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Objectives: A fast and accurate diagnosis is necessary to control and eliminate tuberculosis (TB). In Korea, TB continues to be a serious public health problem. In this study, diagnostic tests on clinical samples from patients suspected to have TB were performed and the sensitivity and specificity of the various techniques were compared. The main objective of the study was to compare various diagnostic tests and evaluate their sensitivity and specificity for detecting tuberculosis. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2013, 170,240 clinical samples from patients suspected to have TB were tested with smear microscopy, acid-fast bacilli culture, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The test results were compared and data were analyzed. Results: A total of 8216 cultures tested positive for TB (positive detection rate, 4.8%). The contamination rate in the culture was 0.6% and the isolation rate of nontuberculous mycobacteria was 1.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of smear microscopy were 56.8% and 99.6%, respectively. The concordance rate between the solid and liquid cultures was 92.8%. Mycobacterium isolates were not detected in 0.4% of the cases in the liquid culture, whereas no Mycobacterium isolates were detected in 6.8% of the cases in the solid culture. The sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR for the solid culture were 97.2% and 72.4%, respectively, whereas the corresponding data for the liquid culture were 93.5% and 97.2%. Conclusion: The study results can be used to improve existing TB diagnosis procedure as well as for comparing the effectiveness of the assay tests used for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.
Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), its prognostic significance, and the correlation between YAP1 and telomerase in various cancers.Methods: The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis database was used to analyze RNA sequencing data and the survival rate of patients with various cancers in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. PrognoScan was used to analyze the prognostic value of YAP1 expression in various cancers. Tumor Immune Estimation Resource was used to determine the correlation between YAP1 expression and telomerase in various cancer types based on TCGA data.Results: The analysis suggested that YAP1 was differentially expressed between tissues of various cancers and non-tumor tissues. High YAP1 expression was also related to a poor prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma, bladder urothelial carcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Moreover, YAP1 expression was correlated with the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomerase RNA component in various cancer types.Conclusion: These results suggest that YAP1 is a potential biomarker with prognostic significance and relevance for oncogene research in various cancer types. The correlation between the expression of YAP1 and telomere-associated genes will help to understand their cancer-promoting mechanisms and interactions.
ObjectivesCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is classified as a natural hazard, and social vulnerability describes the susceptibility of social groups to potential damages from natural hazards. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between social vulnerability and the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 deaths (per 100,000) in 3,141 United States counties.MethodsThe cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths was obtained from USA Facts. Variables related to social vulnerability were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Social Vulnerability Index and the 2018 5-Year American Community Survey. Data were analyzed using spatial autoregression models.ResultsLowest income and educational level, as well as high proportions of single parent households, mobile home residents, and people without health insurance were positively associated with a high cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths.ConclusionIn conclusion, there are regional differences in the cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths in United States counties, which are affected by various social vulnerabilities. Hence, these findings underscore the need to take social vulnerability into account when planning interventions to reduce COVID-19 deaths.
The initial case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India was reported on January 30, 2020, and subsequently, the number of COVID-19-infected patients surged during the first wave of April 2020 and the second wave in the same month of 2021. The government of India imposed a strict nationwide lockdown in April 2020 and extended it until May 2020. The second wave of COVID-19 in India overwhelmed the country’s health facilities and exhausted its medical and paramedical workforce. This narrative review was conducted with the aim of summarizing the evidence drawn from policy documents of governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as capturing India's COVID-19 vaccination efforts. The findings from this review cover the Indian government's vaccination initiatives, which ranged from steps taken to combat vaccine hesitancy to vaccination roadmaps, deployment plans, the use of digital health technology, vaccination monitoring, adverse effects, and innovative strategies such as Har Ghar Dastak and Jan Bhagidari Andolan (people’s participation). These efforts collectively culminated in the successful administration of more than 1.8 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines in India. This review also provides insights into other countries’ responses to COVID-19 and guidance for future pandemics.
