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The contents of starch, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash of different varieties of several crops such as brown rice, barley, corn, sweet potato were analyzed. The average starch contents of brown rice, barley, corn, and sweet potato were 70.1±0.4~72.2±2.1, 68.7±0.2~71.4±1.2, 67.6±0.8~69.4±1.8, and 21.7±0.9~28.3±0.5%, respectively. The ground powder of each starchy substrate was suspended in distilled water, and then liquefied, saccharified, and fermented by dried active yeast at 30℃ for 4 days. By statistical analysis, the effectiveness of the contents of the different components of the crops on the ethanol production were examined. The results showed that the starch content positively affected the ethanol production in all the tested cereals and sweet potato. In brown rice, ash content affected negatively the ethanol production. In barley, protein content affected negatively the ethanol production, while fiber content affected positively the ethanol production. The sweet potato containing higher content of moisture produced less amount of ethanol. Various cereals were fermented for ethanol production using 25 different strains of yeast. The cereals used were barley (variety, Gwang -an), corn (variety, Gang-da-ok), triticale (variety, Shin-young), and wheat (variety, Wu-ri). The strain producing the highest amount of ethanol was KL5 for barley, KL23 for corn, KL5 and for triticale, and KL21 for wheat. Therefore, the results indicated that different yeast strains are required for producing the highest amount of ethanol from different cereal substrates.
The emergence of a new concept for health has been led the change of the cultural style in life. As three seems to be harmonized health between one's mind and body together with the increasing level of desire for the formation of the body image, the field of life dance which is believed to satisfy the physical and psychological desires is getting much attention. As a result, this study focuses on the analysis and specification of the influence of the participation by ordinary women in the field of life dance on the body image. The subject group of the study consists of 333 women in total. The group is classified into the experimental group which includes the women between 19 and 55 years old in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, who have participated in the program of life dance at least once a week for more than three months and the comparative group which includes the women not participating in the program of life dance. The questionnaires related to the measurement of the body image are based on the study executed by Junghwan Cho and Geumju Song (2002). In order to certify the credibility of the measuring tool, the Cronbach's alpha coordinates have been calculated. Also, the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) WIN 17.0 program has been used for the collected data, while t-test, one way ANOVA and the simple regression analysis have been executed. As a result, the following results have been drawn. Firstly, there seems to be statistically a noticeable difference in all the sub-fields of the body image in regard to the body image according to the participation by ordinary women in the field of life dance. Secondly, there seems to be difference for the body image according to the personal characteristics of ordinary women. There seems to be statistically a noticeable difference in all the sub-fields of the body image in regard to the body image according to such factors as ages, occupations and the experience of cosmetic surgery and diseases for ordinary women. On the other hand, there seems to be statistically no noticeable difference for the body image according to such factors as income and level of education for ordinary women. Thirdly, the level of participation by ordinary women in the field of life dance influences the body image. As the period of participation by ordinary women in the field of life dance becomes longer, there seems to be a positive influence on such factors as the level of interest and social dependency on one's dressing-up, the evaluation of one's health and stamina, the influence on the effect of one's exercise and the overall evaluation of one's appearance. As the frequency of participation by ordinary women in the field of life dance becomes greater, there seems to be a negative influence on the level of interest on one's dressing-up and the overall evaluation of one's appearance. As the intensity of participation by ordinary women in the field of life dance becomes longer, there seems to be a positive influence on the evaluation of one's health and stamina. Through this study, it can be concluded that the participation in the field of life dance influences the formation of a positive body image. Also, it can be regarded as an optimal way for the formation of an appropriate body image.
