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        • KCI등재

          백산학회 휘 보

          편집부 백산학회 2019 白山學報 Vol.0 No.114

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        • KCI등재

          간도협약 직전(1908) 청국의 백두산 국경 날조사건에 관한 연구

          서길수(徐吉洙) 백산학회 2009 白山學報 Vol.- No.83

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          1908年淸政府对长白山和鴨綠江ㆍ图们江展开了大规模的活动。当时劉建封接到东三省总督徐世昌的命令,协同張鳳臺、李廷玉等二十多名调查人员率领军队对长白山和鴨綠江ㆍ图们江行了为期三个月的徹底调查。并且给长白山的多处山峰以及其他众多山峰和河流重新命名,对国境问题进行了广泛的调查,完成了《長白山江崗志略》、《長白征存錄》等重要的专门境资料。 1908年开展的这次调查清政府带有很明确的目的性,明显是为解决日本之间的间岛而寻找新的对策。 第一, “穆克登的白头山定界碑是从小白山处迁来的,以处在小白山下方的胞胎山为分水岭,从鸭绿江到图们江沿途另外还有十个十字界碑”,他们虽然提出这一主张,但是却不能出示任何佐证。清政府就这样按照自己的意愿把国境线从长白山移到了胞胎山,颠倒了黑白。 第二, 他们又主张了“从白头山定界碑到图们江沿途的土堆、石堆是‘穆克登’以前 ‘覺羅吳木訥’留下的”,这个说法简直荒唐到令人发笑的地步。只要读过‘覺羅吳木訥’的《封長白山記)》就能轻易识破这个谎言。清政府调查官员泰然地提出这种主张的态度甚至让人可怜。 第三, 重新给車嶺山脈周邊的山峰和河流命名, 歪曲历史,这也是清政府侵犯周边国家领土的典型做法。即,把韩国境内已经有名字的山峰和河流改名,比如胭脂峰→鶴頂峯,三池淵→七星湖, 胞胎山→葡萄山, 劍川→葡萄河, 愛滹江→曖江, 天山→將軍峯. 大角峯→龍山等,并把清国的人口迁往那里。这个问题在1907年第一次开始国境调查时的注意事项中曾经被提及过: “⑥调查國境碑遗址,迅速迁移百姓,增加守备是最重要的事情。” 可见这在顺序上是相互吻合的。 并且给两处地名(天山, 劍山)赋予1000多年前唐朝薛仁貴的傳說, 这也是清政府的别有用心。在满洲地区到处能听到不少关于薛仁貴的傳說,長白縣的渤海靈光塔前、大連大黑山山城等这些薛仁貴根本不可能到达的地方都流传着他勇猛善战地击退高句麗的传说。薛仁貴到 过长白山这一故事是清政府歪曲历史而编造的一出手法低级的历史闹剧。 第四, 在1885年和1887年的國境會談上,捏造紅土山和元池(后来的圓池)是清朝皇帝祖先诞生的发源地这一做法某种程度上是能够让人理解的。清朝建立国家以后,历经300年的统治,直到灭亡的前四年仍然没有找到自己的发祥地。清朝皇帝这种努力寻找自己祖先诞生地的精神是相当可嘉的,但是为了占有别国的山河领土,没有任何根据地说其是自己祖先发祥地,这种连自己祖宗都出卖的行为真是令人玩味。 以上所述1908年清政府设定剧本的核心就是以胞胎山为分水岭, 制造出“西为鴨綠,東为图们”的分界线。西爲鴨綠 ‘南胞胎山的水向西南方向流至三江(胞胎河ㆍ南溪水ㆍ北溪水)→劍川江→ 鸭绿江’,東爲图们 ‘北胞胎山的水向东流至三江(紅丹河, 糾雲水, 半橋水)→大浪河→圖們江’。这样当时作为最大问题的江问题就解决了,原来 ‘鴨綠江-长白山-图们江’ 这一國境线就变为了 ‘鴨綠江-胞胎山-图们江’,把长白山完全划分在韩国领土之外。如果拿着现

