based on perspectives, in addition, its types are able to classify differently by various standards. Considering the perspectives, the disaster can be occurred by natural phenomenon that is like typhoon, earthquake, flood, and drought, and by the accident that is like collapse of facilities, traffic accidents, and environmental pollution, etc. Entering in to the modern society, moreover, the disaster includes the damages by diffusion of epidemic and infectious disease in domestic animals. The disaster was defined by natural and man-made hazards in the past. As societies grew with changes of paradigm, social factors has been included in the concept of the disaster according to new types unexpected by new disease and scientific technology. Spreading the concept of social disasters, Ministry of Public Safety and Security (MPSS) has provided the regional safety index, which measures the safety level of a local government. However, this regional safety index has some limitation to use because this index provides the information for si unit which is an unit of administrative districts of urban. Since these administrative districts units are on a different level with urban and rural areas, the regional safety index provided by MPSS is not be able to apply in the rural areas. The purpose of this study is to determine the regional safety index targeting rural areas. To estimate the safety index, I used 4 indicators among total 7 indicators provided by MPSS, a fire, a crime, an infectious disease, and natural disaster, which are evaluable the regional safety index using an accessibility analysis. For determining the regional safety index using accessibility from community centers to facilities, the safety index of fire, crime, infectious disease, and natural disaster used access time to fire station, police office, medical facility, and agricultural reservoir, respectively. Moreover, this study is to provide a model for prediction of damages to down stram following the collapse of reservoir that is a corresponding natural disaster. The results compared with safety index provided by MPSS, the estimated regional safety index in this study has over 70-percent accuracy. An integrated Cheonju, targeting areas in this study, is mixed region with urban and rural areas. The results of regional safety index about urban and rural areas, the safety index in rural area is relatively higher than in the urban. An investment would be needed to improve the safety in the rural areas. To estimate probability of failure of reservoir, the collapse of reservoir is classified with overtopping, slope sliding, and structural failure of spillway. The failure by embankment and spillway dominates the failure by slope of down stream and sliding, respectively. In the case of estimated damages, targeting 13 reservoirs controlled by Korea Rural Community Corporation in integrated Cheongju, the most influential factors is the amount of the damages for building. Considering the collapse by complex modes, however, the review for probability of failure would be needed to repair and reinforcement of reservoirs because the amount of the damages would be changes the priority by complex modes.