본 연구에서는 퍼지추론 기반의 다항식 RBF 뉴럴네트워크(Polynomial Radial Basis Function Neural Network; pRBFNN)와 Type-2 퍼지추론 구동형 다항식 RBF 뉴럴네트워크(Interval Type-2 Polynomial Radial Basis Function Neural Network; IT2pRBFNN)를 설계하고 입자군집최적화(Particle Swarm Optimization; PSO) 알고리즘을 이용하여 모델의 파라미터를 동정한다. 첫 번째로 제안된 pRBFNN 모델은 'If-then' 형식으로 기술되는 퍼지규칙에 의하여 조건부, 결론부, 추론부 세 가지의 기능적 모듈로 표현된다. pRBFNN 조건부에서는 커널함수(또는 RBF)의 정의를 통하여 입력공간을 분할하게 된다. 여기서 커널함수는 HCM(Hard C-Means) 클러스터링 알고리즘에 기반을 두어 구조가 결정되며, 가우시안 함수와 inverse-multiquadratic 함수를 RBF로써 사용하고, 이들 함수와 함께 커널함수로써 원뿔형(conic) RBF를 제안한다. 또한 입력 공간 분할시 데이터 집합의 특성을 반영하기 위하여 표준편차에 의해 결정되는 RBF의 폭을 각 입력마다 고려한다. 결론부에서 제안된 pRBFNN의 연결가중치는 다항식으로 표현된다. 이는 상수항의 연결가중치를 가진 일반적인 RBF 뉴럴네트워크의 확장된 구조이다. 모델의 최종 출력은 추론부의 퍼지추론에 의하여 결정된다. 제안한 pRBFNN의 성능을 평가하기 위해 2입력 1출력의 비선형 함수, 활성오니공정 및 가스로 시계열 데이터를 이용하며, pRBFNN의 결과를 기존 모델과 비교하여 근사화 및 일반화 능력에 대하여 토의한다. 두 번째로 제안된 IT2pRBFNN 모델은 pRBFNN 모델의 확장된 구조로 Input layer, Fuzzification layer, Type-reduction layer 그리고 Defuzzification layer의 4개 층(layer)으로 구성된다. IT2pRBFNN의 Fuzzification layer는 uncertain standard deviation을 갖는 가우시안 RBF 활성함수를 사용한다. 여기서 활성함수의 수와 중심 선택은 HCM 클러스터링 알고리즘을 이용한다. 또한 모델의 로컬 출력식을 표현하는 연결가중치는 Interval set 형태의 계수로 구성된 다항식으로 확장 표현하며, 다항식의 연결가중치 계수 결정에는 경사하강법(Gradient descent method)을 이용한 오류역전파(back-propagation) 알고리즘에 의하여 수행된다. 최적의 IT2pRBFNN 모델을 설계하기 위한 학습율 및 활성함수의 활성화 영역 결정에는 PSO 알고리즘으로 동조한다. 마지막으로, 제안된 IT2pRBFNN 모델의 평가를 위하여 모의 데이터집합 및 기계 학습 데이터(machine learning dataset) 그리고 자동차 엔진의 연료분사시간에 관련된 데이터를 적용하여, 기존 모델과의 근사화 및 일반화 능력에 대하여 논의한다. In this study, two types of RBF network architectures such as the extended Polynomial Radial Basis Function Neural Network (pRBFNN) and pRBFNN based on interval Type-2 fuzzy set (IT2pRBFNN) are introduced and the parameters related to their networks are optimized by means of Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm. The first proposed pRBFNN architecture consists of three functional modules such as the condition part, the conclusion part, and the inference part as fuzzy rules formed in 'If-then' format. In the condition part of fuzzy rules, input space is partitioned with the aid of kernel functions(or RBFs). Here RBF, which is given as the structure of kernel functions, is generated by using Hard C-Means(HCM) clustering algorithm. We consider three types of RBFs such as gaussian type, inverse-multiquadratic type, and conic type. In order to reflect the characteristic of dataset when partitioning input space, we use the width of RBF defined by standard deviation of dataset. In the conclusion part of rules, the connection weight of pRBFNN is represented as three kinds of polynomials such as constant, linear, and quadratic, unlike in most conventional RBF neural network constructed with constant as connection weight. The output of pRBFNN model is obtained by fuzzy inference method in the inference part of fuzzy rules. In order to evaluate the proposed model, nonlinear function with 2 inputs, waster water dataset and gas furnace time series dataset are taken into consideration. The results of pRBFNN model are compared with some other intelligent models. The approximation as well as generalization ability is discussed from the viewpoint of output performance. The second proposed IT2pRBFNN model, which is the extended structure of the pRBFNN, consists of four kinds of layers such as input layer, fuzzification layer, type-reduction layer, and defuzzification layer. In the fuzzification layer of IT2pRBFNN, we consider a gaussian RBF with uncertain standard deviation. The connection weights of Type-2 based network as local model output are represented as a interval coefficient unlike in the conventional Type-1 based network with single constant coefficient. Here in the condition part of fuzzy rules, a gaussian RBF used in the IT2pRBFNN is generated with the aid of HCM clustering algorithm. The interval coefficient of polynomial connection weights is obtained through back-propagation algorithm. Also, in order to design the optimized IT2pRBFNN model, the learning rate and the distributed coefficient are tuned by PSO. Finally, in order to evaluate the proposed IT2pRBFNN model, five kinds of dataset such as synthetic dataset, three types of machine learning dataset and dataset related to fuel injection time for automobile were used. The output results of IT2pRBFNN are compared with some other intelligent models and also the approximation as well as generalization ability is discussed in comparison with other models.