        • KCI등재

          戊戌變法史料 零拾

          閔斗基(Min Tu-ki) 백산학회 1970 白山學報 Vol.- No.8

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          Since the 1950s not a few discoveries have been made of materials concerning the Chinese Reform Movement of 1898 (Wushu-Pienfa 戊戍變法) and even a few well arranged collections of such materials have been published, resulting in a considerable progress in the study of this Movement. However, this does not mean that there is no more material left yet to be discovered, nor precludes the need to make use anew of those materials that have not been fully paid heed to. In the present paper, this writer has tried to introduce, and give interpretation to, a part of such materials as he uncovered or thought worthy of new evaluation, from among those concerning the Movement he had examined in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, etc. in 1968. The writer uncovered in Chu-i-ch’u-chi(居易初集)by Ching Yuan-san(經元善) two pieces of writing, which will be quite helpful in understanding the circumstances and state of affairs at the time of the organizing of Ch’iang-hsue-huei(强學會) of Shanghai; corrected the date of presentation of Yuan Ch’ang’s(袁昶) memorial to the Emperor, upon study of Yu-hu Wen-lu(于湖文錄) by Yuan Ch’ang; and introduced the part of Yuan Ch’ang’s memorial that had been omitted in its introduction theretofore. The writer also uncovered materials, which would add new facts to the biography of K’ang Yu-wei(康有爲), by means of examining the earlier edition of his first memorial to the Emperor(上今上皇帝第一書); uncovered a piece of writing which would shed light on the relationships of Sheng Yu(盛昱)and K’ang Yu-wei in the former’s Iyuan Wenlioh(意園文略); uncovered a fact helpful in understanding the earlier activities of K’ang Yu-wei, through comparision of an appeal in T’u-kuang-lu-su-kao(屠光祿疏稿) by T’u Jen-shou(屠仁守)with the text of the memorial drawn up for T’u, included in K’ang Yu-wei’s Chiu-shih-ch’u-yen(救時芻言). This writer’s new discoveries include the following three materials: Godan Setsuryaku(晤談節略), which covers the hand-written text of the conversation that Hirobumi Ito of Japan had with the Chinese grand ministers during his visit to Peiping in 1898; two epistles sent by Jung Lu(榮祿) to Ito after the latter’s return from China; the report on the Chinese Reform Movement of 1898 by Takeshi Nakajima, who had been on the team of Japanese consulate in Peiping. This writer has in this paper introduced the parts regarded as important of these discoveries and tried to evaluate them as materials, for study of Reform Movement.

        • KCI등재

          최근몇년래 조선사학계의 발해사관변화와 문제점

          정영진(Jong, Young-Jin) 백산학회 2003 白山學報 Vol.- No.67

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          The changes of Koguryo’s history studies in north Korea were resulted in the new historical matterials. Professor Park, Shi-Hyong insited that Bohai was a contimuing state of Koguryo by New Tang-shi. On the other hand, professor Jang, KuK-Jong asserted that the origin of Bohai was consisted two nart as Koguryo-Kuk and small state ruled y Kol-Kal-Jung Sang. After rerclt in 696 the two states were united as the name of Balhae. Prof. Jang’s result were depended on the Jae-wang-woonki. But this book was not estimated as a historic document. And a part of North Korean Scholars including Jang, KuK-Jong applicated the genealogy named Hyop-Ke-Tae-Ssi. But the use of pedigree is not rational stands. The differcences be twen Prof. Park and Jang were found in Several problems. For example, the process of Bohai founding, the time of beginning Bohai, the formation of race, the territory of Bohai, and the interpretation of Mal-Gal were Strange oppinions.