Objectives: This study aimed to identify potential safety signals and adverse events following the primary Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination series among children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years in the Republic of Korea.Methods: Adverse events reported through the COVID-19 vaccination management system (CVMS, a web-based passive vaccine safety surveillance system) and adverse events and health conditions collected from a text message-based survey were analyzed.Results: A total of 14,786 adverse events among 5- to 17-year-old children and adolescents were reported in the CVMS; 14,334 (96.9%) were non-serious and 452 (3.1%) were serious, including 125 suspected cases of acute cardiovascular injury and 101 suspected cases of anaphylaxis. The overall reporting rate was lower in 5- to 11-year-old children (64.5 per 100,000 doses) than in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents (300.5 per 100,000 doses). The text message survey identified that local and systemic adverse events after either dose were reported less frequently in 5- to 11-year-old children than in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents (p<0.001). The most commonly reported adverse events were pain at the injection site, myalgia, headache, and fatigue/tiredness.Conclusion: The overall results are consistent with the results of controlled trials; serious adverse events were extremely rare among 5- to 17-year-old children and adolescents following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination. Adverse events were less frequent in children aged 5 to 11 years than in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to understand the characteristics of medication adherence interventions for older adults with chronic illnesses, and to investigate the average effect size by combining the individual effects of these interventions. Data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria were systematically collected in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The results showed that the average effect size (Hedges’ g) of the finally selected medication adherence interventions for older adults with chronic illnesses calculated using a random-effects model was 0.500 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.342−0.659). Of the medication adherence interventions, an implementation intention intervention (using face-to-face meetings and telephone monitoring with personalized behavioral strategies) and a health belief model–based educational program were found to be highly effective. Face-to-face counseling was a significantly effective method of implementing medication adherence interventions for older adults with chronic illnesses (Hedges’ g=0.531, 95% CI, 0.186−0.877), while medication adherence interventions through education and telehealth counseling were not effective. This study verified the effectiveness of personalized behavioral change strategies and cognitive behavioral therapy based on the health belief model, as well as face-to-face meetings, as medication adherence interventions for older adults with chronic illnesses.
Objectives: We aimed to reconfirm the source of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection through epidemiological and genotype investigations of individual cases in a 2019 outbreak in South Korea.Methods: We investigated food intake histories, associations with hepatitis A, and genotypes of HAV in 31 patients with hepatitis aged 20 to 49 years registered in the integrated disease and health management system during December 1–7, 2019 (case group) and in 35 sex- and age-matched people without a history of HAV vaccination or infection among patients’ families and colleagues (control group).Results: The consumption of salted clams was a significant factor (odds ratio, 4.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–14.18) in the risk factor analysis of food intake history. HAV genotypes were analyzed in 24 of 31 patients. Type IA and type IIIA were found in 23 and 1 cases, respectively.Conclusion: Salted clams are considered to have been the source of HAV infection at 49 weeks of the HAV outbreak in 2019; this result was consistent with that of a previous epidemiological investigation conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency in September 2019. Therefore, monitoring of the production and distribution of salted clams needs to be continued.
Objectives: Despite the introduction of vaccines, treatments, and massive diagnostic testing, the evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has continued to overcome barriers that had slowed its previous spread. As the virus evolves towards increasing fitness, it is critical to continue monitoring the occurrence of new mutations that could evade human efforts to control them.Methods: We performed whole-genome sequencing using Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing on 58 SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic at a tertiary hospital in South Korea and tracked the emergence of mutations responsible for massive spikes in South Korea.Results: The differences among lineages were more pronounced in the spike gene, especially in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), than in other genes. Those RBD mutations could compromise neutralization by antibodies elicited by vaccination or previous infections. We also reported multiple incidences of Omicron variants carrying mutations that could impair the diagnostic sensitivity of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based testing.Conclusion: These results provide an understanding of the temporal changes of variants and mutations that have been circulating in South Korea and their potential impacts on antigenicity, therapeutics, and diagnostic escape of the virus. We also showed that the utilization of the nanopore sequencing platform and the ARTIC workflow can provide convenient and accurate SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance even at a single hospital.
Eun Jung Jang,Choe Young June,Choe Seung-Ah,Yoo-Yeon Kim,Ryu Kyung Kim,Jia Kim,Lim Dosang,Ju Hee Lee,Yi Seonju,Sangwon Lee,Young-Joon Park 질병관리본부 2022 Osong Public Health and Research Persptectives Vol.13 No.5
Objectives: We estimated the overall and age-specific percentages of the Korean population with presumed immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as of April 2022 using the national registry. Methods: We used the national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and vaccination registry from South Korea, as described to define individuals with a previous history of COVID-19 infection, vaccination, or both, as persons with presumed immunity.Results: Of a total of 53,304,627 observed persons, 24.4% had vaccination and infection, 58.1% had vaccination and no infection, 7.6% had infection and vaccination, and 9.9% had no immunity,. The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged at a time when the presumed population immunity ranged from 80% to 85%; however, nearly half of the children were presumed to have no immunity.Conclusion: We report a gap in population immunity, with lower presumed protection in children than in adults. The approach presented in this work can provide valuable informed tools to assist vaccine policy-making at a national level.