Recently, the maintenance period of sidewalk pavement proposed in Ministry of Construction & Transportation to be extended by more than 10 years. Therefore it takes many interests in Durability and the maintenance. Beside sidewalk pavement, block pavement happened problems in parking and road less than 20km/hr about bearing capacity and durability, the maintenance. It interests about importance of environmentally friendly sidewalk pavement. It compared engineering characteristics about strength and durability through general pavement comparison with stone block pavement. It estimate bearing capacity in actual si-tu site and test site. It experimented plate bearing test and field density test. It verified about durability of pavement by construction availability of geosynthetics that is constructed by purpose of filter. Stone block pavement evaluated about application of sidewalk/road pavement on the basis of result. In this research, laboratory and on-site testings for actual and test construction sites of the stone block pavement were conducted in consideration of the time elements against publicly used pavement at the time of construction completion and after construction completion. In the event of a laboratory testing, the pavement material and the strength and compactness characteristics of the pavement structure were analyzed whereas the durability of the pavement through the pavement settlement and compactness characteristics were analyzed using the on-site testing. Through the geotextile tensile strength test, the effects that geotextile, incorporated as the filter material in the pavement structure, has on the durability of the pavement structure in addition to the intended objective of the filter within the structure were analyzed. As a result of the research execution, it is determined that displacement difference does not occur immediately following the construction , but according to the geotextile construction, severity in the displacement difference develops in second and fourth week of the construction completion increasing the durability. Also, the results of the plate loading testing in comparison to commonly used pavements showed that there is less settlement in the stone block pavement therefore determined to have a superior durability and confirmed its applicability on sidewalks and roads. From the maintenance perspective, the point load strength test result revealed that stone block has a far greater strength compared to the interlocking block and less susceptibility to damages for longer life span and the tensile test result of the non-woven fabric showed that tensile strength of the non-woven fabric greatly decreased and appeared that partial pavement structural layer load is applied and we also concluded that there is an affect on bearing power of the pavement.
Richard Strauss (1864 – 1949), from the late Romantic era of Germany, was active throughout the twentieth century and composed over 200 songs throughout his lifetime. Strauss composed important works in sympathy and opera genres. In addition, he has an important position in the genealogy of German lieder and devoted himself to the modernization and popularization of lieder. This paper analyzed the characteristics of poetry and music of his early songs entitled “Mädchenblumen (Flower of the Girl), Op.,22”, this work is based on the poetry by German poet Felix Dahn (1834-1912), focusing on four flowers (Kornblumen, Mohnblumen, Epheu, Wasserrose), and each flower expresses the outer appearance and the inner nature of the girl with different temperament. Strauss not only blends poetry and music with the features of each flower through techniques such as chromaticism, dissonance, and bold leaping intervals, but also enhances the feeling with the liveliness of sound that only music can give. This paper first examined the life of Strauss and the exemplary works of the German lieder and then analyzed “Mädchenblumen” with the meaning of poetry, compositional technique, vocal technique, and the relation of vocal part and accompaniment. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad understanding of Strauss's early songs and to help in actual performance.
Phytochromes are red and far-red absorbing photoreceptors that provide plants with circadian, seasonal, and positional information which is critical for the control of germination, seedling development, shade avoidance, reproduction, dormancy, flowering, and sleep movement. Phytochromes are unique among the plant photoreceptors in their capacity to interconvert between a red-absorbing form (Pr form) which is biologically inactive and a far-red absorbing form (Pfr form) which is biologically active. Phytochromes regulate various light responses through interacting with signalling proteins such as PIFs (phytochrome interacting factors) and PILs (PIF like factors) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have identified and characterized a PIF in rice (Oryza sativa) for the first time. We named it as a OsPIF1. OsPIF1 is one of the bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factors. We have compared the phenotype of T-DNA insertional mutant of OsPIF1, activation tagging line of OsPIF1, and wild type. The coleoptile length of knockout mutant and activation tagging line was shorter than the wild type in far-red light and dark grown seedlings. The amounts of chlorophyll of knockout mutant were less than the those of wild type, and the amounts of chlorophyll of activation tagging line were more than those of the wild type in the red light grown seedlings. The germination rate of the knockout mutant is below 20% of the germination rate of the wild type. In conclusion, OsPIF1 involves in the regulation of coleoptile elongation, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and the germination process.
This thesis studied the characteristics and style of overall Bach's partita on the basis of development and theoretical background of Baroque suite and melodic materials of「Partita No. 1, BWV 825」. Partita No.1 is in the order of Preludium - Allamande - Corrente - Sarabande - Menuet I - Menuet II - Gigue. Except Preludium and Menuet, all movements are in two part form. Partita No.1 is in the key of B♭major, which contribute to the unity of whole music. These facts are not different from other baroque suite, but the compositional techniques as octaves in the bass at the end Preludium, and the hand cross technique similar to that of D. Scarlatti in Gigue contribute this partita be recognized as more advanced keyboard suite. Some important characteristics are found in the study of this music. The melodic progress of each dance are similar in that they have characteristics of scale progress. It is considered as a device of unity of each dance along with the same key scheme.