        • KCI등재

          臨時政府 樹立 이후의 獨立鬪爭과 西大門刑務所

          李炫熙(Lee, Hyun-Hee) 백산학회 2004 白山學報 Vol.- No.70

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          Seo Dae Moon prison was an evil reputation as the korea racial independence movement activists struggled when they were arrested and it was a place of our personal experiences of the independence history integrated with racial struggle, suffering, astonishment, pain, scream, grief and a place of dying for our country. Therefore, it should be rightly holy grounded because a number of movement activists resolutely served their term of imprisonment there even though they were put in prison for about 40 years occupied by force of japan. It is also a place of grief’s history where the korean provisional government’s activists, korean resistance, 6ㆍ10 movement main activists, soo won high school students’ movement against japan main activists, Sin Gan club’s activists, and movement activists against japan related to Soo Yang club, the event of korean linguistic club, the event of shortwave broadcasting, and so on in and out of korea were put in prison by japan or were dead for our country in prison. There were a number of racial activists put in prison at that time but, their common life was very hard to live even a day because of harsh torture, starvation and there were no people to want to ask to see them because of the revenge of japan such as arrest, being shadowed, observation. Seo Dae Moon prison, the first address of the nationalist movement, has been left as it is and used as a common prison for common offenders losing, turning away this historic worth. But in 1998, it was founded as Seo Dae Moon prison historic place as the result of an effort to use for a place of the national historic education. That is to say, it is meaningful that Seo Dae Moon prison reputed an evil is not a place of restriction but a historic, educational place to feel the patriotic noble breathing of pioneers who resisted against japan for the restoration of independence to a country and to use scientific purpose. In addition, we need an effort and the spread supply of national awareness to use the worth the most what it has.

        • KCI등재

          白頭山考

          金龍國(Kim Yong-kuk) 백산학회 1970 白山學報 Vol.- No.8

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          Mt. Paek-du is a greatly revered mountain of Korea and has always been regarded by the people of Korea as a sacred area of their territory. The Koreans have lived and developed around this mountain for a long time since the beginning of their history, and therefore a way should be kept open for long for them continuously to live in the vast area around this mountain, which is one of their inherited possessions. The name Paek-du-san (literally, white-headed mountain) begins to appear in literature with Koryo-sa(高麗史-History of Koryo Kingdom), and it is by no means merely for the appearance of the mountain, as some people maintain, that the name Paek-dut(white-headed) came about, though truly, the top of the mountain is covered with white-coloured stone, or with snows for the greater part of a year as if to have a huge white urn set upside down on top of it. Mt. Paek-du is recorded in ancient Chinese literature by such names as Pulham(不咸), Taepaek(太白), and Kai-ma(蓋馬), these names all being mere transcriptions of the Korean words “barg-eum”(밝음), “keun-barg-eum”(큰밝음), and “geom”(검), which respectively mean light(光明), greater light(大光明), and god(神明). This is readily to be understood when one pays heed to such names of many other revered and sanctified mountains in the neighbourhood of ancient capitals and other population centres on the Peninsula as Tae-paek-san(太白山), Paek-san(白山), Ham-Pag-dal(含朴達), etc. The name Paek-du-san, too, should be regarded as another of such transcriptions of names of mountains held in great respect and awe of our ancestors. The Mt. ‘Tae-paek’ where, according to the folk legend on the founding of the Korean nation, the national founding father Tangun descended from heaven is also this White-headed Mountain, and such other great kingdoms that rose in succession in the east as Liao(遼), Chin(金), Ch’ing(淸)also believed this mountain to be a godly mountain and sacred area. Moreover, the people of Ch’ing Empire maintained that their royal ancestor had been born of a heavenly lady that descended from heaven on this mountain, the story having something in common with the Korean folk legend that the heavenly king Hwan-ung(桓雄), the son of the Emperor of Heaven Hwan-in(桓仁), descended from heaven on this mountain to beget Tan-gun(檀君), the founder of the Old Chosun nation(古朝鮮). A subject of deep interest, there has been handed down to us a theory that, apart from the worship of this mountain, Mt. Paek-du is the chief of all the great mountains in the east. In the Ch’ing dynasty, Emperor K’ang-hsi(康熙帝), Chao Chen-chen(趙愼畛), and others held an opinion that even Mt. T’ai (T’ai-san), the principal of all the five great mountains of China, not to say of all the other mountains in Manchuria and on the Korean Peninsula, was a branch of Mt. Paek-du range. Nam Sa-go(南師古), Kim Se-ryeom (金世濂), Ch?ng Yak-yong(丁若鏞), and many other Korean scholars, too, expressed their views that, needless to say of Mt. Paek-du not being a branch of Mt. Kun-lun(崑崙), all the mountains on the Continent, in Korea, and in Japan beyond the seas, were all branches of this White-headed Mountain. After the ancient nation (Old Chosun) that once prospered in the area around Mt. Paek-du, there came such other states as Suksin(肅愼), Ye(濊), Okjeo(沃沮), Puyo(扶餘), Malgal(靺鞨), Yeojin(女眞 Jurchen) and others, but those that occupied the whole area north and south of this mountain at once, building up a powerful kingdom each, were Koguryo and Palhae (Pohai) only. Since the area around Mt. Paekdu was within the territory of the Korean people for a very extended period of time since the beginning of history, there had been no definite demarcation lines in the area between Korea and Manchuria even after the Korean people, later, confined their sphere of activity mainly within the Peninsula.

        • KCI등재

          渤海文化の二重的特徴

          李宗勳(Lee, Jong-Hoon) 백산학회 2003 白山學報 Vol.- No.67

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          As Lia-Tung areas in ancient age had lived many nations and tribos, the Characteristic of that place did not explain a single concept Therefore, we cannot describe her culture as seen by modern national identity. But Bohai was a dynasty by the core factors of Malgals with the koguryo’s supports. Bohai was muti-nation dynasty, so that her history and culture could not compare with other ancient countries. This is the reason that Bohai’s stadies were very delicate and complicated in views of one side opproach. In conclusion, bohai(Balhae) had dual characteristics with Koguryo and Malgal. But these double-faced culture of this dynasty had much difficulties in studies. On the other hand, Bohai used the dual-national name by Koguryo and self country.

        • KCI등재

          복식자료를 통해본 고조선의 영역

          朴仙姬(Park, Sun-hee) 백산학회 2001 白山學報 Vol.- No.61

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          Night School Movement(夜學運動) in the region Haeseo(海西) developed in the form of founding private school. The central figures were government officials, teachers, rich persons, students in the higher education and so on. These were members of Seobuk academic society (西北學會) and Heaseo education general meeting(海西敎育總會), also mostly Christians. jeon, Bong-Hun(全鳳薰), county headman of Baechon(白川), and Lee, Yong-Pil(李容弼), county headman of Jaeryeong(載寧), as provincial officials, led not only Night School(夜學) but also campaign for enlightenment Kim, Ku(金九), educational affair inspector of Heaseo education general meeting at that time, took the lead not only in this region but in region Seobuk. So Yangsan School(楊山學校) and opening of summer institute reflected this. The scale of student number of Night School had a large variation from 10 to 180. The number of most Night School student was from 20 to 60. However Night Schools over 100 were the system similar to official education, made up of director, head teacher, teachers and employees. The number of persons, indebted to Night School, amounted to thousands at least This was never small than public schools. Learning period was continued mostly from six months to two years. However learning period of the Night Schools, supported by provincial officials and inhabitants, more prolonged relatively. Managing expense depended to more contribution than school fee. Unusually this expense was made up of duty educational fee, which inhabitants shared in according to level of life, The learning places for Night Schools made mostly use of private Schools and Town halls. Of course private houses also were used to Night Schools. Like this, the scale and equipment of Night Schools was not enough. Desire to learn, however, was not behind that of public schools. Sincerity of teachers, founders and supporters was main cause for the students desire to learn. The most of curriculums was made up of learning of Korean Letter, elementary Chinese Letter and arithmetic. The learning of Korean Letter would be the means of inspiring of national spirit, beyond merely crusade against illiteracy. Especially, physical exercises were importance to them with martial spirit. According to composition of learners and local conditions, moreover, curriculums were adopted and performed in various forms. Opening of Athletic meets made use of the moment of concentrating inhabitants on the one hand and the space of lecture meetings on the other hand. Activists of enlighten in the region Haeseo laid stress upon movement of founding private schools. Compared to the Night School Movement in other region, such as Gyunggido(京畿道), Pyungyangdo(平安道) and Seoul, these activities, however, prevented them from activating of the Movement. Along with reinforcing of military ruling, so-called Anak incident(安岳事件) brought about decisive weakening of overall national movement not to mention education movement After 3ㆍ1 Movement, the expansion of culture movement made chance of rise of Night School Movement Though, Night School Movement had problems such as tendency of opportunism in relation with national liberation movement. The critique of preparation argument of Shin, Chaeho(申采浩) had connection with the real state of affairs.