Textile industry in China is the one of important national industries which contributes to Chinese economic growth with increasing of exports. However, if it is focused on quantitative productions without creative pattern development, it is hard to take a position as a higher-value-added business. To solve this kind of Chinese textile industry's problem, it is urgent to develop the textile design which has creative and competitiveness. Creative thinking and new design research is required for Chinese textile development, and also methods for new interpretation and approach required for design development have been remained as the important assignment. China has a long history and traditional. Also, China has various traditional plasticity patterns, and this is the one factor of important culture that has feelings of China. Chinese traditional vegetation pattern is folksy and environment friendly. Hence, this study, has the title of "A Study on Textile Designs using China Tradition vegetation patterns", has researched on the theory about Chinese traditional pattern, and has tried to open the possibility of design expression for new textile style combined with traditional and modern beauty by producing modern textile design work and product. This study also reinterprets the Chinese traditional vegetation pattern in modern sense to develop the textile design which revives the plasticity and appreciation of the beautiful by creating new visual image. Through Chinese traditional patterns, this study develops the indigenous traditional beauty which has spirit and wisdom of people and the purpose of this study is to create and develop the modern and creative textile design pattern. This researcher has considered feature and meaning of Chinese traditional pattern, historical flow of traditional patter, and shape and symbolic meaning in traditional pattern, and by re-creating the traditional vegetation pattern in modern textile design, designing and using the free composition of screen using line and side, this study puts emphasis on improving modern design expression for Chinese traditional pattern. Through this study, various textile patterns have been developed by using Chinese traditional vegetation patterns to use them in interior design and apparel design to improve the added values with unique image and creativity. In the meaning that combination of traditional and modern, by designing new patterns based on traditional patterns, and by being bases to make the sophisticated and elegant lifestyle and influencing for fast development, it is expected that this study would be the bases of economic growth.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) is a famous composer representing classicism. He composed as many as 21 operas and contributed to Italy and German Opera and he made Opera an artistic work. Opera “Die Zauberflöte” belongs to Singspiel and the social trend which placed much importance on enlightenment and human dignity is strongly reflected. Especially, the symbolical meaning of Freemason, the European secret organization, is conspicuously shown. From this influence, Mozart created ‘Königin der Nacht’ a future-oriented lady in his Opera. As it has Italian characteristics such as arias with rich melodies, and German characteristics such as recitative showing the law of harmony and the counterpoint at the same time, all the musical characteristics that the 18th century operas had are integrated in his work. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of ‘Königin der Nacht’ and her arias in Mozart’s Opera “Die Zauberflöte” and to find out the performing method to maximize its effects. ‘O zittre nicht, mein lieber sohn (No.4)’ that ‘Königin der Nacht’ sings in Act 1 describes her feelings regarding her daughter’s kidnapping by ‘Tamino’. She tried to give confidence to the prince that he is the only man to save her on behalf of her. Aria is divided into two parts such as A and B with recitative. Aria A is composed of Andante, g minor and 3/4 beats. Although you should sing for the mother who mourns for her desperate situation and her daughter’s status, you should not forget her basic characteristic that she is the woman of the will and strong expression. Aria B is composed of Allegro moderato, B♭major and 4/4 beats to give the confidence to the prince that only the prince can save her daughter and to express her strong will that she will give her daughter to the prince if he saves her daughter with dignity. To describe characteristics of ‘Königin der Nacht’, he used fast rhythm such as melisma and expressed brilliant and dramatic conflicts of the characteristics. ‘Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen (No.14)’, the aria in Act 2 shows her anger and will of revenge to ‘Sarastro’. It can be divided into two parts such as A and B. We can see the accompaniment and formation are changed frequently, which shows her whimsical and authoritative characteristics of ‘Königin der Nacht’. In this aria, he used splendid melisma showing the skeleton of 3 harmonies and leap of perfect diapason to show her cold and decisive mind. The peak note F, continuous use of trills and semiquavers show the characteristics of coloratura. The role of ‘Königin der Nacht’ hardly can be seen in the 18th century. At that time, female cannot show their existence externally and cannot be seen same as male. Mozart was influenced by the ideology of enlightenment and the sense of human dignity, he created ‘Königin der Nacht’ the futuristic woman. Additionally by using the same verse and rhythm three times or use melisma with three consecutive musical notes, he expressed the symbolical meaning of Freemason. Based on this study, we can conclude that the arias of ‘Königin der Nacht’ should be played as a dramatic performance to show her strong personality and we should perform her as futuristic and future oriented lady based on the social influences.