        • KCI등재

          부여의 대외교류와 교통로 연구

          이종수(Lee, Jong-su) 백산학회 2013 白山學報 Vol.- No.96

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          이 글은 부여와 주변 국가들과의 대외 교류 관계를 살펴보고, 이를 통해 주요 교통로와 거점도시를 파악해 보고자 하는데 그 목적이 있다. 부여는 700여년에 이르는 긴 역사동안 漢, 魏, 晉, 高句麗, 挹婁, 沃沮, 橐離國, 慕容鮮卑등과 밀접한 교류 관계를 맺고 있다. 중원왕조와의 교류는 후한 광무제 이후에 본격적으로 시작되며, 2세기대에 가장 활발하게 진행되고 있다. 당시 중원왕조와의 교류에 사용된 교통로는 현도군로와 요동군로로 나눌수 있는데, 현도군로는 전기 부여왕성인 길림시에서 출발하여 반석-휘남-매하구-청원을 거쳐 현도군치인 무순에 이르는 노선이고, 요동군로는 길림-쌍양-이통-요원(혹은 이용호고성-개원)-서풍-개원-철령-심양을 거쳐 요동군치인 요양으로 이어지는 경로이다. 고구려와의 교통로는 두 나라간의 전쟁기사를 통해 추정이 가능한데, 부여 남쪽 변경의 진펄지대를 지금의 휘남시 일대로 비정하면 길림시-휘남-백산-압원진-집안으로 연결되는 노선과, 휘남-매하구시-유하-통화-집안에 이르는 노선이 있다. 읍루와의 교통로는 육로와 수로로 구분되는데, 육로는 길림시-서란-오상-상지를 거쳐 방정에 이르거나 혹은 길림시-유수-랍림진-아성-빈현을 거쳐 방정에 이르고, 방정에서 두 노선이 서로 합류하여 의란-가목사를 거쳐 읍루의 중심지인 우의현에 도달하는 경로이다. 수로는 길림시-제이송화강-제일송화강-가목사 경로, 길림시-오상(육로)-랍림하-제일송화강-가목사 경로, 길림시-빈현(육로)-제일송화강-가목사 경로가 있다. 옥저와의 교류는 두만강유역과 수분하유역으로 나누어 볼 수 있는데, 두만강유역은 길림시-제이송화강-랍법하-교하-돈화-두만강유역으로 이어지는 루트이고, 수분하유역은 길림시-상지-목단강시-수분하유역에 이르는 루트이다. 탁리국과의 교통로 역시 육로와 수로를 이용한 노선으로 나눌 수 있는데, 육로는 길림시-유수-부여현-송원-조원일대로 이어지는 노선이며, 수로는 길림시-제이송화강-눈강-조원으로 이어지는 루트이다. 모용선비와의 교류는 모용선비의 부여 공격루트를 통해 확인할 수 있는데, 모용외의 공격에는 대릉하상류유역-부신-창무-강평-사평-장춘-길림시에 이르는 노선이 이용되었고, 전연 모용황의 공격 당시에는 조양-북표-부신-창무-강평-사평에서 요원시로 이어지는 루트 혹은 조양-북표-부신-신민-철령-개원-서풍-요원에 이르는 경로가 이용하고 있다. This paper try to examine the foreign exchange between Buyeo and its surrounding nation and apprehend the main line of communication and the point city. During the 700years, Buyeo has closely taken relation of exchange among Han, Wei, Jin, Koguryo, Yirou, Oakjeo, Tuoliguo, Murong Xianbei. The exchange between Buyeo and the dynasty of central districts begun since the Gwangmu Empero of the Later Han and continued to be as vigorous as ever during the 2nd century. Then, the main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and the dynasty of central districts is the rout of Xiantujun and the route of Riaudongjun. The route of Xiantujun is a line from Jilin through Fanshi, Huinan, Meihekou, Qingyuan to Fushun. The route of Riaudongjun is a line from Jilin through Shuangyang, Yitong, Liaoyuan, Xifeng, Tieling, Shenyang to Liaoyang. The main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Goguryeo is possible to suppose through the account of war between Buyeo and Goguryeo. The main line of communication has two lines. One is a line from Jilin through Huinan, Baishan, Yayuanzhen to Jian. The other is a line from Jilin through Huinan, Meihekou, Liuhe, Tonghua to Jian. The main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Yeupru has the land route and the sea route. The land route is a line from Jilin through Shulan, Wuchang, Shangzhi, to Fangzheng or a line from Jilin through Yushu, Lalinzhen, Acheng, Binxian, Fangzheng, Yilan, Jiamusi to Youyi. The river route is a line from Jilin through the second Songhua river, the first Songhua river to Jiamusi or a line from Jilin through Wuchang, Lalin river, the first Songhua river to Jiamusi or a line from Jilin through Binxian, the first Songhua river, to Jiamusi. The exchange between Buyeo and Oakjeo divided into a basin of Tumen river and a basin of Suifen river. A basin of Tumen river has a line from Jilin through the second Songhua river, the Lafa river, Jiaohe, Dunhua to a basin of Tumen river. A basin of Suifen river has a line from Jilin through Shangzhi, the Mudanjiang river to a basin of Suifen river. The main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Tuoliguo has the land route and the sea route. The land route is a line from Jilin through Yushu, Buyeu, Songyuan to Zhaoyuan. The sea route is a line from Jilin through the second Songhua river, the Nen river to Zhaoyuan. The exchange between Buyeo and Murongg Xianbei is confirmed through Murong Xianbei’s attack on Buyeo. This route is a line from Chaoyang through Beipiao, Fuxin, Zhangwu, Kangping, Siping, Changchun to Jirin. In the Qianyān period, the main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Murong Xianbei has a line from Siping to Liaoyuan and a line from Fuxin through Xinmin, Tieling, Kaiyuan, Xifeng to Liaoyuan.

        • KCI등재

          韓未 海西地方 夜學運動의 實態와 運營主體

          金炯睦(Kim, Hyung-mok) 백산학회 2001 白山學報 Vol.- No.61

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          Night School Movement(夜學運動) in the region Haeseo(海西) developed in the form of founding private school. The central figures were government officials, teachers, rich persons, students in the higher education and so on. These were members of Seobuk academic society (西北學會) and Heaseo education general meeting(海西敎育總會), also mostly Christians. jeon, Bong-Hun(全鳳薰), county headman of Baechon(白川), and Lee, Yong-Pil(李容弼), county headman of Jaeryeong(載寧), as provincial officials, led not only Night School(夜學) but also campaign for enlightenment Kim, Ku(金九), educational affair inspector of Heaseo education general meeting at that time, took the lead not only in this region but in region Seobuk. So Yangsan School(楊山學校) and opening of summer institute reflected this. The scale of student number of Night School had a large variation from 10 to 180. The number of most Night School student was from 20 to 60. However Night Schools over 100 were the system similar to official education, made up of director, head teacher, teachers and employees. The number of persons, indebted to Night School, amounted to thousands at least This was never small than public schools. Learning period was continued mostly from six months to two years. However learning period of the Night Schools, supported by provincial officials and inhabitants, more prolonged relatively. Managing expense depended to more contribution than school fee. Unusually this expense was made up of duty educational fee, which inhabitants shared in according to level of life, The learning places for Night Schools made mostly use of private Schools and Town halls. Of course private houses also were used to Night Schools. Like this, the scale and equipment of Night Schools was not enough. Desire to learn, however, was not behind that of public schools. Sincerity of teachers, founders and supporters was main cause for the students desire to learn. The most of curriculums was made up of learning of Korean Letter, elementary Chinese Letter and arithmetic. The learning of Korean Letter would be the means of inspiring of national spirit, beyond merely crusade against illiteracy. Especially, physical exercises were importance to them with martial spirit. According to composition of learners and local conditions, moreover, curriculums were adopted and performed in various forms. Opening of Athletic meets made use of the moment of concentrating inhabitants on the one hand and the space of lecture meetings on the other hand. Activists of enlighten in the region Haeseo laid stress upon movement of founding private schools. Compared to the Night School Movement in other region, such as Gyunggido(京畿道), Pyungyangdo(平安道) and Seoul, these activities, however, prevented them from activating of the Movement. Along with reinforcing of military ruling, so-called Anak incident(安岳事件) brought about decisive weakening of overall national movement not to mention education movement After 3ㆍ1 Movement, the expansion of culture movement made chance of rise of Night School Movement Though, Night School Movement had problems such as tendency of opportunism in relation with national liberation movement. The critique of preparation argument of Shin, Chaeho(申采浩) had connection with the real state of affairs.

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